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Progress in China's Human Rights in 2012
2012年中国人权事业的进展
【法宝引证码】
 
  

Progress in China's Human Rights in 2012
(Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, May 2013)

 

2012年中国人权事业的进展
(中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室 2013年5月)

Contents
 目录
Foreword
 前 言
I. Protection of Human Rights in Economic Construction
 一、经济建设中的人权保障
II. Protection of Human Rights in Political Construction
 二、政治建设中的人权保障
III.Protection of Human Rights in Cultural Services
 三、文化建设中的人权保障
IV. Protection of Human Rights in Social Development
 四、社会建设中的人权保障
V. Protection of Human Rights in Ecological Progress
 五、生态文明建设中的人权保障
VI. Foreign Exchanges and Cooperation in the Field of Human Rights
 六、人权领域的对外交流与合作
Foreword
Since the arrival of the 21st century, the Chinese people have been making constant efforts in advancing human rights protection along the path of building socialism with Chinese characteristics under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Chinese government.
It has been the will and action of the CPC and state organs at all levels to respect and protect human rights. After the concept of "human rights" was successively enshrined in China's Constitution, national economic and social development plans and the CPC Constitution, the 18th National Congress of the CPC, held in November 2012, set "respect for and protection of human rights" as one of the goals in the drive for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. The Chinese government issued the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009-2010) and the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2012-2015), and reviewed the implementation of the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009-2010). The cause of human rights in China has entered a stage of planned, sustainable, steady and comprehensive development.
In governance, the CPC and the Chinese government follow the fundamental and major principle of pursuing scientific development, promoting social harmony, improving the people's livelihood and promoting the wellbeing of the people. Guided by the Scientific Outlook on Development which puts people first and aims at comprehensive, balanced and sustainable development, China combines its human rights endeavors with economic, political, cultural, social and ecological construction, prioritizes the people's rights to subsistence and development, and endeavors to promote the comprehensive and balanced development of their economic, social and cultural rights as well as their civil and political rights. After years of unremitting efforts, China has stepped up to a higher level in the people's living standard, democracy, rule of law, cultural development, social security and environmental protection.
China is a developing country with a vast population and fraught with larger regional differences and resource, environmental and ecological strains as well as conspicuous problems from unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable development. Arduous efforts are still to be made to solve the numerous problems in the development of various undertakings that bear on the people's vital interests. It remains a tough task for China to better protect its people's human rights.
 前言
进入二十一世纪以来,中国共产党和中国政府带领全国人民在建设中国特色社会主义的伟大征程上,不断将中国人权事业的发展向前推进。
尊重和保障人权是中国共产党和中国各级国家机关的意志和行动。继“人权”分别庄严载入中国宪法、国民经济和社会发展规划及中国共产党党章之后,2012年11月召开的中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会又将“人权得到切实尊重和保障”确立为全面建成小康社会的奋斗目标之一。中国政府还发布了《国家人权行动计划(2009-2010年)》和《国家人权行动计划(2012-2015年)》,并对《国家人权行动计划(2009-2010年)》的实施情况进行了评估。中国人权事业的发展进入了有计划、持续稳健、全面推进的新阶段。
坚持科学发展,促进社会和谐,改善人民生活,增进人民福祉,是中国共产党和中国政府治国理政的基本遵循和主要原则。在以人为本、全面协调可持续发展的科学发展观指导下,中国将人权事业的发展与经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设和生态文明建设相结合,把保障人民的生存权、发展权放在首位,努力促进经济、社会和文化权利与公民、政治权利的全面、协调发展。经过多年不懈努力和奋斗,中国的人民生活水平、民主建设水平、依法治国水平、文化发展水平、社会保障水平、环境保护水平,都迈上了一个大台阶。
中国是一个发展中的大国,人口众多,区域差异较大,资源有限,环境和生态保护压力大,发展中不平衡、不协调、不可持续问题依然突出。国家各项事业发展中关系人民群众切身利益的问题还较多,需要继续付出艰苦努力加以解决。在中国,实现更高水平的人权保障,任务依然十分繁重。
I. Protection of Human Rights in Economic Construction
China has a population of over 1.3 billion. For such a populous country, it would be impossible to protect the people's rights and interests without first developing the economy to feed and clothe the people. Development is the key to solving all existing problems and facilitating progress of human rights in China. Only by pursuing healthy and sustainable economic development can China consolidate the material foundation for the people's happiness and wellbeing, and protect their rights to subsistence and development. For many years, China has taken economic construction as the central task and, through economic growth, expanded rural and urban employment, increased the residents' income and family property income, provided the people with better food, clothing, housing, transportation and other daily necessities, safeguarded the rights and interests of disadvantaged groups, and effectively protected the citizens' economic rights and interests.
The people's living standards are constantly on the rise. Steady yet relatively rapid economic development has provided the foundation for a better livelihood for the Chinese people. Despite the slowdown of economic growth in the world's major economies and the manifestation of various risks, China's GDP grew by 7.8 percent in 2012 and the rise in the CPI (Consumer Price Index) fell back to 2.6 percent. China's annual grain output in 2012 reached 589.57 million tons, registering the second nine-year consecutive growth since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, topping the 500-million-ton mark for six years in a row. Food is people's paramount necessity. For a country with more than 1.3 billion people, a nine-year consecutive growth in grain output was of particularly significant importance, as it laid a solid foundation for the Chinese people to live a happier and better life. The living and production conditions in rural areas have kept improving. From 2008 to 2012 China built or rebuilt 1.465 million km of rural roads, renovated 10.33 million rural houses in disrepair, solved the problem of drinking water safety for over 300 million rural residents, and provided power to 4.45 million people in areas previously devoid of access to electricity. At the same time, urban and rural residents' income has been growing relatively rapidly. The annual per-capita net income for rural residents reached 7,917 yuan in 2012, up 13.5 percent over the previous year or 10.7 percent in real terms. The annual per-capita disposable income for urban residents was 24,565 yuan, an increase of 12.6 percent or 9.6 percent in real terms year on year. The income growth of urban and rural residents in real terms outpaced the GDP growth, while the income growth of the rural residents in real terms surpassed that of the urban residents. In 2012 the Engel coefficients (i.e., the proportion of food expenditure in the total consumption spending) per rural and urban household were 39.3 percent and 36.2 percent, respectively. By the end of 2012 car ownership had reached 59.89 million, an increase of 20.7 percent over the previous year, among which 53.08 million were private cars, an increase of 22.8 percent. There were 21.5 cars for every 100 urban households, an increase of 15.5 over 2007. The combined number of fixed and mobile phone users reached 1,390.31 million, an increase of 118.96 million over that at the end of the previous year. There were 82.6 mobile phones and 20.7 fixed phones for every 100 people. There were over 564 million Internet users in China, among whom 420 million access the Internet via mobile phones. The Internet penetration rate reached 42.1 percent. The number of domestic tourists in 2012 totaled 2.96 billion, and the number of Chinese citizens making trips abroad reached 83.18 million, up 12.1 percent and 18.4 percent,respectively, over the previous year. Among them, those making trips abroad for private purposes reached 77.06 million, a year-on-year increase of 20.2 percent, accounting for 92.6 percent of the total. Active and steady efforts have been made to promote urbanization. From 2008 to 2012, a total of 84.63 million rural laborers moved to cities and towns, raising the urbanization rate from 45.9 percent to 52.6 percent and effecting a historic change in China's urban-rural structure.
Poverty reduction in rural areas enters a new stage. To constantly improve the living conditions of the impoverished population in rural areas, the Chinese government promulgated the Outline of Development-oriented Poverty Reduction for China's Rural Areas (2011-2020) in 2011, setting forth the general objective of providing adequate food and clothing for poverty-stricken people while ensuring their access to compulsory education, basic medical services and housing by 2020. The state raised the national poverty line substantially to 2,300 yuan per person per year on average (calculated at 2010 constant prices), and by this criterion more low-income people have been included in poverty-reduction programs. In 2011 a total of 122 million people were covered by poverty-reduction programs all over the country, making up 12.7 percent of the rural population. In 2012 the central government spent 299.6 billion yuan on comprehensive poverty-reduction programs, an increase of 31.9 percent over the previous year, of which 33.2 billion yuan was special funds for poverty reduction. The state has launched regional development and poverty-reduction projects in 11 regions, including the Wuling, Liupan and Luoxiao mountainous areas, as well as plans to support the economic and social development of Tibet, Xinjiang, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, and the Tibetan-inhabited areas in the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and Qinghai during the 12th Five-year Plan period (2011-2015). These efforts were aimed at alleviating deep-rooted poverty in these areas. In 2011 the average per-capita annual income for farmers in the counties which are key targets of the government's poverty-reduction work reached 3,985 yuan, an increase of 40.2 percent over 2009, a higher growth rate than that of the average level in China's rural areas. By the end of 2012 the size of the impoverished population in rural China had decreased to 98.99 million according to the new criterion, 23.39 million fewer than that at the end of the previous year. The state formulated the 12th Five-Year Plan for Village-based Development-oriented Poverty Reduction, planning to lift 30,000 impoverished villages in central and western China out of poverty, or 6,000 villages per year, in the five years from 2011 to 2015. At the same time, the living conditions of impoverished disabled people in rural areas have been further improved. In 2012 the State Council issued the Outline of Development-oriented Poverty Reduction for Disabled People in Rural Areas (2011-2020). In the same year the state rendered support to 2.299 million disabled people in poverty in rural China, provided training for 861,000 disabled people in practical skills and helped 132,000 poor families with one or more disabled members to renovate their houses.
People's living standards in poverty-stricken ethnic-minority areas are continuously improving. Based on the actual conditions in ethnic-minority areas, the Chinese government, adhering to the principle of combining assistance from the central government, support from developed regions and self-reliance of the ethnic-minority areas, has formulated a series of preferential policies to promote the ethnic-minority areas' economic growth and improve the living conditions of all ethnic groups. The central government has been continuously increasing transfer payments to ethnic-minority areas. From 2010 to 2012 the total amount of transfer payments to eight ethnic-minority provinces (autonomous regions) reached 2.6055 trillion yuan, up from 24.3 percent to 25.7 percent of the total transfer payments from the central government to local governments. Meanwhile, transfer payments to ethnic-minority autonomous prefectures, counties and border areas have also been increased. The state formulated and promulgated the Plan for Supporting the Development of Ethnic Minority Groups with Fewer Populations (2011-2015), including six ethnic minority groups with populations ranging from 100,000 to 300,000 each in the recipients of assistance, and earmarked special funds to help them develop their economy and improve their production and living conditions. The state also rendered support to the economic and social development of border areas by formulating the Action Plan to Bring Prosperity to Border Areas and the People There (2011-2015). The state adopted policies to increase income for the herdsmen and promote the development of pastoral regions. Marked achievements have been scored in helping ethnic-minority areas and their people get rid of poverty and become relatively well-off. From 2005 to 2010 the number of impoverished people in the eight aforesaid provinces (autonomous regions) decreased from 23.384 million to 13.044 million, and the impoverishment rate dropped from 16.5 percent to 7 percent, nearly 5.5 percentage points faster than the national average impoverishment rate in the same period.
Urban and rural housing conditions are further improved. Since 2009, focusing on the two major themes of "ensuring that all the people enjoy the right to housing" and "obtaining sustainable development of residential areas in the process of urbanization," the Chinese government, while working hard to satisfy the people's diverse demands for housing by promoting market-oriented reform of the urban housing system and developing the commercial housing market, has also listed satisfying the basic housing needs of people in poverty as an important content of the basic public services to be provided by the government and carried out massive affordable housing projects to enhance housing security. The affordable housing projects in China cover the building of affordable housing in urban areas, the rebuilding of shanty areas and rural housing in disrepair, and the building of permanent housing for nomadic herdsmen. From 2008 to 2012 China built more than 18 million affordable suites of housing and rebuilt more than 12 million suites in shanty areas. By the end of 2012 China had provided housing for 31 million urban families, about 12.5 percent of the total urban households. In addition, the government had provided low-rent housing subsidies for nearly five million urban low-income families. At the end of 2012 the per-capita living space in China's urban and rural areas reached 32.9 square meters and 37.1 square meters, respectively, up 2.8 square meters and 5.5 square meters compared with 2007. In order to regulate the expropriation of and compensation for buildings on state-owned land, protect the legitimate rights of the owners of such buildings as well as the public interest, the State Council promulgated and put into effect the Regulations on the Expropriation of and Compensation for Buildings on State-owned Land on January 21, 2011, and simultaneously abolished the Regulations on the Dismantling of Urban Houses promulgated on June 13, 2001.
Proactive efforts are made to boost employment. The steady and sustained economic growth has provided a guarantee for employment. The state implements an active employment policy to guarantee the citizens' right to work. From 2008 to 2012 China invested a total of 197.3 billion yuan in special employment funds, and helped 28 million college graduates and 8.3 million people in urban areas with employment difficulties find jobs. In 2012, against a backdrop of slowing economic growth, 12.66 million new job opportunities were created, 5.52 million laid-off workers were reemployed, and 1.82 million people with employment difficulties found jobs in urban areas of China. At the year's end, the registered urban unemployment rate was 4.1 percent, the same as the previous year. The total number of rural migrant workers was 262.61 million in 2012, up 3.9 percent from the previous year, among whom the number of rural workers employed away from their homes reached 163.36 million and the number of local rural workers reached 99.25 million, representing increases of 3 percent and 5.4 percent over the previous year, respectively. As China encourages farmers to find jobs in or close to their hometowns, 85,000 villages launched recreational agriculture and village tourism, providing jobs for 28 million farmers. In 2012 China helped an additional 329,000 disabled people in urban areas to find jobs, raising the total urban number of employed disabled people to 4.448 million; and in the rural areas, 17.703 million disabled people got stable jobs. In 2011, 22 million people took part in vocational training courses of various types provided by the government. In 2012 the central government appropriated 45.4 billion yuan in special employment funds to help implement policies intended to boost employment. From 2010 to 2012, taking advantage of the training programs of the "Sunlight Project," the Ministry of Agriculture provided agricultural skill training to 9.3 million farmers with 3.3 billion yuan of subsidy funds from the central government.
The basic rights of workers are guaranteed. The state has amended the Labor Contract Law and the Law on the Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Diseases, and formulated the Special Rules on Protection of Female Employees and Interpretations (III) of the Supreme People's Court of Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Labor Dispute Cases, so as to protect various rights of workers. More trade unions have been established, involving more employees. By the end of September 2012 the number of grassroots trade unions had increased to 2.666 million, covering 6.166 million enterprises and public institutions, up 34.9 percent and 42.8 percent over 2009, respectively, of which 1.855 million trade unions were set up in non-public economic organizations, an increase of 47 percent over 2009. The number of trade union members nationwide reached 280 million, among whom 160 million were from non-public economic organizations, up 16.7 percent and 16 percent over 2009, respectively. China actively promotes the collective negotiation system on wages to guarantee the employees' right to fair remuneration. By the end of September 2012 a total of 1.228 million special collective contracts had been signed throughout the country, involving 3.082 million enterprises and 150 million employees, up 140 percent, 241 percent and 142 percent over 2009, respectively. In 2012 labor security supervision organs at various levels investigated and handled 412,000 law-breach cases regarding labor security, and urged employers to sign labor contracts with 8.055 million employees. In the same year 24 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) raised their local minimum wage standards, averaging a 22 percent annual hike. The per-capita annual wage for employees in the urban non-private sector increased from 24,932 yuan in 2007 to 42,452 yuan in 2011 and that for employees in the urban private sector increased from 18,199 yuan in 2009 to 24,556 yuan in 2011, representing an average annual increase of 14.23 percent and 16.16 percent, respectively.
Protection is offered for people's safety in life and production. In China great importance is attached to the people's safety in life and production safety in the course of economic development. China's urban living environment is constantly improving as the state has been working hard to build a well-established service system of urban public works and utilities in recent years. China has won the UN-Habitat Scroll of Honor Award 21 times. Seven Chinese projects have been awarded the Dubai International Award for Best Practices to Improve the Living Environment, 30 cities have been awarded the China Habitat Environment Prize, and 398 projects have been awarded the China Habitat Exemplary Environment prize. In 2011 some 90.6 percent of water supplies in China's 113 key environmental-protection cities were up to the state-set quality standards. By the end of 2012 China had established more than 30,000 water-quality monitoring sites, extending the monitoring network for drinking water safety to all provinces. From 2010 to 2012 China solved drinking water safety problems for a total of 172 million rural residents and 23 million rural students and teachers. Since 2008 China has completed risk-removing reinforcement for 18,000 large, medium-sized and small key reservoirs. The state has endeavored to solve prominent issues and deep-rooted problems that hamper production safety, and improved the legislation and policies concerning safe production. It has issued production safety standards, stringently cracked down on illegal production, operation and construction, and corrected activities that breached relevant regulations. China has continuously carried out the "Production Safety Year" movement to ferret out and remove hidden dangers. In 2012 China investigated and dealt with 1.44 million cases of illegal production and construction that operate without licenses or lacking some of the licenses, plus 3.05 million cases of regulation violations. Every year China trained on average over five million safety managers, special operation personnel and persons in charge of high-risk industries, as well as 13 million migrant workers and 130,000 team leaders in coal mines. In addition, China has unveiled 1,022 key technologies for the prevention of major accidents and 355 new-type safe and practical products, and promoted 100 safety dynamic monitoring projects. Industrial accidents and their toll of life continued to go down. In 2011 the number of industrial accidents and their toll of life were down by 4.3 percent and 5.1 percent as compared with 2010, and further down by 3.1 percent and 4.7 percent in 2012 from that of 2011. The death rate per 100 million yuan GDP, death rate per 100,000 employees in coal mining, industrial and commercial sectors, death rate per one million tons of coal produced, and death rate of road traffic accidents per 10,000 vehicles in 2011 were down by 13.9 percent, 11.7 percent, 24.7 percent and 12.5 percent, respectively, as compared with 2010, and the figures in 2012 went further down by 18 percent, 13 percent, 34 percent, and 11 percent, respectively, from that in 2011.
  一、经济建设中的人权保障
中国有13亿多人口,不发展经济,不首先解决人民的温饱问题,其他一切权利都难以实现。发展是解决中国所有问题的关键,也是推动中国人权事业发展的根本。只有推动经济持续健康发展,才能筑牢人民幸福安康的物质基础,保障人民的生存权和发展权。多年来,中国坚持以经济建设为中心,通过发展经济来扩大城乡就业,增加居民收入和家庭财产收入,改善人民衣食住行用等条件,维护弱势群体权益,使公民经济权利得到更加切实的保障。
人民生活水平不断提高。经济的平稳较快发展为改善民生奠定了基础,创造了条件。2012年,在世界各大经济体增长全面减速、各种风险不断暴露的情况下,中国国内生产总值增长7.8%,居民消费价格涨幅回落到2.6%。2012年全年粮食总产量达到58957万吨,实现新中国成立之后第二个连续9年增产,连续6年产量超5亿吨。民以食为天,粮食生产连续9年增长,对于一个13亿多人口的国家来说意义十分重大,为中国人民过上幸福美好生活打下了坚实基础。农村生产生活条件不断改善。2008年至2012年,新建改建农村公路146.5万公里,改造农村危房1033万户,解决了3亿多农村人口的饮水安全和无电区445万人的用电问题。城乡居民收入增长较快。2012年全年农村居民人均纯收入7917元,比上年增长13.5%,扣除价格因素,实际增长10.7%;全年城镇居民人均可支配收入24565元,增长12.6%,扣除价格因素,实际增长9.6%。城乡居民收入实际增长快于国内生产总值增长,农村居民收入实际增长快于城镇居民。2012年,农村居民家庭恩格尔系数(即居民家庭食品消费支出占消费总支出的比重)为39.3%,城镇居民家庭恩格尔系数为36.2%。到2012年底,全国民用轿车保有量5989万辆,比上年增长20.7%,其中私人轿车5308万辆,增长22.8%;城镇居民每百户拥有汽车21.5辆,比2007年增加15.5辆。全国固定及移动电话用户总数达到139031万户,比上年末增加11896万户。移动电话普及率达到82.6部/百人,固定电话普及率达到20.7部/百人。互联网上网人数5.64亿人,其中使用移动电话上网人数4.2亿,互联网普及率达到42.1%。2012年全年国内出游人数达29.6亿人次,比上年增长12.1%;国内居民出境人数8318万人次,增长18.4%。其中因私出境7706万人次,增长20.2%,占出境人数的92.6%。积极稳妥推进城镇化。2008年至2012年转移农村人口8463万人,城镇化率由45.9%提高到52.6%,城乡结构发生了历史性变化。
农村扶贫开发进入新阶段。为不断提高农村贫困人口生活水平,中国政府于2011年颁布《中国农村扶贫开发纲要(2011-2020年)》,明确提出到2020年稳定实现扶贫对象不愁吃、不愁穿,以及保障其义务教育、基本医疗和住房的总目标。国家大幅度提高扶贫标准,将农民人均纯收入2300元(2010年不变价格)作为新的国家扶贫标准,更多低收入人口被纳入扶贫范围。2011年全国扶贫对象覆盖人口1.22亿人,占农村户籍人口的12.7%。2012年,中央财政综合扶贫投入2996亿元,比2011年增长31.9%。其中,中央财政专项扶贫资金332亿元。启动实施了武陵山、六盘山、罗霄山等11个集中连片特困地区区域发展与扶贫攻坚规划及“十二五”(2011-2015年)时期支持西藏、新疆和新疆生产建设兵团、四川云南甘肃青海四省藏区经济社会发展规划,着力解决深度贫困问题。2011年,国家扶贫开发工作重点县农村居民人均纯收入3985元,比2009年增长40.2%,增幅高于全国农村居民平均水平。按照新的国家扶贫标准,2012年末农村贫困人口为9899万人,比上年末减少2339万人。国家编制出台了《扶贫开发整村推进“十二五”规划》,计划“十二五”期间,完成中西部3万个贫困村整村推进任务,年均6000个村。农村贫困残疾人生活状况进一步改善。2012年国务院印发《农村残疾人扶贫开发纲要(2011-2020年)》。2012年,共扶持229.9万农村贫困残疾人,为86.1万农村残疾人提供实用技术培训,为13.2万户农村贫困残疾人家庭实施危房改造。
少数民族贫困地区人民生活不断改善。根据民族地区的实际,中国政府坚持国家帮助、发达地区支援、民族地区自力更生相结合的方针,制定出台一系列优惠政策,推动少数民族地区经济发展,努力提高各民族人民生活水平。中央财政不断加大对民族地区的转移支付力度。2010年至2012年,中央财政对8个民族省(自治区)转移支付总额为26055亿元,占中央财政对地方转移支付总额的比重由24.3%提高到25.7%,同时加大了对民族自治州、民族自治县及边境地区的转移支付力度。国家编制实施《扶持人口较少民族发展规划(2011-2015年)》,将6个10万人以上30万人以下的民族纳入扶持范围,安排专项资金帮助人口较少民族发展经济和改善生产生活条件。国家支持边境地区经济社会发展,编制实施《兴边富民行动规划(2011-2015年)》。国家制定了促进牧民增收、支持牧区发展的政策。少数民族和民族地区脱贫致富成效显著。2005年至2010年,民族8省区贫困人口从2338.4万人减少到1304.4万人,贫困发生率从16.5%下降到7%,比全国同期贫困发生率下降幅度快了近5.5个百分点。
城乡居民住房条件进一步改善。2009年以来,围绕“住有所居”和“城市化进程中人类住区的可持续发展”两大主题,在推进城镇住房市场化改革,努力通过发展商品房市场满足群众多层次住房需求的同时,中国政府把满足困难群众基本住房需要,列为政府提供基本公共服务的重要内容,通过大规模实施保障性安居工程,加快推进住房保障工作。中国的保障性安居工程,包括城镇地区的保障性住房建设、棚户区改造以及农村地区的危房改造、游牧民定居工程。在城镇保障性安居工程方面,2008年至2012年新建各类保障性住房1800多万套,棚户区改造住房1200多万套。到2012年底,全国累计用实物方式解决了3100万户城镇家庭的住房困难,占城镇家庭总户数的12.5%左右。此外,全国还有近500万户城镇低收入住房困难家庭享受政府发放的廉租住房租赁补贴。2012年底,城镇和农村人均住房面积分别为32.9平方米和37.1平方米,分别比2007年增加2.8平方米和5.5平方米。为规范国有土地上房屋征收与补偿活动,维护公共利益,保障被征收房屋所有权人的合法权益,2011年1月21日,国务院颁布施行《国有土地上房屋征收与补偿条例》,同时废止了2001年6月13日国务院公布的《城市房屋拆迁管理条例》。
积极促进劳动者充分就业。经济的持续平稳增长为保障就业提供了条件。国家实施积极的就业政策,保障公民工作权。2008年至2012年,累计投入就业专项资金1973亿元,实现高校毕业生就业2800万人,城镇就业困难人员就业830万人。2012年,在经济增速趋缓的背景下,全年城镇新增就业1266万人,城镇失业人员再就业552万人,就业困难人员就业182万人,年末城镇登记失业率为4.1%,与上年末持平。全国农民工总量为26261万人,比上年增长3.9%。其中,外出农民工16336万人,增长3.0%;本地农民工9925万人,增长5.4%。国家积极促进农村劳动力就地就近转移就业,8.5万个村开展休闲农业与乡村旅游活动,带动2800万农民就业。2012年,城镇新安排残疾人就业32.9万人;城镇实际在业残疾人达到444.8万;1770.3万农村残疾人实现稳定就业。2011年,全国共组织开展各类职业培训约2200万人次。2012年,中央财政支出就业专项资金454亿元,用于支持落实相关促进就业的政策。2010-2012年,农业部依托“阳光工程”培训项目开展农业技能培训,中央财政累计安排培训补助资金33亿元,培训农民930万人次。
保障劳动者各项基本权利。国家先后修改了劳动合同法、职业病防治法,制定了《女职工劳动保护特别规定》和《最高人民法院关于审理劳动争议案件适用法律若干问题的解释(三)》,保障劳动者各项权利。工会覆盖面进一步扩大。截至2012年9月,全国建立基层工会组织266.6万个,覆盖企事业机关单位616.6万个,与2009年相比分别增长34.9%和42.8%,其中非公经济组织工会组织185.5万个,较2009年增长47%。工会会员达2.8亿人,较2009年增长16.7%,其中非公经济组织会员达1.6亿人,较2009年增长16%。积极推进工资集体协商,保障获得公平报酬的权利。截至2012年9月,全国共签订工资专项集体合同122.8万份,覆盖企业308.2万家,覆盖职工1.5亿人,与2009年相比分别增长140%、241%和142%。2012年,全国各级劳动保障监察机构共查处违法案件41.2万件,督促用人单位与805.5万人次劳动者签订劳动合同。2012年,全国24个省份调整了最低工资标准,最低工资标准年均增幅22%。城镇非私营单位在岗职工平均工资由2007年的24932元增加到2011年的42452元,年均增长14.23%;城镇私营单位就业人员年平均工资由2009年的18199元增加到2011年的24556元,年均增长16.16%。
保障人民生活和生产安全。中国重视在发展经济过程中保障人民生活和生产安全。近年来,国家努力构建完善的市政公用事业服务体系,城市人居环境质量不断提升。迄今,中国共21次获得联合国人居奖,有7个项目获得迪拜国际改善居住环境最佳范例奖,有30个城市获得中国人居环境奖,398个项目获得了中国人居环境范例奖。2011年,全国113个环保重点城市供水量水质达标率提高到90.6%。截至2012年底,饮用水卫生监测网络已经覆盖全部省份,共设立水质监测点近3万个。2010-2012年,全国累计解决了1.72亿农村居民和2300万农村学校师生的饮水安全问题。2008年以来,完成大中型和重点小型水库除险加固1.8万座。国家着力解决制约安全生产的突出问题和深层矛盾,安全生产法规政策体系不断完善。颁布了多项安全生产标准,严厉打击非法违法生产、经营、建设行为,深入治理违规违章行为,持续开展“安全生产年”活动,不断深化隐患排查治理。2012年,全国查处无证和证照不全从事生产经营、建设等各类非法违法行为144万起,违规违章行为305万起。平均每年培训高危行业主要负责人、安全管理人员和特种作业人员500多万人次,农民工1300万人次,煤矿班组长13万人。发布了1022项重大事故防治关键技术和355项新型安全实用产品,集中推广了100个安全动态监测监控项目。安全生产事故起数和死亡人数持续下降。各类生产安全事故起数、死亡人数2011年比2010年分别下降4.3%、5.1%,2012年比2011年又分别下降3.1%、4.7%;亿元GDP事故死亡率、工矿商贸十万就业人员事故死亡率、煤矿百万吨事故死亡率、交通万车事故死亡率,2011年比2010年分别下降13.9%、11.7%、24.7%和12.5%,2012年比2011年又分别下降18%、13%、34%和11%。
II. Protection of Human Rights in Political Construction
The socialist road of political development with Chinese characteristics is the fundamental guarantee for the realization of civil rights and political rights in China. In recent years, China has actively yet prudently pressed ahead with political restructuring, expanded socialist democracy, accelerated the building of a socialist country under the rule of law, and developed socialist political civilization. China endeavors to improve the system of democracy, diversify the forms of democracy, expand citizens' orderly participation in political affairs, and ensure that citizens exercise their democratic rights as prescribed by the law. China continues to deepen the reform of the administrative system, push forward the reform of the judicial system and work mechanisms, and ensure that people enjoy a wide range of rights and freedoms in accordance with the law. China continues to improve its legal system that protects human rights. Establishing a socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics and protecting human rights in accordance with the law are the important foundation for China's human rights development. Thanks to unremitting efforts over the years, by the end of 2010 a multi-level socialist legal system with specific Chinese characteristics had been established. This system is based on the realities of China, adapts to the needs of reform and opening up and the socialist modernization drive, epitomizes the will of the Communist Party of China and the Chinese people, centers around the Constitution, takes as its mainstay the Constitution-related laws, civil and commercial laws, administrative laws, economic laws, social laws, criminal laws, and litigation and non-litigation procedural laws of different categories, and comprises administrative and local regulations. By the end of 2012 China had enacted 243 active laws, including the current Constitution, 721 administrative regulations and 9,200 local regulations, which are complete in range and cover all relations in the society. Basic and major laws of each category have been formulated and supported with corresponding administrative regulations and local regulations, forming a legal system that is internally scientific, well-coordinated and unified. The formation of the socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics is an important milestone in the development of China's human rights cause, and it ensures that the country's human rights protection is done within the framework of the law. In recent years, the state has paid great attention to proceeding from the requirement of protecting human rights to amend relevant laws and regulations. In 2012 "respecting and protecting human rights" was added to the newly amended Criminal Procedure Law and attention was paid to see it that the spirit of this clause was implemented in amendments and revisions made in the clauses regarding evidence, defense, compulsory and investigatory measures, review and prosecution, trial and execution, as well as newly added stipulations. This is a major progress in China's human rights cause, and of great significance in punishing crimes, protecting the people and safeguarding the citizens' litigation and other lawful rights. The 2012 amended Civil Procedure Law offers further protection to the litigation rights of parties to a lawsuit, and improves such procedures as prosecution and handling, preparation for trial, summary, trial supervision, execution of sentence, preservation, evidence and open documents of judgment. It also adds the system of public interest litigation and the remedial procedure for the infringed parties indirectly related to a current case.
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  二、政治建设中的人权保障
中国特色社会主义政治发展道路,是公民权利和政治权利在中国得到实现的根本保障。近年来,中国坚持积极稳妥推进政治体制改革,扩大社会主义民主,加快建设社会主义法治国家,发展社会主义政治文明。中国努力健全民主制度,丰富民主形式,扩大公民有序政治参与,保证公民依法行使民主权利。不断深化行政体制改革,推进司法体制和工作机制改革,保障人民依法享有广泛权利和自由。
保障各项人权的法律制度不断完善。建立中国特色社会主义法律体系,依法保障人权,是中国人权事业发展的重要基础。经过多年不懈努力,到2010年底,一个立足中国国情和实际、适应改革开放和社会主义现代化建设需要、集中体现中国共产党和中国人民意志,以宪法为统帅,以宪法相关法、民法商法、行政法、经济法、社会法、刑法、诉讼与非诉讼程序法等多个法律部门的法律为主干,包括行政法规、地方性法规等多个层次的法律法规构成的中国特色社会主义法律体系已经形成。截至2012年底,中国已制定现行宪法和有效法律243部、行政法规721部、地方性法规9200部,涵盖社会关系各个方面的法律部门已经齐全,各个法律部门中基本的、主要的法律已经制定,相应的行政法规和地方性法规比较完备,法律体系内部总体做到科学和谐统一。中国特色社会主义法律体系的形成,是中国人权事业发展的一个重要标志,实现了中国人权保障的法制化。近年来,国家十分注重从保障人权的要求出发修改有关法律法规。2012年新修改的刑事诉讼法写入“尊重和保障人权”内容,并在证据制度、辩护制度、强制措施、侦查措施、审查起诉、审判程序、执行程序的修改完善和增加规定特别程序中,贯彻了尊重和保障人权的精神。这是中国人权事业的重大进步,对于惩罚犯罪,保护人民,保障公民的诉讼权利和其他合法权利,具有重大意义。2012年修改的民事诉讼法,进一步保障了当事人的诉讼权利,完善了起诉和受理程序、开庭前准备程序、简易程序、审判监督程序和执行程序,完善了保全制度、证据制度和裁判文书公开制度,增加了公益诉讼制度、对案外被侵害人的救济程序。
中国人民通过各级人民代表大会有效行使国家权力。人民代表大会制度是中国的根本政治制度。中国人民通过全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会,参与国家管理,行使国家权力。人民代表大会行使立法、监督、决定、任免等职权。2010年以来,全国人大及其常委会制定和修改了45部法律,包括刑法、刑事诉讼法、全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会选举法、全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会代表法、国家赔偿法、村民委员会组织法、行政强制法等法律,进一步完善了保障各项人权的法律制度。2010年3月,全国人大通过了修改全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会选举法的决定,规定城乡按照相同人口比例选举人大代表,人大代表具有更广泛的代表性,进一步完善了选举制度,更好地体现了人人平等、地区平等和民族平等。中国立法机关通过公布法律草案、听证会、论证会、座谈会等多种形式,保证公众广泛参与立法。2011年修改个人所得税法,向社会公布征求意见后,一个多月共收到意见23万多条。在通过网络发表意见的公众中,83%的人希望在原方案基础上适当上调工薪所得减除费用标准。全国人大常委会对草案作了修改,将工薪所得减除费用标准由每月2000元提高至3500元。2010年以来,全国人大及其常委会依法加大监督力度,监督工作的针对性和实效性切实增强。2010年以来,全国人大常委会共开展了13次执法检查,安排听取和审议了国务院和最高人民法院、最高人民检察院的31个专项工作报告,开展了9次专题询问。
协商民主使公民享有管理国家事务更充分的权利。社会主义协商民主是中国人民民主的重要形式。近年来,中国不断完善协商民主制度和工作机制,推进协商民主广泛、多层、制度化发展。中国共产党和中国政府通过各种渠道就经济社会发展重大问题和涉及群众切身利益的实际问题广泛协商,广集民智。坚持和完善中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度,充分发挥人民政协作为协商民主重要渠道作用。把政治协商纳入决策程序,坚持协商于决策之前和决策之中。2008年至2012年,中国人民政治协商会议第十一届全国委员会共开展各类协商活动420多场次。2010年以来,全国政协共收到提案16743件,其中各民主党派中央、全国工商联提案882件,召开6次专题议政性常委会和专题协商会,进行296次调研视察活动。加强同民主党派的政治协商。中共中央在作出重大决策前,一般都邀请民主党派主要领导人和无党派代表人士召开民主协商会、小范围谈心会、座谈会等,通报情况,听取意见,共商国是。全国政协紧紧围绕人民群众最关心、最直接、最现实的利益问题开展调查研究,提出的维护农民工、农村留守人员、残疾人、国企改制职工合法权益等建议,促进了民生改善。开展对武陵山区等集中连片特困地区扶贫攻坚跟踪调研,提出加大这些地区农村基础设施投入,建立与完善资金投入机制、生态补偿机制、区域合作机制等建议,受到中共中央高度重视和采纳,对《武陵山片区区域发展与扶贫攻坚规划》的制定和出台发挥了重要作用。
充分保障民族自治地方依法行使自治权。民族区域自治制度是中国的一项基本政治制度,也是中国解决国内民族问题的基本政策。中国适合于建立民族自治地方的少数民族聚居区基本上都已建立民族自治地方。近年来,中国政府坚定不移地继续坚持和完善这项基本制度,切实尊重和保障民族自治地方自治机关的自治权利,在制定政策时充分考虑少数民族和民族自治地方的实际情况,并认真研究民族区域自治法在实施过程中出现的新问题。按照民族区域自治法的有关规定,国家抓紧制定配套的法律法规、具体措施和办法,制定或修改自治条例和单行条例,逐步建立比较完备的具有中国特色的民族法律法规体系。通过加强对民族区域自治法贯彻实施情况的检查监督,有针对性地研究和解决实施过程中出现的难点问题和各族干部群众普遍关心、关系各族人民群众切身利益的突出问题,真正体现民族区域自治制度的优越性。目前,55个少数民族都有本民族的全国人大代表和全国政协委员,人口超过100万的少数民族都有本民族的全国人大常委会委员。同时,积极培养使用少数民族干部。中央和地方国家权力机关、行政机关、审判机关和检察机关都有一定比例的少数民族干部。155个民族自治地方的人民代表大会常务委员会中均有实行区域自治的民族的公民担任主任或者副主任,民族自治地方政府的主席、州长、县长或旗长均由实行区域自治的民族的公民担任。
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