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Decision of the State Council on Further Strengthening Rural Education [Effective]
国务院关于进一步加强农村教育工作的决定 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】
 
  
  
Decision of the State Council on Further Strengthening Rural Education
(September 19th, 2003)
The people's governments of all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government, all ministries and commissions of the State Council, and all agencies directly under the State Council,
With a view to fulfilling the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress, accelerating the development and deepening the reform of rural education, and promoting rural economic and social development and coordinated development of urban and rural areas, the decision on further strengthening rural education is hereby made as follows.
 

国务院关于进一步加强农村教育工作的决定
(国发[2003]19号 2003年9月17日)


各省、自治区、直辖市人民政府,国务院各部委、各直属机构:
为认真贯彻落实党的十六大精神,加快农村教育发展,深化农村教育改革,促进农村经济社会和城乡协调发展,现就进一步加强农村教育工作特作如下决定。
I. Recognizing the Important Role Played by Rural Education on the Building of a Well-off Society in an All-round Way and Taking Rural Education as the Top Priority Among Other Things in Education.
 一、明确农村教育在全面建设小康社会中的重要地位,把农村教育作为教育工作的重中之重
1.Rural education serves as the foundation, the driving force and an important factor that influences the overall building of a well-off society in an all-round way. Well-developed rural education and soundly operated rural schools are a big issue that has a direct bearing on the basic interests of over 800 million farmers in China and on catering to the demand of so large a rural population for schooling. It is the key to improving the qualities of laborers, promoting the transition of agriculture from a traditional model to a modern one and solving the problems faced by agriculture, rural areas and farmers from the root. It is also an important channel for transferring surplus rural laborers, propelling industrialization and urbanization and transforming pressure of population into benefits of human resources. It is a significant step in enhancing the building of rural spiritual civilization, raising the ideological and ethical standards of farmers and promoting the coordinated economic and social development in rural areas. We must give priority to the development of rural education at such a strategic height as acting on the important thought of the "Three Represents" and building a well-off society in an all-round way.
 1.农村教育在全面建设小康社会中具有基础性、先导性、全局性的重要作用。发展农村教育,办好农村学校,是直接关系8亿多农民切身利益,满足广大农村人口学习需求的一件大事;是提高劳动者素质,促进传统农业向现代农业转变,从根本上解决农业、农村和农民问题的关键所在;是转移农村富余劳动力,推进工业化和城镇化,将人口压力转化为人力资源优势的重要途径;是加强农村精神文明建设,提高农民思想道德水平,促进农村经济社会协调发展的重大举措。必须从实践“三个代表”重要思想和全面建设小康社会的战略高度,优先发展农村教育。
2.Rural education is of great significance in constructing a modern national education system with Chinese characteristics and in building a learning society. Rural education covers so large a territory and has so many contents that its standard is linked to the cultivation of talents at all levels and of all types, the development of the education cause as a whole, and the improvement of qualities of the Chinese nation. Being public service institutions at the grassroots level that spread all over the countryside, rural schools not only train students but also undertake the important task of disseminating advanced culture and science and technologies among farmers and improving their labor skills and business startup abilities. Well-developed rural education provide farmers and their children with opportunities to receive good education, thus is an important aspect in achieving educational equality and social justice as well as an essential requirement of socialist education.
 2.农村教育在构建具有中国特色的现代国民教育体系和建设学习型社会中具有十分重要的地位。农村教育面广量大,教育水平的高低关系到各级各类人才的培养和整个教育事业的发展,关系到全民族素质的提高。农村学校作为遍布乡村的基层公共服务机构,在培养学生的同时,还承担着面向广大农民传播先进文化和科学技术,提高农民劳动技能和创业能力的重要任务。发展农村教育,使广大农民群众及其子女享有接受良好教育的机会,是实现教育公平和体现社会公正的一个重要方面,是社会主义教育的本质要求。
3.In spite of a large population and undeveloped productive forces, China has in the main accomplished the historical mission in reaching the "two basic targets" of universal nine-year compulsory education and eradication of illiteracy among young and middle-aged people. The reform of management system for rural compulsory education has witnessed breakthroughs. Rural vocational education and adult education has experienced big development. As a result, a large quantity of high-quality laborers and rich human resources have been fostered for national economic and social development. However, the weakness of China's rural education as a whole has not been radically reserved; the gap between rural and urban education in China is widening; and the capability of education in serving rural economic and social development has yet to be enhanced. Under new situations, we should have a stronger sense of responsibility and urgency and give top priority to rural education among other things in education. While stressing development on the one hand, we should propel reform on the other, and promote the coordinate development of rural education at all levels and of all types, in an effort to better adapt to the need of building a well-off society in an all-round way.
   3.我国在人口众多、生产力发展水平不高的条件下,实现了基本普及九年义务教育和基本扫除青壮年文盲(以下简称“两基”)的历史性任务,农村义务教育管理体制改革取得了突破性进展,农村职业教育和成人教育得到了很大发展,为国家经济社会发展提供了大量较高素质的劳动者和丰富的人才资源。但是,我国农村教育整体薄弱的状况还没有得到根本扭转,城乡教育差距还有扩大的趋势,教育为农村经济社会发展服务的能力亟待加强。在新的形势下,要增强责任感和紧迫感,将农村教育作为教育工作的重中之重,一手抓发展,一手抓改革,促进农村各级各类教育协调发展,更好地适应全面建设小康社会的需要。
II.Accelerating the Complete Fulfilling of the "Two Basic Targets" and Consolidating and Improving the Accomplishment / Quality of Universal Compulsory Education
 二、加快推进“两基”攻坚,巩固提高普及义务教育的成果和质量
4.Striving to complete the fulfilling of the "two basic targets" in the western regions within five years. At present, there are still 372 counties in the western regions that have yet to reach the "two basic targets". These counties are mainly located in former revolutionary base areas, areas inhabited by minority ethnic groups, remote and border areas, and poverty-stricken areas, where the mission of reaching the "two basic targets" is anything but easy. By the year 2007, the population coverage rate of universal nine-year compulsory education should reach 85% or above, and the illiteracy rate among young and middle-aged people should decline to 5% or below. Completion of this mission is of great significance for propelling development-oriented poverty relief, enhancing national unity, maintaining the stability of border areas and realizing the long-term peace and stability of the whole country. We should take the complete fulfilling of the "two basic targets" as an important task in the development of China's western regions and pay to it no less attention than to the construction of infrastructures and eco-environment. The relevant departments of the State Council and the people's governments of all provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government) in the western regions should formulate work planning, set up special funds, arrange for implementation and conduct a supervisory inspection every year, so as to ensure the fulfilling of the targets. While arrangement for and implementation of the targets are conducted, focuses should be given to strengthening the construction of houses for primary and middle schools and of junior middle boarding schools, expanding the enrollment of junior middle schools, improving the proficiency of teachers, fostering modern distance education and supporting students from poverty-stricken families. The Central Government will continue to arrange for special funds for the implementation of compulsory education projects in poverty-stricken areas and divert central funds in special support of the fulfilling of the "two basic targets". The new increase in both Central and local poverty relief funds should support the development of education for poverty-stricken rural areas. The counties in central regions where the "two basic targets" have yet to be reached should concentrate their efforts in reaching them. Intensified efforts should be made in popularizing compulsory education for female and disabled children.
 4.力争用五年时间完成西部地区“两基”攻坚任务。目前,西部地区仍有372个县没有实现“两基”目标。这些县主要分布在“老、少、边、穷”地区,“两基”攻坚任务十分艰巨。到2007年,西部地区普及九年义务教育(以下简称“普九”)人口覆盖率要达到85%以上,青壮年文盲率降到5%以下。完成这项任务,对于推进扶贫开发、促进民族团结、维护边疆稳定和实现国家长治久安,具有极其重要的意义。要将“两基”攻坚作为西部大开发的一项重要任务,摆在与基础设施建设和生态环境建设同等重要的位置。国务院有关部门和西部各省(自治区、直辖市)人民政府要制定工作规划,设立专项经费,精心组织实施,并每年督促检查一次,确保目标实现。要以加强中小学校舍和初中寄宿制学校建设、扩大初中学校招生规模、提高教师队伍素质、推进现代远程教育、扶助家庭经济困难学生为重点,周密部署,狠抓落实。中央继续安排专项经费实施贫困地区义务教育工程,安排中央资金对“两基”攻坚进行重点支持。中央和地方新增扶贫资金要支持贫困乡村发展教育事业。中部地区没有实现“两基”目标的县也要集中力量打好攻坚战。大力提高女童和残疾儿童少年的义务教育普及水平。
5.The regions (the central and western regions in particular) where the "two basic targets" have been reached should consolidate accomplishment and improve quality. The governments at all levels should come up with good planning and disposition for consolidating and improving the fulfilling of the "two basic targets". We should keep on readjusting the distribution of primary and middle schools, strive to better the school running conditions, strengthen the construction of rural middle schools and of boarding schools in remote and border areas and areas inhabited by minority ethnic groups, improve the sanitary facilities of schools and dining and boarding conditions for students, and raise the standard of laboratory instruments as well as books. We should deepen the teaching reform in education and accelerate the reform of courses in accordance with actual rural conditions. We should improve the proficiency of teachers and schoolmasters and raise the management standard of schools in an all-round way. We should lower the dropout rate in rural middle schools, improve school-running standard and educational quality, and form a mechanism of sustained and sound development of rural compulsory education. The economically developed rural areas should reach the "two basic targets" of high standard and quality. We should strive to realize the ultimate popularization of compulsory education and the overall improvement of compulsory educational quality through unremitting efforts.
 5.已经实现“两基”目标的地区特别是中部和西部地区,要巩固成果、提高质量。各级政府要切实做好“两基”巩固提高的规划和部署。继续推进中小学布局结构调整,努力改善办学条件,重点加强农村初中和边远山区、少数民族地区寄宿制学校建设,改善学校卫生设施和学生食宿条件,提高实验仪器设备和图书的装备水平。深化教育教学改革,根据农村实际加快课程改革步伐。提高教师和校长队伍素质,全面提高学校管理水平。努力降低农村初中辍学率,提高办学水平和教育质量,形成农村义务教育持续、健康发展的机制。经济发达的农村地区要实现高水平、高质量“普九”目标。经过不懈努力,力争2010年在全国实现全面普及九年义务教育和全面提高义务教育质量的目标。
6.Developing senior middle education and early childhood education. In the five years to come, the rural areas in the economically developed regions should strive to popularize senior middle education, while the rural areas in other regions should accelerate the development of senior middle education. The state will continue to arrange for funds in special support of a number of well-grounded ordinary senior middle schools and vocational schools, so that such schools can improve their running conditions, raise educational quality and expand quality educational sources. The governments at all local levels should pay attention to and support the development of early childhood education in rural areas and make full use of the surplus resources to that end after readjusting the distribution of rural primary and middle schools. Development of non-government funded senior middle school and early childhood education is encouraged.
 6.发展农村高中阶段教育和幼儿教育。今后五年,经济发达地区的农村要努力普及高中阶段教育,其他地区的农村要加快发展高中阶段教育。要积极开展各种形式的初中后教育。国家继续安排资金,重点支持中西部地区一批基础较好的普通高中和职业学校改善办学条件,提高教育质量,扩大优质教育资源。地方各级政府要重视并扶持农村幼儿教育的发展,充分利用农村中小学布局调整后富余的教育资源发展幼儿教育。鼓励发展民办高中阶段教育和幼儿教育。
7.Establishing and improving the counterpart educational aid system. The state will continue to implement the "Project of Counterpart Aid from Schools in the Eastern Regions to Schools of Poverty-stricken Areas in the Western Regions" and the "Project of Counterpart Aid from Schools in Big or Middle Cities to Poverty-stricken Counties Within a Province (Autonomous Region, Municipality Directly under the Central Government)" and establish the system of counterpart aid from economically developed counties in the eastern regions to poverty-stricken counties in the western regions and from big and middle cities to poverty-stricken counties within a province (autonomous region, municipality directly under the Central Government). The Central Government will further increase its support to rural education in the areas where national self-governance is applied, and keep on running inland Tibetan middle schools (classes) and Xinjiang minority classes.
 7.建立和完善教育对口支援制度。继续实施“东部地区学校对口支援西部贫困地区学校工程”和“大中城市学校对口支援本省(自治区、直辖市)贫困地区学校工程”,建立东部地区经济比较发达的县(市、区)对口支援西部地区贫困县、大中城市对口支援本省(自治区、直辖市)贫困县的制度。进一步加大中央对民族自治地区农村教育的扶持力度,继续办好内地西藏中学(班)和新疆班。
III. Following the Orientation of Services Towards "Sannong" (nongye, nongcun and nongmin; or agriculture, rural areas and farmers), Developing Vocational Education and Adult Education and Deepening the Reform in Rural Education
 三、坚持为“三农”服务的方向,大力发展职业教育和成人教育,深化农村教育改革
8.The guiding principles for teaching reform in rural education are: to fully implement the Party's educational guidelines, to follow the orientation of services towards "Sannong", to enhance the pertinency and actual effect of school running, to satisfy the diversified demands of farmers for learning; to advance quality education in an all-round way, to keep abreast of actual rural situation, to stress on the cultivation of educatees' ideological and ethical standards, practical capabilities and job-seeking abilities; to plan as a whole basic education, vocational education and adult education, to effectively integrate educational resources, to bring into full play the comprehensive functions of rural schools, and to improve the economic effectiveness of school running.
 8.农村教育教学改革的指导思想是:必须全面贯彻党的教育方针,坚持为“三农”服务的方向,增强办学的针对性和实用性,满足农民群众多样化的学习需求;必须全面推进素质教育,紧密联系农村实际,注重受教育者思想品德、实践能力和就业能力的培养;必须实行基础教育、职业教育和成人教育的“三教统筹”,有效整合教育资源,充分发挥农村学校的综合功能,提高办学效益。
9.Advancing courses and teaching reform in rural primary and middle schools. The selection of contents for rural primary and middle education, the writing of textbooks and the operation of teaching activities should keep abreast of actual rural situation and have rural characteristics while meeting the essential requirements of the state for basic education. Rural junior and senior middle schools should have more contents of vocational education as appropriate and keep on operating "Green Certificate" education. Such schools may set up practical techniques-based courses by creating conditions or utilizing the resources of vocational schools, and encourage students to obtain vocational qualification certificates while securing graduation certificates.
 9.积极推进农村中小学课程和教学改革。农村中小学教育内容的选择、教科书的编写和教学活动的开展,在实现国家规定基础教育基本要求时,要紧密联系农村实际,突出农村特色。在农村初、高中适当增加职业教育的内容,继续开展“绿色证书”教育,并积极创造条件或利用职业学校的资源,开设以实用技术为主的课程,鼓励学生在获得毕业证书的同时获得职业资格证书。
10.Developing employment-oriented rural vocational education. We should adopt diversified, flexible and open school-running modes, integrate education and teaching with production practices, social services and technologies, strengthen practice-based teaching and foster educatees' job-seeking capabilities. While operating formal education that offers academic qualifications, we should develop various types of vocational education in an effort to adapt to the restructuring of rural industries and promote the transferring of rural laborers to secondary and tertiary industries. We should adopt flexible systems in teaching and student records management to facilitate students' completion of studies in such manners as being work-study by turns, part-work-part-study, urban-rural sectional and before-and-in-service sectional. While integrating existing resources, we should focus on the building of core model vocational schools and training institutions at the prefectural (municipal) and county level. We should encourage social forces and attract foreign investment to operate vocational education and diversify school-running sources and investment.
......
 10.以就业为导向,大力发展农村职业教育。要实行多样、灵活、开放的办学模式,把教育教学与生产实践、社会服务、技术推广结合起来,加强实践教学和就业能力的培养。在开展学历教育的同时,大力开展多种形式的职业培训,适应农村产业结构调整,推动农村劳动力向二、三产业转移。实行灵活的教学和学籍管理制度,方便学生工学交替、半工半读、城乡分段和职前职后分段完成学业。在整合现有资源的基础上,重点建设好地(市)、县级骨干示范职业学校和培训机构。要积极鼓励社会力量和吸引外资举办职业教育,促进职业教育办学主体和投资多元化。
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