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Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Deepening the Reform of the Medical and Health Care System [Effective]
中共中央、国务院关于深化医药卫生体制改革的意见 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】
 
  

 

Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Deepening the Reform of the Medical and Health Care System
(March 17, 2009 No. 6 [2009] of the CPC Central Committee)
According to spirits of the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), for purposes of establishing a medical and health care system with Chinese characteristics, gradually realizing the objective of providing universal coverage of basic medical and health care services, and improving the level of people's health, we hereby put forward the following opinions on deepening the reform of the medical and health care system.
 

中共中央、国务院关于深化医药卫生体制改革的意见
(二〇〇九年三月十七日 中发[2009]6号)


按照党的十七大精神,为建立中国特色医药卫生体制,逐步实现人人享有基本医疗卫生服务的目标,提高全民健康水平,现就深化医药卫生体制改革提出如下意见。

I. Fully understanding the importance, urgency and difficulty of deepening the reform of the medical and health care system
The medical and health care cause is a major livelihood issue which concerns the health of hundreds of millions of people and the well-being of millions of households. To deepen the reform of the medical and health care system, speed up the development of the medical and health care cause, meet the increasingly growing demands of the people for medicine and health care and continuously improve the health of the people are the inevitable requirements of implementing the scientific development view and promoting the comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable economic and social development, are the important measures for maintaining social fairness and justice and improving the life quality of the people, and are a major task in building a well-off and harmonious socialist society on a full scale.
Since the founding of the new China, especially since the reform and opening-up to the outside world, China's medical and health care cause has witnessed remarkable achievements. For example, a medical and health service system covering both urban and rural areas has been formed basically, the ability of disease prevention and control has increased continuously, the population covered by the medical security has expanded gradually, the level of health science and technology has risen rapidly, the level of people's health has been improved significantly, and the main health indicators of residents are at the forefront of the developing countries. In particular, since the significant victory in the fight against SARS, the governments at all levels have appropriated more funds for medicine and health care, the development of public health, rural medical and health care and urban community health care has been accelerated, and breakthroughs have been made in the development of new-typed rural cooperative medical care and basic medical insurance for non-working urban residents, laying a good groundwork for deepening the medical and health care system. At the same time, it should be noted that the current development level of China's medical and health care cause still obviously does not meet the health demands of the people and requirements of the coordinated economic and social development. The people are greatly concerned about the uneven development of the medical and health care cause in urban and rural areas, unreasonable allocation of resources, relatively weak work on public health and rural and community medicine and health care, incomplete medical security system, nonstandard order of the production and distribution of medicine, imperfect management system and operation mechanisms of hospitals, inadequate health funds appropriated by governments, rapid increase in medical costs and excessive burdens on individuals.
From now on to 2020 is a critical period for China to build a well-off society on a full scale, and the medical and health care tasks are heavy. With the economic development and the rise of the people's living standard, the people will have higher requirements for improving medical and health care services. Industrialization, urbanization, aging population, disease spectrum changes and changes of ecological environment all have brought about a series of new stern challenges to medical and health care work. To deepen the reform of the medical and health care system is a strategic choice for accelerating the development of the medical and health care cause, is an important way for the people to share the fruits of reform and development, and is an urgent hope of the people.
To deepen the reform of the medical and health care system is a broad-based difficult social system project. The basic national conditions of China, i.e. a large population, low average income per capita, big gaps between urban and rural areas and between regions and being in the primary stage of socialism for a long time, determine that to deepen the medical and health care system is a very complicated and arduous task and is a gradual process, and a medical and health care system corresponding to China's national conditions could be gradually established only on the basis of a clear direction and framework and through a long period of hard work and persistent exploration. Therefore, to deepen the reform of the medical and health care system, we should not only have a firm determination to lose no time in carrying forward the reform, but also make elaborate arrangements and steady implementation, so as to ensure the smooth progressing of reform and achieve the desired objectives.
   一、充分认识深化医药卫生体制改革的重要性、紧迫性和艰巨性
医药卫生事业关系亿万人民的健康,关系千家万户的幸福,是重大民生问题。深化医药卫生体制改革,加快医药卫生事业发展,适应人民群众日益增长的医药卫生需求,不断提高人民群众健康素质,是贯彻落实科学发展观、促进经济社会全面协调可持续发展的必然要求,是维护社会公平正义、提高人民生活质量的重要举措,是全面建设小康社会和构建社会主义和谐社会的一项重大任务。
新中国成立以来,特别是改革开放以来,我国医药卫生事业取得了显著成就,覆盖城乡的医药卫生服务体系基本形成,疾病防治能力不断增强,医疗保障覆盖人口逐步扩大,卫生科技水平迅速提高,人民群众健康水平明显改善,居民主要健康指标处于发展中国家前列。尤其是抗击非典取得重大胜利以来,各级政府投入加大,公共卫生、农村医疗卫生和城市社区卫生发展加快,新型农村合作医疗和城镇居民基本医疗保险取得突破性进展,为深化医药卫生体制改革打下了良好基础。同时,也应该看到,当前我国医药卫生事业发展水平与人民群众健康需求及经济社会协调发展要求不适应的矛盾还比较突出。城乡和区域医疗卫生事业发展不平衡,资源配置不合理,公共卫生和农村、社区医疗卫生工作比较薄弱,医疗保障制度不健全,药品生产流通秩序不规范,医院管理体制和运行机制不完善,政府卫生投入不足,医药费用上涨过快,个人负担过重,对此,人民群众反映强烈。
从现在到2020年,是我国全面建设小康社会的关键时期,医药卫生工作任务繁重。随着经济的发展和人民生活水平的提高,群众对改善医药卫生服务将会有更高的要求。工业化、城镇化、人口老龄化、疾病谱变化和生态环境变化等,都给医药卫生工作带来一系列新的严峻挑战。深化医药卫生体制改革,是加快医药卫生事业发展的战略选择,是实现人民共享改革发展成果的重要途径,是广大人民群众的迫切愿望。
深化医药卫生体制改革是一项涉及面广、难度大的社会系统工程。我国人口多,人均收入水平低,城乡、区域差距大,长期处于社会主义初级阶段的基本国情,决定了深化医药卫生体制改革是一项十分复杂艰巨的任务,是一个渐进的过程,需要在明确方向和框架的基础上,经过长期艰苦努力和坚持不懈的探索,才能逐步建立符合我国国情的医药卫生体制。因此,对深化医药卫生体制改革,既要坚定决心、抓紧推进,又要精心组织、稳步实施,确保改革顺利进行,达到预期目标。
II. Guiding ideology, basic principles and overall objective for deepening the reform of the medical and health care system
   二、深化医药卫生体制改革的指导思想、基本原则和总体目标
(1) Guiding ideology for deepening the reform of the medical and health care system. We shall follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping theory and the important idea of “Three Represents”, thoroughly implement the scientific development view, start from China's national conditions, learn from international useful experience, focus on achieving the objective of providing universal coverage of basic medical and health care services, and endeavor to resolve the interest issues which the people are most concerned with, which are most direct and which are most practical. We shall insist that public medicine and health care are for the public good, adhere to guidelines of giving priority to prevention, focusing on rural areas and stressing both traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, separate government administration from public institutions, government management from business operations, medical treatment from drugs and for-profit operations from nonprofit operations, strengthen the government's responsibility, increase investment, improve the national health policies, perfect the system of rules, strengthen supervision and management, innovate in systems and mechanisms, encourage public participation, and establish a basic medical and health care system covering both urban and rural residents, so as to continuously improve the level of national health and promote social harmony.
 (一)深化医药卫生体制改革的指导思想。以邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想为指导,深入贯彻落实科学发展观,从我国国情出发,借鉴国际有益经验,着眼于实现人人享有基本医疗卫生服务的目标,着力解决人民群众最关心、最直接、最现实的利益问题。坚持公共医疗卫生的公益性质,坚持预防为主、以农村为重点、中西医并重的方针,实行政事分开、管办分开、医药分开、营利性和非营利性分开,强化政府责任和投入,完善国民健康政策,健全制度体系,加强监督管理,创新体制机制,鼓励社会参与,建设覆盖城乡居民的基本医疗卫生制度,不断提高全民健康水平,促进社会和谐。
(2) Basic principles for deepening the reform of the medical and health care system. The reform of the medical and health care system must be based on our national conditions, start from reality in every respect, and adhere to correct reform principles.
-- We shall adhere to the people-first concept, and give top priority to safeguarding the health rights and interests of the people. We shall adhere to the tenet that the medical and health care cause should serve the people's health, center on protecting the people's health, take the provision of universal coverage of basic medical and health care services as the fundamental starting point and foothold, follow the principle of public good in terms of design of reform program, establishment of health system and construction of service system, provide the basic medical and health care system as a public product to all the people, focus on resolving the problems that the people are greatly concerned about, and strive to realize the provision of medical services for all the people who need medical attention.
-- We shall adhere to establishing the medical and health care system with Chinese characteristics based on our national conditions. We shall start from our basic national conditions, realistically sum up practical experience from the medical and health care reform and development, and accurately grasp the law and main contradictions of the medical and health care development; adhere to the harmonization between the level of basic medical and health care services and that of the economic and social development and the consistency between it and the affordability of the people; give full play to the traditional Chinese medicine (ethnic medicine); adhere to the adjustment of measures to local conditions and the categorized guidance, accentuate the local initiatives, and explore the ways to establish a basic medical and health care system in line with our national conditions.
-- We shall insist on unifying fairness and efficiency, and combining the leading role of government with the role of market mechanism. We shall strengthen the responsibility of government in the basic medical and health care system, increase the functions of government in development of rules, planning, financing, services, supervision, etc., maintain the public nature of the public medical and health care, and promote fairness and equity. At the same time, we shall pay attention to the role of market mechanism, mobilize social forces to participate, and promote the formation of an orderly competition mechanism, and improve the operating efficiency, service level and quality of medical and health care, so as to satisfy multi-level and diversified demands of the people for medical and health care.
-- We shall insist on the overall planning with all factors being considered, and combine resolving the prominent problems for the time being with improving the system of rules. We shall start from the overall situation, coordinate the urban-rural and regional development, take into account interests of all parties including suppliers and demanders, focus on the combination of prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and properly handle the relations among government, health institutions, pharmaceutical enterprises, medical workers and the people. We shall not only innovate in systems and mechanisms by looking forward, but also resolve the prominent issues existing in the medicine and health care system for the time being. We shall not only underscore the overall design to clarify the overall direction, objectives and basic framework of reform, but also highlight the key points and implementation step by step to actively and steadily push forward the reform.
 (二)深化医药卫生体制改革的基本原则。医药卫生体制改革必须立足国情,一切从实际出发,坚持正确的改革原则。
--坚持以人为本,把维护人民健康权益放在第一位。坚持医药卫生事业为人民健康服务的宗旨,以保障人民健康为中心,以人人享有基本医疗卫生服务为根本出发点和落脚点,从改革方案设计、卫生制度建立到服务体系建设都要遵循公益性的原则,把基本医疗卫生制度作为公共产品向全民提供,着力解决群众反映强烈的突出问题,努力实现全体人民病有所医。
--坚持立足国情,建立中国特色医药卫生体制。坚持从基本国情出发,实事求是地总结医药卫生事业改革发展的实践经验,准确把握医药卫生发展规律和主要矛盾;坚持基本医疗卫生服务水平与经济社会发展相协调、与人民群众的承受能力相适应;充分发挥中医药(民族医药)作用;坚持因地制宜、分类指导,发挥地方积极性,探索建立符合国情的基本医疗卫生制度。
--坚持公平与效率统一,政府主导与发挥市场机制作用相结合。强化政府在基本医疗卫生制度中的责任,加强政府在制度、规划、筹资、服务、监管等方面的职责,维护公共医疗卫生的公益性,促进公平公正。同时,注重发挥市场机制作用,动员社会力量参与,促进有序竞争机制的形成,提高医疗卫生运行效率、服务水平和质量,满足人民群众多层次、多样化的医疗卫生需求。
--坚持统筹兼顾,把解决当前突出问题与完善制度体系结合起来。从全局出发,统筹城乡、区域发展,兼顾供给方和需求方等各方利益,注重预防、治疗、康复三者的结合,正确处理政府、卫生机构、医药企业、医务人员和人民群众之间的关系。既着眼长远,创新体制机制,又立足当前,着力解决医药卫生事业中存在的突出问题。既注重整体设计,明确总体改革方向目标和基本框架,又突出重点,分步实施,积极稳妥地推进改革。
(3) Overall objectives for deepening the reform of the medical and health care system. We shall establish and improve a basic medical and health care system covering both urban and rural residents, which provides safe, effective, convenient and affordable medical and health care services for the people.
By 2011, a basic medical security system will have covered both urban and rural residents, a basic drug system will have been initially established, the grassroots medical and health service system in urban and rural areas will have been further improved, the universal access to basic public health services will have been realized, the pilot reform of public hospitals will have seen breakthroughs, the accessibility of the basic medical and health care services will have been significantly raised, the burden of medical costs on residents will have been effectively reduced, and the “difficulty in obtaining medical services and high medical expenses” will have been effectively eased.
By 2020, the basic medical and health care system covering both urban and rural residents will have been basically established. A relatively complete public health service system and medical service system, a relatively sound medical security system, a fairly standard drug supply safeguard system, and a relatively scientific management system and operation mechanism for medical and health institutions will have been established universally. A medical business layout with diversified participants will have been formed, a universal coverage of the basic medical and health care services will have been provided, the multi-level needs of the people for medical and health care will have been basically met, and the level of the people's health will have been further improved.
 (三)深化医药卫生体制改革的总体目标。建立健全覆盖城乡居民的基本医疗卫生制度,为群众提供安全、有效、方便、价廉的医疗卫生服务。
到2011年,基本医疗保障制度全面覆盖城乡居民,基本药物制度初步建立,城乡基层医疗卫生服务体系进一步健全,基本公共卫生服务得到普及,公立医院改革试点取得突破,明显提高基本医疗卫生服务可及性,有效减轻居民就医费用负担,切实缓解“看病难、看病贵”问题。
到2020年,覆盖城乡居民的基本医疗卫生制度基本建立。普遍建立比较完善的公共卫生服务体系和医疗服务体系,比较健全的医疗保障体系,比较规范的药品供应保障体系,比较科学的医疗卫生机构管理体制和运行机制,形成多元办医格局,人人享有基本医疗卫生服务,基本适应人民群众多层次的医疗卫生需求,人民群众健康水平进一步提高。
III. Improving the four major systems of medicine and health care and establishing a basic medical and health care system covering both urban and rural residents
We shall build a public health service system, a medical service system, a medical security system and a drug supply safeguard system covering both urban and rural residents, and form a four-in-one basic medical and health care system. The four systems shall supplement each other, be built in relation to each other and develop in a coordinated way.
   三、完善医药卫生四大体系,建立覆盖城乡居民的基本医疗卫生制度
建设覆盖城乡居民的公共卫生服务体系、医疗服务体系、医疗保障体系、药品供应保障体系,形成四位一体的基本医疗卫生制度。四大体系相辅相成,配套建设,协调发展。
(4) We shall strengthen the building of the public health service system on a full scale. We shall establish and improve the professional public health service network of disease prevention and control, health education, maternal and child health, mental health, first aid, blood collection and supply, health supervision, family planning, etc., improve the public health service functions of the medical and health service system based on the grassroots medical and health service network, establish a public health service system with a clear division of work, information exchange, resource sharing, coordination and interaction, improve the capacities to provide public health services and respond to and dispose of public health emergencies, and promote the equal access for urban and rural residents to basic public health services step by step.
We shall determine the scope of public health services. We shall clarify the items of national basic public health services, and gradually increase the contents of services. Local governments shall be encouraged to increase the contents of public health services according to the local level of economic development and conspicuous public health issues and on the basis of service items as prescribed by the central government.
We shall improve the public health service system. We shall further clarify the functions, objectives and tasks of the public health service system, optimize the allocation of personnel and equipment, and explore the effective forms of integration of the public health service resources. We shall improve the grave disease prevention and control system and the public health emergency response mechanism, strengthen the monitoring, prevention and control of infectious diseases, chronic diseases, endemics, occupational diseases, birth defects and other diseases that seriously threat the people's health, and strengthen the building of an urban and rural first aid system.
We shall strengthen health promotion and education. Medical and health care institutions, state organs, schools, communities, enterprises, etc. shall vigorously carry out health education, make full use of various media to enhance the dissemination of knowledge on health, medicine and health care, advocate a healthy and civilized lifestyle, promote reasonable nutrition of the people, and improve the health awareness and self-care ability of the people.
We shall carry out an in-depth patriotic health campaign. We shall bring the rural environmental health and environmental pollution control into the construction planning of the new socialist countryside, promote the construction of health cities and civilized villages and towns, and continuously improve the health environment in living, work, etc. of urban and rural residents.
We shall strengthen health supervision services. We shall vigorously promote the environmental health, food hygiene, occupational health, school health, as well as the health work of moving population such as rural migrant workers.
 (四)全面加强公共卫生服务体系建设。建立健全疾病预防控制、健康教育、妇幼保健、精神卫生、应急救治、采供血、卫生监督和计划生育等专业公共卫生服务网络,完善以基层医疗卫生服务网络为基础的医疗服务体系的公共卫生服务功能,建立分工明确、信息互通、资源共享、协调互动的公共卫生服务体系,提高公共卫生服务和突发公共卫生事件应急处置能力,促进城乡居民逐步享有均等化的基本公共卫生服务。
确定公共卫生服务范围。明确国家基本公共卫生服务项目,逐步增加服务内容。鼓励地方政府根据当地经济发展水平和突出的公共卫生问题,在中央规定服务项目的基础上增加公共卫生服务内容。
完善公共卫生服务体系。进一步明确公共卫生服务体系的职能、目标和任务,优化人员和设备配置,探索整合公共卫生服务资源的有效形式。完善重大疾病防控体系和突发公共卫生事件应急机制,加强对严重威胁人民健康的传染病、慢性病、地方病、职业病和出生缺陷等疾病的监测与预防控制。加强城乡急救体系建设。
加强健康促进与教育。医疗卫生机构及机关、学校、社区、企业等要大力开展健康教育,充分利用各种媒体,加强健康、医药卫生知识的传播,倡导健康文明的生活方式,促进公众合理营养,提高群众的健康意识和自我保健能力。
深入开展爱国卫生运动。将农村环境卫生与环境污染治理纳入社会主义新农村建设规划,推动卫生城市和文明村镇建设,不断改善城乡居民生活、工作等方面的卫生环境。
加强卫生监督服务。大力促进环境卫生、食品卫生、职业卫生、学校卫生,以及农民工等流动人口卫生工作。
(5) We shall further improve the medical service system. We shall adhere to the following principles for running medical services: taking nonprofit medical institutions as the mainstay and for-profit medical institutions as the supplement and letting the public medical institutions take the lead and the non-public medical institutions develop together, and build a medical service system with a reasonable structure and covering both urban and rural areas.
We shall vigorously develop the rural medical and health service system. We shall further improve the rural medical and health service network under the leadership of county-level hospitals and based on health clinics in townships and towns and infirmaries in villages. County-level hospitals, as the medical and health care centers in counties, shall be mainly responsible for the basic medical services and the rescue of critically ill or acute patients, and undertake the operational and technical guidance of health clinics in townships and towns and infirmaries in villages and training of health personnel. Health clinics in townships and towns shall be responsible for providing public health services and comprehensive services such as diagnosis and treatment of common or frequently-occurring diseases, and undertake the business management and technical guidance of infirmaries in villages. Infirmaries in villages shall undertake the public health services, diagnosis and treatment of common diseases, etc. in the administrative villages. Where conditions permit, rural areas shall adopt the integrated management of townships and villages. We shall actively promote the medical and health care infrastructure and capacity buildup in rural areas. The government shall focus on building county-level hospitals and well operate a health clinic in each town or township; take various measures to support the construction of infirmaries in villages so that each administrative village will have a village infirmary. We shall vigorously improve the medical and health care conditions in rural areas and enhance the service quality.
We shall improve a new type of urban medical and health service system based on community health service. We shall accelerate the construction of an urban community health service network that takes the community health service centers as the mainstay, improve service functions, and aiming at the health protection of community residents, provide public health services including disease prevention and control, primary diagnosis and treatment services for common diseases and frequently-occurring diseases, chronic disease management and rehabilitation services. We shall transform the mode of community health services, continuously raise the service level, insist on active service and doorstep service, and gradually fulfill their role of “gatekeeper” of the health of residents.
We shall improve the functions and responsibilities of all kinds of hospitals. We shall optimize the layout and structures, and give full play to the key roles of urban hospitals in the diagnosis and treatment of critical and acute illnesses as well as intractable diseases, medical education, scientific research, guidance and training of health personnel at the grassroots level, etc. Where conditions permit, large hospitals may promote the reasonable movement of medical resources in such manners as trusteeship and reorganization according to the requirements of regional health planning.
We shall establish the work division and coordination mechanism for urban hospitals and community health service institutions. Urban hospitals shall promote the sustainable development of community health services in such manners as technical support and personnel training. At the same time, we shall take such comprehensive measures as enhancing the service capability, lowering standards for charges and raising the proportion of cost reimbursement to guide the general diagnosis and treatment to descend to the community level, and gradually realize the initial diagnosis at the community level, graded medical services and two-way referral. We shall integrate urban health resources and make full use of existing urban primary and secondary hospitals, medical institutions subordinated to state-owned enterprises and public institutions, medical institutions operated by social forces and other resources to develop and improve community health service network.
We shall give full play to the role of traditional Chinese medicine (ethnic medicine) in disease prevention and control, response to public health emergencies and medical services. We shall strengthen the construction of clinical research bases of traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, and organize the project cooperation in using traditional Chinese medicine to prevent and control intractable diseases. We shall vigorously promote the appropriate technologies of traditional Chinese medicine in grassroots medical and health services. We shall adopt policies supporting the development of traditional Chinese medicine to promote the inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine.
We shall establish a system of urban hospitals' one-on-one assistance in rural medical and health care work. Developed regions shall increase the one-on-one assistance in poor and ethnic minority areas in developing their medical and health care cause. Urban large hospitals shall establish a long-term stable practice of one-on-one assistance and cooperation with county-level hospitals, and take approaches such as clinical services, personnel training, technical guidance and equipment support to help them improve their medical and service capabilities.
 (五)进一步完善医疗服务体系。坚持非营利性医疗机构为主体、营利性医疗机构为补充,公立医疗机构为主导、非公立医疗机构共同发展的办医原则,建设结构合理、覆盖城乡的医疗服务体系。
大力发展农村医疗卫生服务体系。进一步健全以县级医院为龙头、乡镇卫生院和村卫生室为基础的农村医疗卫生服务网络。县级医院作为县域内的医疗卫生中心,主要负责基本医疗服务及危重急症病人的抢救,并承担对乡镇卫生院、村卫生室的业务技术指导和卫生人员的进修培训;乡镇卫生院负责提供公共卫生服务和常见病、多发病的诊疗等综合服务,并承担对村卫生室的业务管理和技术指导;村卫生室承担行政村的公共卫生服务及一般疾病的诊治等工作。有条件的农村实行乡村一体化管理。积极推进农村医疗卫生基础设施和能力建设,政府重点办好县级医院,并在每个乡镇办好一所卫生院,采取多种形式支持村卫生室建设,使每个行政村都有一所村卫生室,大力改善农村医疗卫生条件,提高服务质量。
完善以社区卫生服务为基础的新型城市医疗卫生服务体系。加快建设以社区卫生服务中心为主体的城市社区卫生服务网络,完善服务功能,以维护社区居民健康为中心,提供疾病预防控制等公共卫生服务、一般常见病及多发病的初级诊疗服务、慢性病管理和康复服务。转变社区卫生服务模式,不断提高服务水平,坚持主动服务、上门服务,逐步承担起居民健康“守门人”的职责。
健全各类医院的功能和职责。优化布局和结构,充分发挥城市医院在危重急症和疑难病症的诊疗、医学教育和科研、指导和培训基层卫生人员等方面的骨干作用。有条件的大医院按照区域卫生规划要求,可以通过托管、重组等方式促进医疗资源合理流动。
建立城市医院与社区卫生服务机构的分工协作机制。城市医院通过技术支持、人员培训等方式,带动社区卫生服务持续发展。同时,采取增强服务能力、降低收费标准、提高报销比例等综合措施,引导一般诊疗下沉到基层,逐步实现社区首诊、分级医疗和双向转诊。整合城市卫生资源,充分利用城市现有一、二级医院及国有企事业单位所属医疗机构和社会力量举办的医疗机构等资源,发展和完善社区卫生服务网络。
充分发挥中医药(民族医药)在疾病预防控制、应对突发公共卫生事件、医疗服务中的作用。加强中医临床研究基地和中医院建设,组织开展中医药防治疑难疾病的联合攻关。在基层医疗卫生服务中,大力推广中医药适宜技术。采取扶持中医药发展政策,促进中医药继承和创新。
建立城市医院对口支援农村医疗卫生工作的制度。发达地区要加强对口支援贫困地区和少数民族地区发展医疗卫生事业。城市大医院要与县级医院建立长期稳定的对口支援和合作制度,采取临床服务、人员培训、技术指导、设备支援等方式,帮助其提高医疗水平和服务能力。
(6) We shall speed up the building of the medical security system. We shall speed up the establishment and improvement of a multi-level medical security system focusing on the basic medical security, supplemented by other various forms of supplementary medical insurance and commercial health insurance and covering both urban and rural residents.
......
 (六)加快建设医疗保障体系。加快建立和完善以基本医疗保障为主体,其他多种形式补充医疗保险和商业健康保险为补充,覆盖城乡居民的多层次医疗保障体系。
建立覆盖城乡居民的基本医疗保障体系。城镇职工基本医疗保险、城镇居民基本医疗保险、新型农村合作医疗和城乡医疗救助共同组成基本医疗保障体系,分别覆盖城镇就业人口、城镇非就业人口、农村人口和城乡困难人群。坚持广覆盖、保基本、可持续的原则,从重点保障大病起步,逐步向门诊小病延伸,不断提高保障水平。建立国家、单位、家庭和个人责任明确、分担合理的多渠道筹资机制,实现社会互助共济。随着经济社会发展,逐步提高筹资水平和统筹层次,缩小保障水平差距,最终实现制度框架的基本统一。进一步完善城镇职工基本医疗保险制度,加快覆盖就业人口,重点解决国有关闭破产企业、困难企业等职工和退休人员,以及非公有制经济组织从业人员和灵活就业人员的基本医疗保险问题;2009年全面推开城镇居民基本医疗保险,重视解决老人、残疾人和儿童的基本医疗保险问题;全面实施新型农村合作医疗制度,逐步提高政府补助水平,适当增加农民缴费,提高保障能力;完善城乡医疗救助制度,对困难人群参保及其难以负担的医疗费用提供补助,筑牢医疗保障底线。探索建立城乡一体化的基本医疗保障管理制度。
......



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