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Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China (2012 Amendment) [Revised]
中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法(2012修正) [已被修订]
【法宝引证码】
 
  

 

Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China
(Adopted at the 2nd Session of the Fifth National People's Congress on July 1, 1979; amended for the first time in accordance with the Decision on Amending the Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 4th Session of the Eighth National People's Congress on March 17, 1996; and amended for the second time in accordance with the Decision on Amending the Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 5th Session of the Eleventh National People's Congress on March 14, 2012)
 

中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法
(1979年7月1日第五届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过 根据1996年3月17日第八届全国人民代表大会第四次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法〉的决定》第一次修正 根据2012年3月14日第十一届全国人民代表大会第五次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法〉的决定》第二次修正)


Table of Contents
 目 录
Part One: General Provisions
 第一编 总 则
Chapter I: Objectives and Basic Principles
 第一章 任务和基本原则
Chapter II: Jurisdiction
 第二章 管 辖
Chapter III: Disqualification
 第三章 回 避
Chapter IV: Defense and Representation
 第四章 辩护与代理
Chapter V: Evidence
 第五章 证 据
Chapter VI: Compulsory Measures
 第六章 强制措施
Chapter VII: Incidental Civil Actions
 第七章 附带民事诉讼
Chapter VIII: Periods and Service of Process
 第八章 期间、送达
Chapter IX: Other Provisions
 第九章 其他规定
Part Two: Opening a Case, Criminal Investigation, and Initiation of Public Prosecution
 第二编 立案、侦查和提起公诉
Chapter I: Opening a Case
 第一章 立 案
Chapter II: Criminal Investigation
 第二章 侦 查
Section 1: General Rules
 第一节 一般规定
Section 2: Interrogation of Criminal Suspects
 第二节 讯问犯罪嫌疑人
Section 3: Interviewing Witnesses
 第三节 询问证人
Section 4: Crime Scene Investigation and Examination
 第四节 勘验、检查
Section 5: Search
 第五节 搜 查
Section 6: Seizure and Impoundment of Physical Evidence and Documentary Evidence
 第六节 查封、扣押物证、书证
Section 7: Forensic Identification and Evaluation
 第七节 鉴 定
Section 8: Technical Investigation Measures
 第八节 技术侦查措施
Section 9: Wanted Notices
 第九节 通 缉
Section 10: Close of Criminal Investigation
 第十节 侦查终结
Section 11: Criminal Investigation of Cases Directly Accepted by People's Procuratorates
 第十一节 人民检察院对直接受理的案件的侦查
Chapter III: Initiation of Public Prosecution
 第三章 提起公诉
Part Three: Trial
 第三编 审 判
Chapter I: Trial Organizations
 第一章 审判组织
Chapter II: Procedures at First Instance
 第二章 第一审程序
Section 1: Cases of Public Prosecution
 第一节 公诉案件
Section 2: Cases of Private Prosecution
 第二节 自诉案件
Section 3: Summary Procedures
 第三节 简易程序
Chapter III: Procedures at Second Instance
 第三章 第二审程序
Chapter IV: Procedures for Review of Death Sentences
 第四章 死刑复核程序
Chapter V: Trial Supervision Procedures
 第五章 审判监督程序
Part Four: Execution
 第四编 执 行
Part Five: Special Procedures
 第五编 特别程序
Chapter I: Procedures for Juvenile Criminal Cases
 第一章 未成年人刑事案件诉讼程序
Chapter II: Procedures for Public Prosecution Cases Where Parties Have Reached Settlement
 第二章 当事人和解的公诉案件诉讼程序
Chapter III: Confiscation Procedures for Illegal Income in Cases Where a Criminal Suspect or Defendant Escapes or Dies
 第三章 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人逃匿、死亡案件违法所得的没收程序
Chapter IV: Procedures for Involuntary Medical Treatment of Mental Patients Legally Exempted from Criminal Liability
 第四章 依法不负刑事责任的精神病人的强制医疗程序
Part One: General Provisions
 

第一编 总 则


Chapter I: Objectives and Basic Principles
 

第一章 任务和基本原则


Article 1 To ensure correct enforcement of the Criminal Law, punish crimes, protect the people, protect national security and public security, and maintain the order of socialist society, this Law is formulated in accordance with the Constitution.
   第一条 为了保证刑法的正确实施,惩罚犯罪,保护人民,保障国家安全和社会公共安全,维护社会主义社会秩序,根据宪法,制定本法。
Article 2 The objectives of the Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China are to ensure the accurate and timely finding of criminal facts and correct application of law, punish criminals, ensure that innocent people are not incriminated, raise citizens' awareness of abiding by law and combating crimes, safeguard the socialist legal system, respect and protect human rights, protect the personal rights, property rights, democratic rights, and other rights of citizens, and ensure smooth socialist construction.
   第二条 中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法的任务,是保证准确、及时地查明犯罪事实,正确应用法律,惩罚犯罪分子,保障无罪的人不受刑事追究,教育公民自觉遵守法律,积极同犯罪行为作斗争,维护社会主义法制,尊重和保障人权,保护公民的人身权利、财产权利、民主权利和其他权利,保障社会主义建设事业的顺利进行。
Article 3 Public security authorities are responsible for criminal investigation, detention, execution of arrest warrants, and interrogation in criminal cases. People's Procuratorates are responsible for procuratorial supervision, approval of arrests, investigation of cases directly accepted by procuratorial authorities, and initiation of public prosecution. People's Courts are responsible for trial and sentencing. Except as otherwise provided for by law, no other authority, organization, or individual shall exercise such powers.In criminal procedures, people's courts, people's procuratorates, and public security authorities must strictly abide by this Law and relevant provisions of other laws.

   第三条 对刑事案件的侦查、拘留、执行逮捕、预审,由公安机关负责。检察、批准逮捕、检察机关直接受理的案件的侦查、提起公诉,由人民检察院负责。审判由人民法院负责。除法律特别规定的以外,其他任何机关、团体和个人都无权行使这些权力。
人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关进行刑事诉讼,必须严格遵守本法和其他法律的有关规定。
Article 4 National security authorities shall, in accordance with law, handle criminal cases regarding compromising national security and perform the same functions as those of public security authorities.
   第四条 国家安全机关依照法律规定,办理危害国家安全的刑事案件,行使与公安机关相同的职权。
Article 5 People's courts shall exercise judicial powers independently in accordance with law, and people's procuratorates shall exercise procuratorial powers independently in accordance with law, without interference by any government authority, social organization, or individual.
   第五条 人民法院依照法律规定独立行使审判权,人民检察院依照法律规定独立行使检察权,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。
Article 6 In criminal procedures, people's courts, people's procuratorates, and public security authorities must rely on the masses and base their activities on facts and law. Law applies equally to all citizens, and no privilege is allowed before law.
   第六条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关进行刑事诉讼,必须依靠群众,必须以事实为根据,以法律为准绳。对于一切公民,在适用法律上一律平等,在法律面前,不允许有任何特权。
Article 7 In criminal procedures, people's courts, people's procuratorates, and public security authorities shall, according to their division of functions, coordinate and check each other to ensure correct and effective enforcement of law.
   第七条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关进行刑事诉讼,应当分工负责,互相配合,互相制约,以保证准确有效地执行法律。
Article 8 People's procuratorates shall conduct legal supervision over criminal procedure in accordance with law.
   第八条 人民检察院依法对刑事诉讼实行法律监督。
Article 9 Citizens of all nationalities shall have the right to use their native languages in litigation. People's courts, people's procuratorates, and public security authorities shall provide interpretation for litigation participants who are not familiar with the commonly used local language.In a region where an ethnic minority concentrates or multiple ethnic groups live together, interrogation and trial shall be conducted in the commonly used local language, and sentences, notices, and other documents shall be issued in the commonly used local language.

   第九条 各民族公民都有用本民族语言文字进行诉讼的权利。人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关对于不通晓当地通用的语言文字的诉讼参与人,应当为他们翻译。
在少数民族聚居或者多民族杂居的地区,应当用当地通用的语言进行审讯,用当地通用的文字发布判决书、布告和其他文件。
Article 10 After trial by a people's court of second instance, a case is closed.
   第十条 人民法院审判案件,实行两审终审制。
Article 11 People's courts shall hear cases in open court, except as otherwise provided for by this Law. A defendant shall have the right to defense, and a people's court shall have the duty to ensure that a defendant acquires defense.
   第十一条 人民法院审判案件,除本法另有规定的以外,一律公开进行。被告人有权获得辩护,人民法院有义务保证被告人获得辩护。
Article 12 No person shall be found guilty without being judged so by a people's court in accordance with law.
   第十二条 未经人民法院依法判决,对任何人都不得确定有罪。
Article 13 In trying cases, people's courts shall apply the people's assessor system in accordance with this Law.
   第十三条 人民法院审判案件,依照本法实行人民陪审员陪审的制度。
Article 14 People's courts, people's procuratorates, and public security authorities shall protect the defense right and other procedural rights legally enjoyed by criminal suspects, defendants, and other litigation participants.Litigation participants shall have the right to file accusations against judges, prosecutors, and investigators who infringe upon their procedural rights or inflict personal insult on them.

   第十四条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关应当保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人和其他诉讼参与人依法享有的辩护权和其他诉讼权利。
诉讼参与人对于审判人员、检察人员和侦查人员侵犯公民诉讼权利和人身侮辱的行为,有权提出控告。
Article 15 Under any of the following circumstances, a person shall not be subject to criminal liability, and if any criminal procedure has been initiated against such a person, the case shall be dismissed, a non-prosecution decision shall be made, the trial shall be terminated, or the person shall be acquitted:
   第十五条 有下列情形之一的,不追究刑事责任,已经追究的,应当撤销案件,或者不起诉,或者终止审理,或者宣告无罪:
(1) the circumstances of the alleged conduct are obviously minor, causing no serious harm, and the alleged conduct is therefore not deemed a crime;
 (一)情节显著轻微、危害不大,不认为是犯罪的;
(2) the time limitation for criminal prosecution has expired;
 (二)犯罪已过追诉时效期限的;
(3) exemption of criminal punishment has been granted in a special amnesty decree;
 (三)经特赦令免除刑罚的;
(4) the alleged crime is handled only upon a complaint in accordance with the Criminal Law, but there is no such a complaint or the complaint has been withdrawn;
 (四)依照刑法告诉才处理的犯罪,没有告诉或者撤回告诉的;
(5) the criminal suspect or defendant dies; or
 (五)犯罪嫌疑人、被告人死亡的;
(6) the person is otherwise exempted by law from criminal liability.
 (六)其他法律规定免予追究刑事责任的。
Article 16 Where a foreigner commits a crime and shall be subject to criminal liability, this Law shall apply.Where a foreigner with diplomatic privileges and immunities commits a crime and shall be subject to criminal liability, the case shall be resolved through diplomatic channels.

   第十六条 对于外国人犯罪应当追究刑事责任的,适用本法的规定。
对于享有外交特权和豁免权的外国人犯罪应当追究刑事责任的,通过外交途径解决。
Article 17 In accordance with the international treaties which the People's Republic of China has concluded or acceded to or under the principle of reciprocity, the judicial authorities of China and a foreign country may request judicial assistance from each other in criminal matters.
   第十七条 根据中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约,或者按照互惠原则,我国司法机关和外国司法机关可以相互请求刑事司法协助。
Chapter II: Jurisdiction
 

第二章 管 辖


Article 18 Investigation of criminal cases shall be conducted by public security authorities, except as otherwise provided for by law.Cases regarding a crime of embezzlement or bribery, malfeasance by a state employee, or violation of a citizen's personal rights, such as false imprisonment, extortion of confessions by torture, circumvention for retaliation, or illegal search, or a citizen's democratic rights by an employee of a government authority by taking advantage of his or her functions shall be opened and investigated by people's procuratorates. Any other significant case regarding a crime committed by an employee of a government authority by taking advantage of his or her functions, which requires direct acceptance by a people's procuratorate, may be opened and investigated by the people's procuratorate upon a decision of the people's procuratorate at or above the provincial level.Cases of private prosecution shall be directly accepted by people's courts.
   第十八条 刑事案件的侦查由公安机关进行,法律另有规定的除外。贪污贿赂犯罪,国家工作人员的渎职犯罪,国家机关工作人员利用职权实施的非法拘禁、刑讯逼供、报复陷害、非法搜查的侵犯公民人身权利的犯罪以及侵犯公民民主权利的犯罪,由人民检察院立案侦查。对于国家机关工作人员利用职权实施的其他重大的犯罪案件,需要由人民检察院直接受理的时候,经省级以上人民检察院决定,可以由人民检察院立案侦查。自诉案件,由人民法院直接受理。
Article 19 A basic people's court shall have jurisdiction over ordinary criminal cases as a court of first instance, except those under the jurisdiction of the people's court at a higher level as provided for by this Law.
   第十九条 基层人民法院管辖第一审普通刑事案件,但是依照本法由上级人民法院管辖的除外。
Article 20 An intermediate people's court shall have jurisdiction over the following criminal cases as a court of first instance:
   第二十条 中级人民法院管辖下列第一审刑事案件:
(1) a case regarding compromising national security or terrorist activities; and
 (一)危害国家安全、恐怖活动案件;
(2) a case regarding a crime punishable by life imprisonment or death penalty.
 (二)可能判处无期徒刑、死刑的案件。
Article 21 A higher people's court shall have jurisdiction over criminal cases which are significant in a province (or an autonomous region or municipality directly under the Central Government) as a court of first instance.
   第二十一条 高级人民法院管辖的第一审刑事案件,是全省(自治区、直辖市)性的重大刑事案件。
Article 22 The Supreme People's Court shall have jurisdiction over criminal cases which are significant in the entire nation as a court of first instance.
   第二十二条 最高人民法院管辖的第一审刑事案件,是全国性的重大刑事案件。
Article 23 When necessary, a people's court at a higher level may try a criminal case under the jurisdiction of a people's court at a lower level as a court of first instance; and when a people's court at a lower level as a court of first instance deems that a criminal case is significant or complicated and needs to be tried by a people's court at a higher level, it may request that the case be transferred to the people's court at the next higher level for trial.
   第二十三条 上级人民法院在必要的时候,可以审判下级人民法院管辖的第一审刑事案件;下级人民法院认为案情重大、复杂需要由上级人民法院审判的第一审刑事案件,可以请求移送上一级人民法院审判。
Article 24 A criminal case shall be under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place of crime. Where it is more appropriate for the case to be tried by the people's court at the place of residence of the defendant, the case may be under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place of residence of the defendant.
   第二十四条 刑事案件由犯罪地的人民法院管辖。如果由被告人居住地的人民法院审判更为适宜的,可以由被告人居住地的人民法院管辖。
Article 25 Where two or more people's courts at the same level all have jurisdiction over a case, the case shall be tried by the people's court which first accepts the case. When necessary, the case may be transferred for trial by the people's court at the principal place ofcrime.
   第二十五条 几个同级人民法院都有权管辖的案件,由最初受理的人民法院审判。在必要的时候,可以移送主要犯罪地的人民法院审判。
Article 26 A people's court at a higher level may designate that a people's court at a lower level try a case over which jurisdiction is unclear or designate that a people's court at a lower level transfer a case to another people's court for trial.
   第二十六条 上级人民法院可以指定下级人民法院审判管辖不明的案件,也可以指定下级人民法院将案件移送其他人民法院审判。
Article 27 The jurisdiction of specialized people's courts shall be provided for separately.
   第二十七条 专门人民法院案件的管辖另行规定。
Chapter III: Disqualification
 

第三章 回 避


Article 28 Under any of the following circumstances, a judge, prosecutor, or investigator shall voluntarily disqualify himself or herself, and a party or his or her legal representative shall have the right to request the disqualification thereof:
   第二十八条 审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员有下列情形之一的,应当自行回避,当事人及其法定代理人也有权要求他们回避:
(1) the judge, prosecutor, or investigator is a party to the case or a close relative of a party to the case;
 (一)是本案的当事人或者是当事人的近亲属的;
(2) the judge, prosecutor, or investigator or his or her close relative is an interested party to the case;
 (二)本人或者他的近亲属和本案有利害关系的;
(3) the judge, prosecutor, or investigator once served as a witness, identification or evaluation expert, defender, or litigation representative in the case; or
 (三)担任过本案的证人、鉴定人、辩护人、诉讼代理人的;
(4) the judge, prosecutor, or investigator has any other relationship with a party, which may affect the just handling of the case.
 (四)与本案当事人有其他关系,可能影响公正处理案件的。
Article 29 Judges, prosecutors, and investigators shall not accept treats and gifts from the parties and their agents and shall meet the parties and their agents in violation of relevant legal provisions.A judge, prosecutor, or investigator who violates the provision of the preceding paragraph shall be subject to legal liability. A party or his or her legal representative shall have the right to request disqualification thereof.
   第二十九条 审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员不得接受当事人及其委托的人的请客送礼,不得违反规定会见当事人及其委托的人。审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员违反前款规定的,应当依法追究法律责任。当事人及其法定代理人有权要求他们回避。
Article 30 The disqualification of a judge, prosecutor, or investigator shall be decided respectively by the president of a people's court, the president of a people's procuratorate, and the chief of a public security authority; the disqualification of the president of a people's court shall be decided by the judicial committee of the court; and the disqualification of the president of a people's procuratorate or the chief of a public security authority at the same level shall be decided by the procuratorial committee of the people's procuratorate.Before a decision is made on the disqualification of an investigator, the investigator shall not suspend the investigation of the case.Against a decision that dismisses a request for disqualification, the party or his or her legal representative may apply for reconsideration once.
   第三十条 审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员的回避,应当分别由院长、检察长、公安机关负责人决定;院长的回避,由本院审判委员会决定;检察长和公安机关负责人的回避,由同级人民检察院检察委员会决定。对侦查人员的回避作出决定前,侦查人员不能停止对案件的侦查。对驳回申请回避的决定,当事人及其法定代理人可以申请复议一次。
Article 31 The disqualification provisions of this Chapter shall also apply to court clerks, interpreters, and identification or evaluation experts.Defenders and litigation representatives may request disqualification and apply for reconsideration according to the provisions of this Chapter.
   第三十一条 本章关于回避的规定适用于书记员、翻译人员和鉴定人。辩护人、诉讼代理人可以依照本章的规定要求回避、申请复议。
Chapter IV: Defense and Representation
 

第四章 辩护与代理


Article 32 In addition to defending himself or herself, a criminal suspect or defendant may retain one or two defenders. The following persons may serve as defenders:
   第三十二条 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人除自己行使辩护权以外,还可以委托一至二人作为辩护人。下列的人可以被委托为辩护人:
(1) a lawyer;
 (一)律师;
(2) a person recommended by a people's organization or the employer of a criminal suspect or defendant; and
 (二)人民团体或者犯罪嫌疑人、被告人所在单位推荐的人;
(3) a guardian, relative, or friend of a criminal suspect or defendant.A person who is serving a criminal sentence or whose personal freedom is deprived of or restricted in accordance with law shall not serve as a defender.
 (三)犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的监护人、亲友。正在被执行刑罚或者依法被剥夺、限制人身自由的人,不得担任辩护人。
Article 33 A criminal suspect shall have the right to retain a defender from the day when the criminal suspect is interrogated by a criminal investigation authority for the first time or from the day when a compulsory measure is taken against the criminal suspect; during the period of criminal investigation, a criminal suspect may only retain a lawyer as a defender. A defendant shall have the right to retain a defender at any time.When a criminal investigation authority interrogates a criminal suspect for the first time or takes a compulsory measure against the criminal suspect, it shall inform the criminal suspect that the criminal suspect has the right to retain a defender. A people's procuratorate shall, within three days after receiving the case file transferred for examination and prosecution, inform a criminal suspect that the criminal suspect has the right to retain a defender. A people's court shall, within three days after accepting a case, inform a defendant that the defendant has the right to retain a defender. If a criminal suspect or defendant in custody files a request for retaining a defender, the people's court, people's procuratorate, and public security authority shall convey such a request in a timely manner.For a criminal suspect or defendant in custody, his or her guardian or close relative may retain a defender on his or her behalf.After accepting representation of a criminal suspect or defendant, a defender shall inform the case-handling authority in a timely manner.
   第三十三条 犯罪嫌疑人自被侦查机关第一次讯问或者采取强制措施之日起,有权委托辩护人;在侦查期间,只能委托律师作为辩护人。被告人有权随时委托辩护人。侦查机关在第一次讯问犯罪嫌疑人或者对犯罪嫌疑人采取强制措施的时候,应当告知犯罪嫌疑人有权委托辩护人。人民检察院自收到移送审查起诉的案件材料之日起三日以内,应当告知犯罪嫌疑人有权委托辩护人。人民法院自受理案件之日起三日以内,应当告知被告人有权委托辩护人。犯罪嫌疑人、被告人在押期间要求委托辩护人的,人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关应当及时转达其要求。犯罪嫌疑人、被告人在押的,也可以由其监护人、近亲属代为委托辩护人。辩护人接受犯罪嫌疑人、被告人委托后,应当及时告知办理案件的机关。
Article 34 Where a criminal suspect or defendant has not retained a defender for financial hardship or other reasons, the criminal suspect or defendant or his or her close relative may file an application with a legal aid agency. If the legal aid conditions are met, the legal aid agency shall designate a lawyer to defend him or her.Where a criminal suspect or defendant suffers vision, hearing, or speech impairment or is a mental patient who has not completely lost the ability to recognize or control his or her behavior, if he or she has not retained a defender, the people's court, people's procuratorate, and public security authority shall notify a legal aid agency to designate a lawyer to defend him or her.Where a criminal suspect or defendant who may be sentenced to life imprisonment or death penalty has not retained a defender, the people's court, people's procuratorate, and public security authority shall notify a legal aid agency to designate a lawyer to defend him or her.
   第三十四条 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人因经济困难或者其他原因没有委托辩护人的,本人及其近亲属可以向法律援助机构提出申请。对符合法律援助条件的,法律援助机构应当指派律师为其提供辩护。犯罪嫌疑人、被告人是盲、聋、哑人,或者是尚未完全丧失辨认或者控制自己行为能力的精神病人,没有委托辩护人的,人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关应当通知法律援助机构指派律师为其提供辩护。犯罪嫌疑人、被告人可能被判处无期徒刑、死刑,没有委托辩护人的,人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关应当通知法律援助机构指派律师为其提供辩护。
Article 35 The duties of a defender are to present materials and opinions regarding the innocence of a criminal suspect or defendant, pettiness of a crime, or mitigation of or exemption from criminal liability and protect the procedural rights and other lawful rights and interests of a criminal suspect or defendant, in accordance with facts and law.
   第三十五条 辩护人的责任是根据事实和法律,提出犯罪嫌疑人、被告人无罪、罪轻或者减轻、免除其刑事责任的材料和意见,维护犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的诉讼权利和其他合法权益。
Article 36 During the period of criminal investigation, a defense lawyer may provide legal assistance for a criminal suspect, file petitions and accusations on behalf of a criminal suspect, apply for modifying a compulsory measure, learn the charges against a criminal suspect and relevant case information from the criminal investigation authority, and offer opinions
   第三十六条 辩护律师在侦查期间可以为犯罪嫌疑人提供法律帮助;代理申诉、控告;申请变更强制措施;向侦查机关了解犯罪嫌疑人涉嫌的罪名和案件有关情况,提出意见。
Article 37 A defense lawyer may meet and communicate with a criminal suspect or defendant in custody. As permitted by the people's court or people's procuratorate, a defender other than a defense lawyer may also meet and communicate with a criminal suspect or defendant in custody. When a defense lawyer files a request for a meeting with a criminal suspect or defendant in custody on the basis of the lawyer's practicing license, a certificate issued by the law firm, and a power of attorney or an official legal aid document, a jail shall arrange a meeting in a timely manner, no later than 48 hours after the request is filed.Where a defense lawyer files a request during the period of criminal investigation for a meeting with a criminal suspect in custody who is suspected of compromising national security, terrorist activities, or extraordinarily significant bribery, the meeting shall be subject to the permission of the criminal investigation authority. In such a case, the criminal investigation authority shall issue a prior notice to the jail.At a meeting with a criminal suspect or defendant in custody, a defense lawyer may learn relevant case information and provide legal advice and other services, and from the day when the case is transferred for examination and prosecution, may verify relevant evidence with the criminal suspect or defendant. A meeting between a defense lawyer and a criminal suspect or defendant shall not be monitored.Where a defense lawyer meets or communicates with a criminal suspect or defendant under residential confinement, paragraphs 1, 3 and 4 hereof shall apply.
   第三十七条 辩护律师可以同在押的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人会见和通信。其他辩护人经人民法院、人民检察院许可,也可以同在押的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人会见和通信。辩护律师持律师执业证书、律师事务所证明和委托书或者法律援助公函要求会见在押的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的,看守所应当及时安排会见,至迟不得超过四十八小时。危害国家安全犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪、特别重大贿赂犯罪案件,在侦查期间辩护律师会见在押的犯罪嫌疑人,应当经侦查机关许可。上述案件,侦查机关应当事先通知看守所。辩护律师会见在押的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,可以了解案件有关情况,提供法律咨询等;自案件移送审查起诉之日起,可以向犯罪嫌疑人、被告人核实有关证据。辩护律师会见犯罪嫌疑人、被告人时不被监听。辩护律师同被监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人会见、通信,适用第一款、第三款、第四款的规定。
Article 38 A defense lawyer may, from the day when the people's procuratorate examines a case for prosecution, consult, extract, and duplicate case materials. As permitted by the people's court or people's procuratorate, a defender other than a defense lawyer may also consult, extract, and duplicate such materials.
   第三十八条 辩护律师自人民检察院对案件审查起诉之日起,可以查阅、摘抄、复制本案的案卷材料。其他辩护人经人民法院、人民检察院许可,也可以查阅、摘抄、复制上述材料。
Article 39 Where a defender believes that any evidence gathered by the public security authority or people's procuratorate during the period of criminal investigation or examination and prosecution regarding the innocence of a criminal suspect or defendant or the pettiness of crime has not been submitted, the defender shall have the right to apply to the people's procuratorate or people's court for submission of such evidence.
   第三十九条 辩护人认为在侦查、审查起诉期间公安机关、人民检察院收集的证明犯罪嫌疑人、被告人无罪或者罪轻的证据材料未提交的,有权申请人民检察院、人民法院调取。
Article 40 A defender shall inform the public security authority or people's procuratorate in a timely manner of evidence gathered regarding a criminal suspect's alibi or the fact that the criminal suspect has not attained the age for criminal liability or is a mental patient exempted from criminal liability
   第四十条 辩护人收集的有关犯罪嫌疑人不在犯罪现场、未达到刑事责任年龄、属于依法不负刑事责任的精神病人的证据,应当及时告知公安机关、人民检察院。
Article 41 A defense lawyer may gather information regarding a case from a witness or any other relevant entity or individual with the consent thereof, and may also apply to the people's procuratorate or people's court for gathering or submission of evidence or apply to the people's court for notifying a witness to testify before court.A defense lawyer may gather information regarding a case from a victim or his or her close relatives or a witness provided by a victim with the consent thereof and permission of the people's procuratorate or people's court.
   第四十一条 辩护律师经证人或者其他有关单位和个人同意,可以向他们收集与本案有关的材料,也可以申请人民检察院、人民法院收集、调取证据,或者申请人民法院通知证人出庭作证。辩护律师经人民检察院或者人民法院许可,并且经被害人或者其近亲属、被害人提供的证人同意,可以向他们收集与本案有关的材料。
Article 42 No defender or other person shall help a criminal suspect or defendant conceal, destroy, or forge evidence or make a false confession in collusion, intimidate or induce a witness into committing perjury, or otherwise interfere with the procedures of judicial authorities.Whoever violates the preceding paragraph shall be subject to legal liability, and a defender suspected of a crime shall be handled by a criminal investigation authority other than the one handling the case in which the defender provides representation. If the defender is a lawyer, the law firm employing the lawyer or the bar association to which the lawyer belongs shall be informed in a timely manner.
   第四十二条 辩护人或者其他任何人,不得帮助犯罪嫌疑人、被告人隐匿、毁灭、伪造证据或者串供,不得威胁、引诱证人作伪证以及进行其他干扰司法机关诉讼活动的行为。违反前款规定的,应当依法追究法律责任,辩护人涉嫌犯罪的,应当由办理辩护人所承办案件的侦查机关以外的侦查机关办理。辩护人是律师的,应当及时通知其所在的律师事务所或者所属的律师协会。
Article 43 At trial, a defendant may refuse to continue retaining a defender and may retain another defender.
   第四十三条 在审判过程中,被告人可以拒绝辩护人继续为他辩护,也可以另行委托辩护人辩护。
Article 44 A victim or his or her legal representative or close relative in a case of public prosecution or a party or his or her legal representative in an incidental civil action shall have the right to retain a litigation representative from the day when the case is transferred for examination and prosecution. A private prosecutor or his or her legal representative in a case of private prosecution or a party or his or her legal representative in an incidental civil action shall have the right to retain a litigation representative at any time.A people's procuratorate shall, within three days from the date of receiving the case file transferred for examination and prosecution, inform a victim and his or her legal representative or close relative and the parties and their legal representatives in an incidental civil action of their right to retain alitigation representative. A people's court shall, within three days from the date of accepting a case of private prosecution, inform the private prosecutor and his or her legal representative and the parties and their legal representatives in an incidental civil action of their right to retain a litigation representative.
   第四十四条 公诉案件的被害人及其法定代理人或者近亲属,附带民事诉讼的当事人及其法定代理人,自案件移送审查起诉之日起,有权委托诉讼代理人。自诉案件的自诉人及其法定代理人,附带民事诉讼的当事人及其法定代理人,有权随时委托诉讼代理人。人民检察院自收到移送审查起诉的案件材料之日起三日以内,应当告知被害人及其法定代理人或者其近亲属、附带民事诉讼的当事人及其法定代理人有权委托诉讼代理人。人民法院自受理自诉案件之日起三日以内,应当告知自诉人及其法定代理人、附带民事诉讼的当事人及其法定代理人有权委托诉讼代理人。
Article 45 Litigation representatives shall be retained by referrence to the provisions of Article 32 of this Law.
   第四十五条 委托诉讼代理人,参照本法第三十二条的规定执行。
Article 46 A defense lawyer shall have the right to keep confidential the conditions and information regarding a client known in the practice of law. However, if knowing in the practice of law that a client or any other person is preparing for or is committing a crime compromising national security or public security or seriously damaging the personal safety of others, a defense lawyer shall inform a judicial authority in a timely manner.
   第四十六条 辩护律师对在执业活动中知悉的委托人的有关情况和信息,有权予以保密。但是,辩护律师在执业活动中知悉委托人或者其他人,准备或者正在实施危害国家安全、公共安全以及严重危害他人人身安全的犯罪的,应当及时告知司法机关。
Article 47 A defender or litigation representative who believes that a public security authority, a people' procuratorate, a people's court or any staff member thereof has impeded his or her exercise of procedural rights, shall have the right to file a petition or accusation with the people's procuratorate at the same level or at the next higher level. The people's procuratorate shall examine the petition or accusation in a timely manner and, if it is true, notify the authority involved to make correction.
   第四十七条 辩护人、诉讼代理人认为公安机关、人民检察院、人民法院及其工作人员阻碍其依法行使诉讼权利的,有权向同级或者上一级人民检察院申诉或者控告。人民检察院对申诉或者控告应当及时进行审查,情况属实的,通知有关机关予以纠正。
Chapter V: Evidence
 

第五章 证 据


Article 48 All materials that may be used to prove the facts of a case are evidence.Evidence includes:
   第四十八条 可以用于证明案件事实的材料,都是证据。证据包括:
(1) physical evidence;
 (一)物证;
(2) documentary evidence;
 (二)书证;
(3) witness statement;
 (三)证人证言;
(4) victim statement;
 (四)被害人陈述;
(5) confession and defense of a criminal suspect or defendant;
 (五)犯罪嫌疑人、被告人供述和辩解;
(6) expert opinion;
 (六)鉴定意见;
(7) transcripts of crime scene investigation, examination, identification, and investigative reenactment; and
 (七)勘验、检查、辨认、侦查实验等笔录;
(8) audio-visual recordings and electronic data.Evidence must be verified before being used as a basis for deciding a case.
 (八)视听资料、电子数据。证据必须经过查证属实,才能作为定案的根据。
Article 49 The burden of proof of guilty of the defendant in a public prosecution case shall fall on the people's procuratorate, while that in a private prosecution case shall fall on the private prosecutor.
   第四十九条 公诉案件中被告人有罪的举证责任由人民检察院承担,自诉案件中被告人有罪的举证责任由自诉人承担。
Article 50 Judges, prosecutors, and criminal investigators must, under legal procedures, gather various kinds of evidence that can prove the guilt or innocence of a criminal suspect or defendant and the gravity of crime. It shall be strictly prohibited to extort confessions by torture, gather evidence by threat, enticement, deceit, or other illegal means, or force anyone to commit self-incrimination. It must be ensured that all citizens who are involved in a case or have information regarding a case can objectively and fully provide evidence, and, except under special circumstances, such citizens may be required to assist investigation.
   第五十条 审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员必须依照法定程序,收集能够证实犯罪嫌疑人、被告人有罪或者无罪、犯罪情节轻重的各种证据。严禁刑讯逼供和以威胁、引诱、欺骗以及其他非法方法收集证据,不得强迫任何人证实自己有罪。必须保证一切与案件有关或者了解案情的公民,有客观地充分地提供证据的条件,除特殊情况外,可以吸收他们协助调查。
Article 51 A written request of a public security authority for approval of an arrest, an indictment of a people's procuratorate, and a sentence of people's court must be consistent with the truth. Where truth is withheld intentionally, liability shall be investigated.
   第五十一条 公安机关提请批准逮捕书、人民检察院起诉书、人民法院判决书,必须忠实于事实真象。故意隐瞒事实真象的,应当追究责任。
Article 52 A people's court, a people's procuratorate, and a public security authority shall have the authority to gather or require submission of evidence from the relevant entities and individuals. The relevant entities and individuals shall provide true evidence.Physical evidence, documentary evidence, audio-visual recordings, electronic data, and other evidence gathered by an administrative authority in the process of law enforcement and case investigation may be used as evidence in criminal procedures.Evidence involving any state secret, trade secret, or personal privacy shall be kept confidential.Whoever forges, conceals, or destroys evidence must be subject to legal liability, without regard to which party owns the evidence.
   第五十二条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关有权向有关单位和个人收集、调取证据。有关单位和个人应当如实提供证据。行政机关在行政执法和查办案件过程中收集的物证、书证、视听资料、电子数据等证据材料,在刑事诉讼中可以作为证据使用。对涉及国家秘密、商业秘密、个人隐私的证据,应当保密。凡是伪造证据、隐匿证据或者毁灭证据的,无论属于何方,必须受法律追究。
Article 53 In deciding each case, a people's court shall focus on evidence, investigation, and research, and credence shall not be readily provided for confessions. A defendant shall not be convicted and sentenced to a criminal punishment merely based on the defendant's confession without other evidence; a defendant may be convicted and sentenced to a criminal punishment based on hard and sufficient evidence even without his or her confession.Evidence is hard and sufficient when the following conditions are met:
   第五十三条 对一切案件的判处都要重证据,重调查研究,不轻信口供。只有被告人供述,没有其他证据的,不能认定被告人有罪和处以刑罚;没有被告人供述,证据确实、充分的,可以认定被告人有罪和处以刑罚。证据确实、充分,应当符合以下条件:
(1) All facts for conviction and sentencing are supported by evidence;
 (一)定罪量刑的事实都有证据证明;
(2) All evidence used to decide a case has been verified under legal procedures; and
 (二)据以定案的证据均经法定程序查证属实;
(3) All facts found are beyond reasonable doubt based on all evidence of the case.
 (三)综合全案证据,对所认定事实已排除合理怀疑。
Article 54 A confession of a criminal suspect or defendant extorted by torture or obtained by other illegal means and a witness or victim statement obtained by violence, threat, or other illegal means shall be excluded. If any physical or documentary evidence is not gathered under the statutory procedure, which may seriously affect justice, correction or justification shall be provided; otherwise, such evidence shall be excluded.If it is discovered during the criminal investigation, examination and prosecution, or trial of a case that any evidence shall be excluded, such evidence shall be excluded and not be used as a basis for a prosecution proposal, a prosecution decision, and a sentence.
   第五十四条 采用刑讯逼供等非法方法收集的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人供述和采用暴力、威胁等非法方法收集的证人证言、被害人陈述,应当予以排除。收集物证、书证不符合法定程序,可能严重影响司法公正的,应当予以补正或者作出合理解释;不能补正或者作出合理解释的,对该证据应当予以排除。在侦查、审查起诉、审判时发现有应当排除的证据的,应当依法予以排除,不得作为起诉意见、起诉决定和判决的依据。
Article 55 After receiving a report, accusation, or tip on any illegal obtainment of evidence by criminal investigators or after discovering any illegal obtainment of evidence by criminal investigators, a people's procuratorate shall conduct investigation and verification. If it is confirmed that evidence has been illegally obtained, the people's procuratorate shall provide an opinion on correction; if any crime is committed, criminal liability shall be investigated in accordance with law.
   第五十五条 人民检察院接到报案、控告、举报或者发现侦查人员以非法方法收集证据的,应当进行调查核实。对于确有以非法方法收集证据情形的,应当提出纠正意见;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
Article 56 Where, in a court session, a judge believes that there may be any illegal obtainment of evidence as described in Article 54 of this Law, the judge shall conduct an investigation in court regarding the legality of obtainment of evidence.A party or the defender or litigation representative thereof shall have the right to apply to a people's court for excluding illegally obtained evidence. Relevant clues or materials shall be provided for an application for excluding illegally obtained evidence.
   第五十六条 法庭审理过程中,审判人员认为可能存在本法第五十四条规定的以非法方法收集证据情形的,应当对证据收集的合法性进行法庭调查。当事人及其辩护人、诉讼代理人有权申请人民法院对以非法方法收集的证据依法予以排除。申请排除以非法方法收集的证据的,应当提供相关线索或者材料。
Article 57 During the investigation in court regarding the legality of obtainment of evidence, a people's procuratorate shall prove the legality of obtainment of evidence.If the existing evidentiary materials cannot prove the legality of obtainment of evidence, the people's procuratorate may request the people's court to notify relevant investigators or other persons to appear before court to explain; and the people's court may notify relevant investigators or other persons to appear before court to explain. The relevant investigators or other persons may also file a request for appearing before court to explain. The relevant persons notified by the people's court shall appear before court.
   第五十七条 在对证据收集的合法性进行法庭调查的过程中,人民检察院应当对证据收集的合法性加以证明。现有证据材料不能证明证据收集的合法性的,人民检察院可以提请人民法院通知有关侦查人员或者其他人员出庭说明情况;人民法院可以通知有关侦查人员或者其他人员出庭说明情况。有关侦查人员或者其他人员也可以要求出庭说明情况。经人民法院通知,有关人员应当出庭。
Article 58 Where, at trial, any illegal obtainment of evidence as described in Article 54 of this Law is confirmed or cannot be ruled out, the relevant evidence shall be excluded.
   第五十八条 对于经过法庭审理,确认或者不能排除存在本法第五十四条规定的以非法方法收集证据情形的,对有关证据应当予以排除。
Article 59 A witness statement may be used as a basis for deciding a case only after it has been cross-examined in court by both sides, the public prosecutor and victim as one side and the defendant and defender as the other side, and verified. If a court discovers that a witness has committed perjury or concealed criminal evidence, the witness shall be handled in accordance with law.
   第五十九条 证人证言必须在法庭上经过公诉人、被害人和被告人、辩护人双方质证并且查实以后,才能作为定案的根据。法庭查明证人有意作伪证或者隐匿罪证的时候,应当依法处理。
Article 60 Any person who has information regarding a case shall have the obligation to testify.A physically or mentally handicapped person or a minor who cannot distinguish between right and wrong or cannot correctly express themselves shall not serve as a witness.
   第六十条 凡是知道案件情况的人,都有作证的义务。生理上、精神上有缺陷或者年幼,不能辨别是非、不能正确表达的人,不能作证人。
Article 61 People's courts, people's procuratorates, and public security authorities shall ensure the safety of witnesses and their close relatives.Whoever intimidates, insults, beats, or retaliates against a witness or his or her close relatives shall be subject to criminal liability in accordance with law if it constitutes a crime; or shall be subject to punishment in public security administration in accordance with law if it is not criminally punishable.
   第六十一条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关应当保障证人及其近亲属的安全。对证人及其近亲属进行威胁、侮辱、殴打或者打击报复,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;尚不够刑事处罚的,依法给予治安管理处罚。
Article 62 Where a witness, identification or evaluation expert, or victim testifies in a crime of compromising national security, a crime of terrorist activities, an organized crime of a gangland nature, or a drug crime, endangering the personal safety of the witness, identification or evaluation expert, or victim or his or her close relatives, the people's court, people's procuratorate, and public security authority shall take one or more of the following protective measures:
   第六十二条 对于危害国家安全犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪、黑社会性质的组织犯罪、毒品犯罪等案件,证人、鉴定人、被害人因在诉讼中作证,本人或者其近亲属的人身安全面临危险的,人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关应当采取以下一项或者多项保护措施:
(1) not disclosing his or her true personal information, such as name, residence address, and employer;
 (一)不公开真实姓名、住址和工作单位等个人信息;
(2) not exposing his or her look, true voice, and so on, when he or she takes the stand;
 (二)采取不暴露外貌、真实声音等出庭作证措施;
(3) prohibiting particular persons from contacting the witness, identification or evaluation expert, or victim and his or her close relatives;
 (三)禁止特定的人员接触证人、鉴定人、被害人及其近亲属;
(4) providing special protection for his or her person and residence; and
 (四)对人身和住宅采取专门性保护措施;
(5) Other necessary protective measures.Where a witness, identification or evaluation expert, or victim believes that his or her personal safety or that of his or her close relatives is endangered by his or her testimony in criminal procedures, he or she may request protection from the people's court, people's procuratorate, and public security authority.The relevant entities and individuals shall cooperate with a people's court, people's procuratorate, or public security authority in taking protective measures in accordance with law.
 (五)其他必要的保护措施。证人、鉴定人、被害人认为因在诉讼中作证,本人或者其近亲属的人身安全面临危险的,可以向人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关请求予以保护。人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关依法采取保护措施,有关单位和个人应当配合。
Article 63 Subsidization shall be provided for the travel, board and lodging, and other expenses of a witness for performing the obligation to testify. Such subsidization shall be recorded under the operating expenditures of judicial authorities and ensured by the treasury of the government at the same level.When a working witness testifies, his or her employer may not directly or indirectly deduct his or her salary, bonus, welfare, and other remuneration.
   第六十三条 证人因履行作证义务而支出的交通、住宿、就餐等费用,应当给予补助。证人作证的补助列入司法机关业务经费,由同级政府财政予以保障。有工作单位的证人作证,所在单位不得克扣或者变相克扣其工资、奖金及其他福利待遇。
Chapter VI: Compulsory Measures
 

第六章 强制措施


Article 64 A people's court, a people's procuratorate, and a public security authority may, according to the circumstances of a case, compel the appearance of, grant bail to, or decide residential confinement of a criminal suspect or defendant.
   第六十四条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关根据案件情况,对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人可以拘传、取保候审或者监视居住。
Article 65 A people's court, a people's procuratorate, and a public security authority may grant bail to a criminal suspect or defendant under any of the following circumstances:
   第六十五条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关对有下列情形之一的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,可以取保候审:
(1) the criminal suspect or defendant may be sentenced to supervision without incarceration, limited incarceration, or an accessory penalty only;
 (一)可能判处管制、拘役或者独立适用附加刑的;
(2) the criminal suspect or defendant may be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment or a heavier penalty but will not cause danger to the society if granted bail;
 (二)可能判处有期徒刑以上刑罚,采取取保候审不致发生社会危险性的;
(3) the criminal suspect or defendant suffers a serious illness, cannot take care of himself or herself or is a pregnant woman or a woman who is breastfeeding her own baby, and will not cause danger to the society if granted bail; or
 (三)患有严重疾病、生活不能自理,怀孕或者正在哺乳自己婴儿的妇女,采取取保候审不致发生社会危险性的;
(4) The term of custody of the criminal suspect or defendant has expired but the case has not been closed, and a bail is necessary.Bail shall be executed by a public security authority.

 (四)羁押期限届满,案件尚未办结,需要采取取保候审的。
取保候审由公安机关执行。
Article 66 Where a people's court, a people's procuratorates, and a public security authority decide to grant bail to a criminal suspect or defendant, it shall order the criminal suspect or defendant to provide a surety or pay a bond.
   第六十六条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关决定对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人取保候审,应当责令犯罪嫌疑人、被告人提出保证人或者交纳保证金。
Article 67 A surety must meet the following conditions:
   第六十七条 保证人必须符合下列条件:
(1) not involved in the case;
 (一)与本案无牵连;
(2) able to perform a surety's obligations;
 (二)有能力履行保证义务;
(3) enjoying political rights and not restricted in personal freedom; and
 (三)享有政治权利,人身自由未受到限制;
(4) having a fixed residence and steady income.
 (四)有固定的住处和收入。
Article 68 A surety shall perform the following obligations:
   第六十八条 保证人应当履行以下义务:
(1) supervising the bailed person in complying with the provisions of Article 69 of this Law; and
 (一)监督被保证人遵守本法第六十九条的规定;
(2) after discovering that the bailed person may commit or has committed a violation of Article 69 of this Law, reporting it to the execution authority in a timely manner.Where the bailed person has committed a violation of Article 69 of this Law and the surety fails to perform surety obligations, the surety shall be fined, and if any crime is committed, criminal liability shall be investigated in accordance with law.
 (二)发现被保证人可能发生或者已经发生违反本法第六十九条规定的行为的,应当及时向执行机关报告。被保证人有违反本法第六十九条规定的行为,保证人未履行保证义务的,对保证人处以罚款,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
Article 69 A bailed criminal suspect or defendant shall comply with the following provisions:
   第六十九条 被取保候审的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人应当遵守以下规定:
(1) not leaving the city or county where he or she resides without the approval of the execution authority;
 (一)未经执行机关批准不得离开所居住的市、县;
(2) reporting any change of his or her residence address, employer, or contact information to the execution authority within 24 hours of such change;
 (二)住址、工作单位和联系方式发生变动的,在二十四小时以内向执行机关报告;
(3) appearing before court in a timely manner when summoned;
 (三)在传讯的时候及时到案;
(4) not interfering in any way with the testimony of witnesses; and
 (四)不得以任何形式干扰证人作证;
(5) not destroying or forging evidence or making a false confession in collusion.Based on the circumstances of a case, a people's court, a people's procuratorate, and a public security authority may order a bailed criminal suspect or defendant to comply with one or more of the following provisions:
 (五)不得毁灭、伪造证据或者串供。人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关可以根据案件情况,责令被取保候审的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人遵守以下一项或者多项规定:
(1) not entering particular places;
 (一)不得进入特定的场所;
(2) not meeting or communicate with particular persons;
 (二)不得与特定的人员会见或者通信;
(3) not engaging in particular activities; and
 (三)不得从事特定的活动;
(4) delivering his or her passport and other international travel credentials and driver's license to the execution authority for preservation.Where a bailed criminal suspect or defendant violates any provision of the preceding two paragraphs, if a bond has been paid, part or all of the bond shall be forfeited, and, based on the actual circumstances, the criminal suspect or defendant shall be ordered to make a statement of repentance, pay a bond or provide a surety again, or be placed under residential confinement or arrested.Where any violation of the bail provisions entails an arrest, the criminal suspect or defendant may be detained first.
 (四)将护照等出入境证件、驾驶证件交执行机关保存。被取保候审的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人违反前两款规定,已交纳保证金的,没收部分或者全部保证金,并且区别情形,责令犯罪嫌疑人、被告人具结悔过,重新交纳保证金、提出保证人,或者监视居住、予以逮捕。对违反取保候审规定,需要予以逮捕的,可以对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人先行拘留。
Article 70 The authority deciding on a bail shall decide the amount of a bond after fully considering the need to ensure normal legal proceedings, the danger of the person to be bailed to the society, the nature and circumstances of the case, the gravity of the possible punishment, the financial condition of the person to be bailed, and other factors.The person providing a bond shall deposit the bond into a special account at a bank designated by the execution authority.
   第七十条 取保候审的决定机关应当综合考虑保证诉讼活动正常进行的需要,被取保候审人的社会危险性,案件的性质、情节,可能判处刑罚的轻重,被取保候审人的经济状况等情况,确定保证金的数额。提供保证金的人应当将保证金存入执行机关指定银行的专门账户。
Article 71 Where a criminal suspect or defendant has not violated the provisions of Article 69 of this Law during the period of waiting for trial on bail, he or she may receive a refund of the bond at the bank on the basis of a notice of termination of waiting for trial on bail or relevant legal instrument, at the end of the period of waiting for trial on bail.
   第七十一条 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人在取保候审期间未违反本法第六十九条规定的,取保候审结束的时候,凭解除取保候审的通知或者有关法律文书到银行领取退还的保证金。
Article 72 Under any of the following circumstances, a people's court, a people's procuratorate, and a public security authority may place a criminal suspect or defendant who meets the arrest conditions under residential confinement:
   第七十二条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关对符合逮捕条件,有下列情形之一的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,可以监视居住:
(1) the criminal suspect or defendant suffers a serious illness or cannot take care of himself or herself;
 (一)患有严重疾病、生活不能自理的;
(2) the criminal suspect or defendant is a pregnant woman or a woman who is breastfeeding her own baby;
 (二)怀孕或者正在哺乳自己婴儿的妇女;
(3) the criminal suspect or defendant is the sole supporter of a person who cannot take care of himself or herself;
 (三)系生活不能自理的人的唯一扶养人;
(4) considering the special circumstances of the case or as needed for handling the case, residential confinement is more appropriate; or
 (四)因为案件的特殊情况或者办理案件的需要,采取监视居住措施更为适宜的;
(5) the term of custody has expired but the case has not been closed, and residential confinement is necessary.Where a criminal suspect or defendant meets the conditions for bail but is neither able to provide a surety nor able to pay a bond, he or she may be placed under residential confinement.Residential confinement shall be executed by a public security authority.
 (五)羁押期限届满,案件尚未办结,需要采取监视居住措施的。对符合取保候审条件,但犯罪嫌疑人、被告人不能提出保证人,也不交纳保证金的,可以监视居住。监视居住由公安机关执行。
Article 73 Residential confinement shall be executed at the residence of a criminal suspect or defendant; or may be executed at a designated residence if the criminal suspect or defendant has no fixed residence. Where execution of residential confinement at the residence of a criminal suspect or defendant in a case regarding compromising national security, terrorist activities, or extraordinarily significant bribery may obstruct criminal investigation, it may be executed at a designated residence with the approval of the people's procuratorate or public security authority at the next higher level. However, residential confinement may not be executed at a place of custody or a place specially used for handling cases.If residential confinement is executed at a designated residence, the family of the person under residential confinement shall be notified within 24 hours after residential confinement is executed, unless such notification is impossible.Where a criminal suspect or defendant under residential confinement retains a defender, the provisions of Article 33 of this Law shall apply.People's procuratorates shall oversee the legality of decisions and execution of residential confinement at a designated residence.
   第七十三条 监视居住应当在犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的住处执行;无固定住处的,可以在指定的居所执行。对于涉嫌危害国家安全犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪、特别重大贿赂犯罪,在住处执行可能有碍侦查的,经上一级人民检察院或者公安机关批准,也可以在指定的居所执行。但是,不得在羁押场所、专门的办案场所执行。指定居所监视居住的,除无法通知的以外,应当在执行监视居住后二十四小时以内,通知被监视居住人的家属。被监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人委托辩护人,适用本法第三十三条的规定。人民检察院对指定居所监视居住的决定和执行是否合法实行监督。
Article 74 The term of residential confinement at a designated residence shall decrease the term of punishment. For a sentence of supervision without incarceration, one day of residential confinement equals one day of the term of punishment; for a sentence of limited incarceration or fixed-term imprisonment, two days of residential confinement equals one day of the term of punishment.
   第七十四条 指定居所监视居住的期限应当折抵刑期。被判处管制的,监视居住一日折抵刑期一日;被判处拘役、有期徒刑的,监视居住二日折抵刑期一日。
Article 75 A criminal suspect or defendant under residential confinement shall comply with the following provisions:
   第七十五条 被监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人应当遵守以下规定:
(1) not leaving the residence where residential confinement is executed without the approval of the execution authority;
 (一)未经执行机关批准不得离开执行监视居住的处所;
(2) not meeting or communicating with others without the approval of the execution authority;
 (二)未经执行机关批准不得会见他人或者通信;
(3) appearing before court in a timely manner when summoned;
 (三)在传讯的时候及时到案;
(4) not interfering in any way with the testimony of witnesses;
 (四)不得以任何形式干扰证人作证;
(5) not destroying or forging evidence or making a false confession in collusion; and
 (五)不得毁灭、伪造证据或者串供;
(6) delivering his or her passport and other international travel credentials and driver's license to the execution authority for preservation.A criminal suspect or defendant under residential confinement who seriously violates any provision of the preceding paragraph may be arrested; and if arrest is necessary, the criminal suspect or defendant may be detained first.
 (六)将护照等出入境证件、身份证件、驾驶证件交执行机关保存。被监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人违反前款规定,情节严重的,可以予以逮捕;需要予以逮捕的,可以对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人先行拘留。
Article 76 Execution authorities may oversee criminal suspects or defendants under residential confinement regarding their compliance with residential confinement provisions by electronic monitoring, random inspection, and other surveillance means; and during the period of criminal investigation, may monitor the communications of criminal suspects under residential confinement.
   第七十六条 执行机关对被监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,可以采取电子监控、不定期检查等监视方法对其遵守监视居住规定的情况进行监督;在侦查期间,可以对被监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人的通信进行监控。
Article 77 The period of bail granted by a people's court, a people's procuratorate, or a public security authority to a criminal suspect or defendant shall not exceed 12 months; and the period of residential confinement shall not exceed 6 months.During the period of bail or residential confinement, the investigation, prosecution, and trial of a case shall not be suspended. If it is discovered that a criminal suspect or defendant shall not be subject to criminal liability or when the period of bail or residential confinement expires, the bail or residential confinement shall be terminated in a timely manner. The bailed person or person under residential confinement and relevant entities shall be notified of the termination in a timely manner.
   第七十七条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人取保候审最长不得超过十二个月,监视居住最长不得超过六个月。在取保候审、监视居住期间,不得中断对案件的侦查、起诉和审理。对于发现不应当追究刑事责任或者取保候审、监视居住期限届满的,应当及时解除取保候审、监视居住。解除取保候审、监视居住,应当及时通知被取保候审、监视居住人和有关单位。
Article 78 The arrest of a criminal suspect or defendant must be subject to the approval of a people's procuratorate or a decision of a people's court and be executed by a public security authority.
   第七十八条 逮捕犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,必须经过人民检察院批准或者人民法院决定,由公安机关执行。
Article 79 Where there is evidence to prove the facts of a crime and a criminal suspect or defendant may be sentenced to imprisonment or a heavier punishment, if residential confinement is insufficient to prevent any of the following dangers to society, the criminal suspect or defendant shall be arrested:
   第七十九条 对有证据证明有犯罪事实,可能判处徒刑以上刑罚的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,采取取保候审尚不足以防止发生下列社会危险性的,应当予以逮捕:
(1) the criminal suspect or defendant may commit a new crime;
 (一)可能实施新的犯罪的;
(2) there is an actual danger to national security, public security, or social order;
 (二)有危害国家安全、公共安全或者社会秩序的现实危险的;
(3) the criminal suspect or defendant may destroy or forge evidence, interfere with the testimony of a witness, or make a false confession in collusion;
 (三)可能毁灭、伪造证据,干扰证人作证或者串供的;
(4) the criminal suspect or defendant may retaliate against a victim, informant, or accuser; or
 (四)可能对被害人、举报人、控告人实施打击报复的;
(5) the criminal suspect or defendant attempts to commit suicide or escape.Where there is evidence to prove the facts of a crime and a criminal suspect or defendant may be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of 10 years or a heavier punishment or there is evidence to prove the facts of a crime and a criminal suspect or defendant who once committed an intentional crime or has not been identified may be sentenced to imprisonment or a heavier punishment, the criminal suspect or defendant shall be arrested.Where a criminal suspect or defendant waiting for trial on bail or under residential confinement seriously violates the provisions on bail or residential confinement, the criminal suspect or defendant may be arrested.
 (五)企图自杀或者逃跑的。对有证据证明有犯罪事实,可能判处十年有期徒刑以上刑罚的,或者有证据证明有犯罪事实,可能判处徒刑以上刑罚,曾经故意犯罪或者身份不明的,应当予以逮捕。被取保候审、监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人违反取保候审、监视居住规定,情节严重的,可以予以逮捕。
Article 80 Under any of the following circumstances, a public security authority may first detain a person who is committing a crime or is a major criminal suspect:
   第八十条 公安机关对于现行犯或者重大嫌疑分子,如果有下列情形之一的,可以先行拘留:
(1) the person is preparing to commit a crime, is committing a crime, or is discovered immediately after committing a crime;
 (一)正在预备犯罪、实行犯罪或者在犯罪后即时被发觉的;
(2) a victim or an eyewitness identifies the person as the one committing the crime;
 (二)被害人或者在场亲眼看见的人指认他犯罪的;
(3) criminal evidence is discovered from the person's body or residence;
 (三)在身边或者住处发现有犯罪证据的;
(4) the person attempts to commit suicide or escape after committing a crime or is fugitive;
 (四)犯罪后企图自杀、逃跑或者在逃的;
(5) the person may destroy or forge evidence or make a false confession in collusion;
 (五)有毁灭、伪造证据或者串供可能的;
(6) the identify of the person is unknown because the person refuses to disclose his or her true name and residence address; or
 (六)不讲真实姓名、住址,身份不明的;
(7) the person is a strongly suspected of committing crimes from place to place, repeatedly, or in a gang.
 (七)有流窜作案、多次作案、结伙作案重大嫌疑的。
Article 81 Where a public security authority executes detention or arrest of a person in a different place, it shall notify the public security authority at the place of residence of the detainee or arrestee, and the public security authority at the place of residence of the detainee or arrestee shall provide cooperation.
   第八十一条 公安机关在异地执行拘留、逮捕的时候,应当通知被拘留、逮捕人所在地的公安机关,被拘留、逮捕人所在地的公安机关应当予以配合。
Article 82 Under any of the following circumstances, a person may be immediately tackled by any citizen to a public security authority, a people's procuratorate, or a people's court for handling:
   第八十二条 对于有下列情形的人,任何公民都可以立即扭送公安机关、人民检察院或者人民法院处理:
(1) the person is committing a crime or is discovered immediately after committing a crime;
 (一)正在实行犯罪或者在犯罪后即时被发觉的;
(2) the person is wanted;
 (二)通缉在案的;
(3) the person has escaped from incarceration; and
 (三)越狱逃跑的;
(4) the person is being pursued for capture.
 (四)正在被追捕的。
Article 83 When detaining a person, a public security authority must produce a detention warrant.After a person is detained, the detainee shall be immediately transferred to a jail for custody, no later than 24 hours thereafter. The family of a detainee shall be notified within 24 hours after detention, unless such notification is impossible or such notification may obstruct criminal investigation in a case regarding compromising national security or terrorist activities. However, once such a situation that obstructs criminal investigation disappears, the family of the detainee shall be immediately notified.
   第八十三条 公安机关拘留人的时候,必须出示拘留证。拘留后,应当立即将被拘留人送看守所羁押,至迟不得超过二十四小时。除无法通知或者涉嫌危害国家安全犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪通知可能有碍侦查的情形以外,应当在拘留后二十四小时以内,通知被拘留人的家属。有碍侦查的情形消失以后,应当立即通知被拘留人的家属。
Article 84 A public security authority shall interrogate a detainee within 24 hours after detention. If it is discovered that the person should not have been detained, the person must be immediately released, and a certificate of release shall be issued to the person.
   第八十四条 公安机关对被拘留的人,应当在拘留后的二十四小时以内进行讯问。在发现不应当拘留的时候,必须立即释放,发给释放证明。
Article 85 A public security authority shall prepare a written request for approval of arrest of a criminal suspect, which shall be submitted along with the case file and evidence to the people's procuratorate at the same level for examination and approval. When necessary, the people's procuratorate may send procurators to participate in the public security authority's discussion of a significant case.
   第八十五条 公安机关要求逮捕犯罪嫌疑人的时候,应当写出提请批准逮捕书,连同案卷材料、证据,一并移送同级人民检察院审查批准。必要的时候,人民检察院可以派人参加公安机关对于重大案件的讨论。
Article 86 During the examination and approval of an arrest request, a people's procuratorate may interrogate the criminal suspect; and, under any of the following circumstances, must interrogate the criminal suspect:
   第八十六条 人民检察院审查批准逮捕,可以讯问犯罪嫌疑人;有下列情形之一的,应当讯问犯罪嫌疑人:
(1) it has any doubt on whether the arrest conditions are met;
 (一)对是否符合逮捕条件有疑问的;
(2) the criminal suspect requests a statement before prosecutors; or
 (二)犯罪嫌疑人要求向检察人员当面陈述的;
(3) any gross violation of law may have occurred during criminal investigation.During the examination and approval of an arrest request, a people's procuratorate may interview a witness and other litigation participants and hear the opinion of a defense lawyer; and, if a defense lawyer files a request for presenting an opinion, shall hear the opinion of the defense lawyer.
 (三)侦查活动可能有重大违法行为的。人民检察院审查批准逮捕,可以询问证人等诉讼参与人,听取辩护律师的意见;辩护律师提出要求的,应当听取辩护律师的意见。
Article 87 A people's procuratorate's approval of arrest of a criminal suspect shall be subject to the decision of the president of the people's procuratorate. Significant cases shall be submitted to the procuratorial committee for discussion and decision.
   第八十七条 人民检察院审查批准逮捕犯罪嫌疑人由检察长决定。重大案件应当提交检察委员会讨论决定。
Article 88 After examining a case where a public security authority has filed a request for approval of arrest, a people's procuratorate shall, according to the actual circumstances of the case, make a decision to approve or disapprove the arrest. If the people's procuratorate decides to approve the arrest, the public security authority shall execute the decision immediately and notify the people's procuratorate regarding execution in a timey manner. If the people's procuratorate decides to disapprove the arrest, it shall explain the reasons for disapproval and, when necessary, notify at the same time the public security authority to conduct further investigation.
   第八十八条 人民检察院对于公安机关提请批准逮捕的案件进行审查后,应当根据情况分别作出批准逮捕或者不批准逮捕的决定。对于批准逮捕的决定,公安机关应当立即执行,并且将执行情况及时通知人民检察院。对于不批准逮捕的,人民检察院应当说明理由,需要补充侦查的,应当同时通知公安机关。
Article 89 Deeming that a detainee needs to be arrested, a public security authority shall, within three days after detention, file an arrest request with the people's procuratorate for examination and approval. Under special circumstances, the time limit for filing such a request may be extended for one to four days.For a person strongly suspected of committing crimes from place to place, repeatedly, or in a gang, the time limit for filing an arrest request for examination and approval may be extended to 30 days.A people's procuratorate shall make a decision to approve or disapprove an arrest within seven days after receiving a written request for approval of arrest from a public security authority. If the people's procuratorate disapproves the arrest, the public security authority shall release the detainee immediately after receiving a notice regarding the decision and notify the people's procuratorate regarding execution in a timely manner. If further investigation is necessary and the conditions for bail or residential confinement are met, the criminal suspect shall be released on bail or placed under residential confinement in accordance with law.
   第八十九条 公安机关对被拘留的人,认为需要逮捕的,应当在拘留后的三日以内,提请人民检察院审查批准。在特殊情况下,提请审查批准的时间可以延长一日至四日。对于流窜作案、多次作案、结伙作案的重大嫌疑分子,提请审查批准的时间可以延长至三十日。人民检察院应当自接到公安机关提请批准逮捕书后的七日以内,作出批准逮捕或者不批准逮捕的决定。人民检察院不批准逮捕的,公安机关应当在接到通知后立即释放,并且将执行情况及时通知人民检察院。对于需要继续侦查,并且符合取保候审、监视居住条件的,依法取保候审或者监视居住。
Article 90 Deeming that a decision of a people's procuratorate to disapprove an arrest is erroneous, a public security authority may request reconsideration but must immediately release the detainee. If the public security authority's opinion is not accepted, it may request a review by the people's procuratorate at the next higher level. The people's procuratorate at the higher level shall immediately review the case, decide whether or not to modify the original disapproval decision and notify the people's procuratorate at the lower level and the public security authority to execute its decision.
   第九十条 公安机关对人民检察院不批准逮捕的决定,认为有错误的时候,可以要求复议,但是必须将被拘留的人立即释放。如果意见不被接受,可以向上一级人民检察院提请复核。上级人民检察院应当立即复核,作出是否变更的决定,通知下级人民检察院和公安机关执行。
Article 91 When arresting a person, a public security authority must produce an arrest warrant.After a person is arrested, the arrestee shall be immediately transferred to a jail for custody. The family of the arrestee shall be notified within 24 hours after arrest, unless such notification is impossible.
   第九十一条 公安机关逮捕人的时候,必须出示逮捕证。逮捕后,应当立即将被逮捕人送看守所羁押。除无法通知的以外,应当在逮捕后二十四小时以内,通知被逮捕人的家属。
Article 92 A people's court or a people's procuratorate must interrogate a person arrested on its decision or a public security authority must interrogate a person arrested with the approval of a people's procuratorate within 24 hours after the arrest. If it is discovered that the person should not have been arrested, the person must be immediately released, and a certificate of release shall be issued to the person.
   第九十二条 人民法院、人民检察院对于各自决定逮捕的人,公安机关对于经人民检察院批准逮捕的人,都必须在逮捕后的二十四小时以内进行讯问。在发现不应当逮捕的时候,必须立即释放,发给释放证明。
Article 93 After arresting a criminal suspect or defendant, a people's procuratorate shall continue to examine the necessity of custody. If custody is no longer necessary, it shall suggest a release of the arrestee or modification of the compulsory measure for the arrestee. The relevant authority shall notify the people's procuratorate of the handling result within 10 days.
   第九十三条 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人被逮捕后,人民检察院仍应当对羁押的必要性进行审查。对不需要继续羁押的,应当建议予以释放或者变更强制措施。有关机关应当在十日以内将处理情况通知人民检察院。
Article 94 Where a people's court, a people's procuratorate, or a public security authority discovers that the compulsory measure taken against a criminal suspect or defendant is inappropriate, the measure shall be revoked or modified in a timely manner. A public security authority which releases an arrestee or replaces arrest with another compulsory measure shall notify the people's procuratorate originally approving the arrest.
......
   第九十四条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关如果发现对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人采取强制措施不当的,应当及时撤销或者变更。公安机关释放被逮捕的人或者变更逮捕措施的,应当通知原批准的人民检察院。
......



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