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Employment and Labor Rights in Xinjiang

Employment and Labor Rights in Xinjiang



The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China 

September 2020 2020年9月
Contents 目 錄
Preface 前言
I.Employment in Xinjiang 一、新疆勞動就業的基本狀況
II.Proactive Employment Policies 二、大力實施積極的就業政策
III.Full Respect for Workers' Job Preferences 三、充分尊重勞動者的就業意願
IV.Labor Rights Protection 四、依法保障勞動者的基本權利
V.Better Jobs for Better Lives 五、勞動就業創造美好生活
VI.Application of International Labor and Human Rights Standards 六、積極踐行國際勞工和人權標准
Conclusion 結束語
Preface 前 言
Work creates the means of existence and is an essential human activity. It creates a better life and enables all-round human development and the progress of civilization. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China provides that all citizens have the right and obligation to work. To protect the right to work is to safeguard human dignity and human rights. 勞動是人的存在方式,也是人類的本質活動。勞動創造美好生活,促進人的全面發展和人類文明進步。《中華人民共和國憲法》賦予公民勞動的權利和義務。保障勞動權就是維護人的尊嚴,就是保障人權。
China has a large population and workforce. Employment and job security are key to guaranteeing workers' basic rights and wellbeing, and have a significant impact on economic development, social harmony, national prosperity, and the nation's rejuvenation. China is committed to the people-centered philosophy of development, attaches great importance to job security, gives high priority to employment, and pursues a proactive set of policies on employment. It fully respects the wishes of workers, protects citizens' right to work in accordance with the law, applies international labor and human rights standards, and strives to enable everyone to create a happy life and achieve their own development through hard work. 中國是人口大國,也是勞動力大國。做好勞動就業保障工作,關系勞動者基本權利和生活幸福,關系經濟發展、社會和諧,關系國家繁榮、民族複興。中國堅持以人民為中心的發展思想,高度重視勞動就業保障工作,大力實施就業優先戰略和積極的就業政策。充分尊重勞動者意願,依法保障公民勞動權利,積極踐行國際勞工和人權標准,努力使人人都能通過辛勤勞動創造幸福生活、實現自身發展。
In accordance with the country's major policies on employment and the overall plan for eliminating poverty, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region takes the facilitation of employment as the most fundamental project for ensuring and improving people's wellbeing. It has made every effort to increase and stabilize employment through various channels: encouraging individual initiative, regulatory role of the market, and government policies facilitating employment, entrepreneurship, and business startups. Through its proactive labor and employment policies, Xinjiang has continuously improved the people's material and cultural lives, and guaranteed and developed their human rights in every field. This has laid a solid foundation for ensuring that the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang have the opportunity to enjoy moderate prosperity in all respects and achieve long-term social stability together with their fellow countrymen and countrywomen in other parts of China. 按照國家關于勞動就業的大政方針和打贏脫貧攻堅戰的總體部署,中國新疆把促進勞動就業作為最大的民生工程、民心工程、根基工程,堅持把勞動者自主就業、市場調節就業、政府促進就業和鼓勵創業相結合,多渠道增加就業,千方百計穩定就業。通過積極的勞動就業政策,新疆各族人民物質文化生活水平不斷提高,各項人權得到有效保障和發展,為確保新疆各族群眾同全中國人民一道邁入全面小康社會、實現新疆社會穩定和長治久安打下了堅實基礎。
I. Employment in Xinjiang 一、新疆勞動就業的基本狀況
Xinjiang is located in the northwest of China. For historical and a range of natural reasons, it has long lagged behind other parts of the country in development, and there is a large impoverished population. The four prefectures in southern Xinjiang, namely, Hotan, Kashgar, Aksu and Kizilsu Kirgiz, in particular have a poor eco-environment, weak economic foundations, and a serious shortfall in employment carrying capacity. They are identified as areas of extreme poverty. In addition, terrorists, separatists and religious extremists have long preached that "the afterlife is fated" and that "religious teachings are superior to state laws", inciting the public to resist learning the standard spoken and written Chinese language, reject modern science, and refuse to improve their vocational skills, economic conditions, and the ability to better their own lives. As a result, some local people have outdated ideas; they suffer from poor education and employability, low employment rates and incomes, and have fallen into long-term poverty. 新疆地處中國西北邊陲,長期以來,受曆史和自然等因素的影響,發展相對滯後,貧困人口較多。特別是南疆四地州(和田地區、喀什地區、阿克蘇地區、克孜勒蘇柯爾克孜自治州)生態環境惡劣,經濟基礎薄弱,就業承載能力嚴重不足,是國家確定的深度貧困地區。加之長期以來暴力恐怖勢力、民族分裂勢力、宗教極端勢力鼓吹“來世天定”“教法大于國法”,煽動廣大群眾抵制學習國家通用語言文字,排斥現代科學知識,拒絕學習掌握就業技能、改善經濟條件、提升自我發展能力,導致一些群眾思想觀念落後,文化程度不高,就業能力不足,就業率較低,收入十分有限,生活陷入長期貧困。
Employment and job security carries great significance for ensuring people's right to work, improving their living standards, and promoting social harmony and stability. Especially since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in 2012, Xinjiang has vigorously implemented employment projects, enhanced vocational training, and expanded employment channels and capacity. Thanks to these efforts, the employment situation in Xinjiang has continued to improve, people's incomes and quality of life are rising, and their sense of gain, happiness and security has significantly increased. 做好勞動就業工作,對于保障各族人民勞動就業權利、發展和改善民生、促進社會和諧穩定意義重大。特別是2012年中共十八大以來,新疆大力實施就業惠民工程,持續加大就業培訓力度,積極拓寬就業渠道,有效擴大就業容量,就業形勢持續向好,各族群眾收入水平不斷提升、生活質量越來越高,獲得感、幸福感、安全感顯著增強。
Policies have further improved. In recent years, to implement the national policies and strategies for stabilizing and facilitating employment and respond to calls from the public and local conditions, Xinjiang has successively formulated the Opinions of the CPC Committee and the People's Government of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Further Facilitating Employment and Business Startups, the Opinions of the People's Government of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Facilitating Employment and Business Startups Now and in the Future, and the 13th Five-Year Plan of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region for Facilitating Employment. Systematic arrangements have been made in the areas of economic development, governmental financial guarantees, tax incentives, support from the financial sector, and overall planning of urban and rural areas, different regions, and diverse groups, as well as in supporting flexible employment and helping groups in need to find jobs. All these provide a solid institutional guarantee for facilitating employment and safeguarding the rights and interests of workers. 政策體系進一步健全。近年來,新疆貫徹落實國家穩就業促就業決策部署,順應人民呼聲並結合自身實際,制定了《新疆維吾爾自治區黨委 自治區人民政府關于進一步促進就業創業工作的意見》《新疆維吾爾自治區人民政府關于做好當前和今後一段時期就業創業工作的實施意見》《新疆維吾爾自治區“十三五”促進就業規劃》等文件,在經濟發展、財政保障、稅收優惠、金融支持和城鄉、區域、群體統籌,以及支持靈活就業、幫助困難群體就業等方面,作出系統安排,為促進勞動就業、維護勞動者權益提供了堅實的制度保障。
The scale of employment has expanded continuously. Xinjiang focuses on areas of extreme poverty and key groups with difficulty finding work. It guides people of all ethnic groups to find work nearby, or to locate jobs or start their own businesses in cities, and encourages the impoverished workforce to seek employment outside their hometowns. From 2014 to 2019, the total number of people employed in Xinjiang rose from 11.35 million to 13.3 million, an increase of 17.2 percent. The average annual increase in urban employment was more than 471,200 people (148,000 in southern Xinjiang, accounting for 31.4 percent); and the average annual relocation of surplus rural labor was more than 2.76 million people, of whom nearly 1.68 million, or over 60 percent, were in southern Xinjiang. 就業規模不斷擴大。聚焦勞動就業重點群體和深度貧困地區,引導各族群眾就地就近就業、有序進城就業和自主創業,紮實推進貧困勞動力轉移就業。2014年至2019年,新疆的勞動就業總人數從1135.24萬人增加到1330.12萬人,增長17.2%;年均新增城鎮就業47.12萬人以上,其中,南疆地區14.8萬人,占比31.4%;年均農村富余勞動力轉移就業276.3萬人次以上,其中,南疆地區167.8萬人次,占比60%以上。
The employment structure has become more rational. Xinjiang considers supply-side structural reform as a key priority, and endeavors to raise the level of the primary industry, focus on key projects in the secondary industry, and boost the tertiary industry. It nurtures and strengthens industries with distinctive strengths and labor-intensive industries, and guides the orderly flow of labor to the tertiary industry. In terms of workforce distribution across the three industries, the ratio in 2014 was 45.4 : 16.0 : 38.6, which evolved to 36.4 : 14.1 : 49.5 in 2019. The tertiary industry saw an increase of 10.9 percentage points, making it the most job-intensive sector. In terms of workforce distribution in urban and rural areas, surplus rural labor is increasingly moving to cities and towns, and the ability of these places to absorb workforce has been strengthened. The number of people employed in cities and towns increased from 5.35 million in 2014 to 7.34 million in 2019, accounting for 55.2 percent of the total. 就業結構更趨合理。以推進供給側結構性改革為主線,堅持一產上水平、二產抓重點、三產大發展,培育壯大特色優勢產業和勞動密集型產業,引導勞動力向第三產業有序流動。從三次產業分布看,就業人員占比2014年為45.4?16.0?38.6,2019年為36.4?14.1?49.5,其中,第三產業就業人員占比提高了10.9個百分點,成為吸納就業最多的產業。從城鄉分布看,越來越多農村富余勞動力向城鎮流動,城鎮吸納就業能力進一步增強。2014年城鎮就業人數535.4萬人,2019年增加至734.17萬人,占全部就業人員的55.2%。
The quality of the workforce has improved significantly. Thanks to the government's education projects, enrollments in preschool education, nine-year compulsory education, senior high school education, higher education and vocational education in Xinjiang have all reached the highest level in history. In 2019, there were 453,800 full-time students studying at universities and colleges (an increase of 146,200 over 2014), and 1.84 million students studying at secondary schools (an increase of 147,600 over 2014). Through vocational training, Xinjiang has built a large knowledge-based, skilled and innovative workforce that meets the requirements of the new era. Every year from 2014 to 2019 Xinjiang provided training sessions to an average of 1.29 million urban and rural workers, of which 451,400 were in southern Xinjiang. The trainees mastered at least one skill with employment potential, and the vast majority of them obtained vocational qualifications, skill level certificates, or specialized skill certificates, allowing them to go on to find stable employment. 勞動力素質明顯提升。通過實施教育惠民工程,新疆的學前教育、九年義務教育、高中階段教育、高等教育、職業教育均達曆史最高水平。2019年,普通高等教育在校生45.38萬人,比2014年增加14.62萬人;中等教育在校生184.36萬人,比2014年增加14.76萬人。通過開展就業技能培訓,培養造就了一支新時代知識型、技能型、創新型勞動者大軍。據統計,2014年至2019年,全疆年均培訓城鄉各類勞動者128.8萬人次,其中,南疆地區年均培訓45.14萬人次。參訓人員至少掌握1項就業技能,絕大多數取得了職業資格證書、職業技能等級證書或專項職業能力證書,實現穩定就業。
The income of residents and workers has increased steadily. From 2014 to 2019, the per capita disposable income of residents in Xinjiang increased as follows:
-- urban residents: from RMB23,200 to RMB34,700 (an average annual nominal growth of 8.6 percent);
-- rural residents: from RMB8,724 to RMB13,100 (an average annual nominal growth of 8.9 percent);
-- urban residents in areas under the administration of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (a special entity entrusted by the state to cultivate and guard China's border area in Xinjiang): from RMB27,600 to RMB40,700 (an average annual nominal growth of 8.5 percent);  
-- residents of the company residence areas of the Corps: from RMB13,900 to RMB22,000 (an average annual nominal growth of 9.9 percent);
-- average annual salary of employees in non-private sectors in cities and towns: from RMB53,500 to RMB79,400 (an annual growth of 8.4 percent);
-- average annual salary of employees in private sectors in cities and towns: from RMB36,200 to RMB45,900 (an annual growth of 5.4 percent).
From 2018 to 2019, 155,000 people from registered poor households in southern Xinjiang and in four impoverished regimental farms of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps found employment outside their hometowns and subsequently emerged from poverty.
The above statistics show that, in recent years Xinjiang has achieved remarkable results in providing employment services and job security to the residents, and the overall situation is good. However, it should be noted that Xinjiang is still faced with difficulties and challenges including a weak foundation for economic development, a large labor surplus in rural areas, and a low level of vocational skills. To solve its problem of employment in the long term, Xinjiang must further optimize the industrial structure, improve the quality of the workforce, and change people's outdated mindset. 事實說明,近年來新疆的勞動就業保障工作取得了顯著成效,總體態勢良好。但也要看到,還面臨經濟發展底子薄、農村富余勞動力人數多、就業技能水平低等困難和挑戰。進一步優化產業結構、提升勞動力素質、轉變思想觀念,是解決新疆勞動就業的一項長期任務。
II. Implementation of Proactive Policies on Employment 二、大力實施積極的就業政策
In recent years, Xinjiang has formulated and put in place economic and social development strategies conducive to expanding employment, and has improved various policies to facilitate employment, with the goal of helping local people achieve stable, continuous, and long-term employment. 近年來,新疆更加注重制定實施有利于擴大就業的經濟社會發展戰略,及時健全完善各項促進就業政策,努力實現勞動者穩定就業、持續就業、長期就業。
Upgrading the industrial structure to increase employment. Xinjiang has seized the development opportunities brought by the Belt and Road Initiative to diversify its industrial structure, promoting capital-, technology- and knowledge-intensive advanced manufacturing industries and emerging industries, boosting labor-intensive industries such as textiles and garments, shoes and accessories, and consumer electronics, and encouraging modern service industries such as e-commerce, cultural and creative businesses, all-area-advancing tourism, health care, and elderly care, all with a view to expanding the capacity and scale of employment. In 2012, Xinjiang Zhundong Economic and Technological Development Zone was established, utilizing competitive resources to develop six pillar industries, including new materials and new energy. By the end of 2019, the development zone was providing employment for more than 80,000 people. Since 2014, the state has given strong support to Xinjiang's textiles industry, which created 350,000 new jobs from 2017 to 2019. Prioritizing the development of agro-product processing and electronics assembly, Kashgar Prefecture has attracted related enterprises to its industrial development zones (IDZs) and helped them expand their production to rural areas. By the end of 2019, the prefecture had 210 agro-product processing enterprises providing 16,700 jobs, and 1,406 industrial enterprises located in the various IDZs providing 84,100 jobs. Aksu Prefecture has been integrating industry and vocational education, offering joint education programs by textile and garment enterprises and vocational schools, and has facilitated employment for 32,400 people. 優化產業結構擴充就業容量。緊緊抓住“一帶一路”建設機遇,完善多元化產業體系,既注重發展資本、技術和知識密集的先進制造業和新興產業,又大力發展紡織服裝、消費電子、鞋帽箱包等勞動密集型產業,以及電子商務、文化創意、全域旅游、健康養老等現代服務業,著力拓展就業空間,擴大就業規模。2012年成立的新疆准東經濟技術開發區,立足優勢資源轉換,大力發展新材料、新能源等六大產業,截至2019年底,已吸納8萬余人就業。2014年以來,國家大力支持新疆紡織業發展,僅2017年至2019年全疆紡織服裝產業新增就業35萬人。喀什地區重點發展農副產品加工、電子產品組裝等產業,積極引進和培育相關企業入駐園區並向鄉村生產車間延伸。截至2019年底,該地區有農副產品加工企業210家,吸納就業1.67萬人,各類園區落戶工業企業1406家,吸納就業8.41萬人。阿克蘇地區加強產教融合,推動紡織服裝企業與職業院校聯合辦學,帶動3.24萬人就業。
Assisting key groups to obtain stable employment. Xinjiang has adopted a policy to encourage surplus rural labor to work in or near their hometowns, developing "satellite factories" and "poverty alleviation workshops" in light of local conditions to create jobs, supporting rural organizations for labor service cooperation to facilitate employment, promoting IDZs to stabilize employment, and developing tourism to boost employment. Xinjiang has launched a three-year program to intensify its poverty alleviation efforts in 22 extremely poor counties in its south and 4 extremely poor regimental farms under the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. From 2018 to June 2020, the local government helped 221,000 people from registered poor households in southern Xinjiang to find work outside their hometowns. In Kashgar and Hotan prefectures, a three-year relocation assistance program from 2017 to 2019 for both urban and rural surplus labor helped 135,000 people to find jobs outside their hometowns. Xinjiang has provided dynamic, categorized and targeted assistance to people having difficulty finding work and to zero-employment households in the entire autonomous region -- having each and every one of them identified, registered, assisted, and ensured stable employment. From 2014 to 2019, Xinjiang provided jobs for 334,300 urban residents having difficulty finding work, and ensured that zero-employment households found jobs within 24 hours once they were identified. For university graduates, Xinjiang has implemented a number of plans to facilitate employment and the creation of new businesses, to guide them to work and grow at primary-level organizations, to encourage them to take up primary-level posts in education, agriculture, health care, and poverty alleviation in rural areas, and to help long-term unemployed youth find jobs. In 2019, the employment rate of university graduates in Xinjiang reached 90.4 percent, and the employment rate of ethnic minorities who graduated from universities in other parts of China and returned to Xinjiang reached 95.1 percent, both figures representing record highs. 幫助重點群體實現穩定就業。對農村富余勞動力,重點實施就地就近就業政策,因地制宜建立鄉村“衛星工廠”“扶貧車間”吸納就業,扶持農村勞務合作組織帶動就業,推動產業(工業)園區穩定就業,發展旅游產業促進就業。聚焦南疆地區22個深度貧困縣和兵團四個深度貧困團場,實施就業扶貧三年規劃,2018年至2020年6月,累計幫助22.1萬名建檔立卡貧困家庭勞動力轉移就業。在喀什、和田兩個地區,實施城鄉富余勞動力轉移就業三年規劃,2017年至2019年,累計幫助13.5萬人轉移就業。在全疆對就業困難人員和零就業家庭,實行實名動態管理和分類精准幫扶,做到“出現一戶,認定一戶,幫扶一戶,穩定一戶”。2014年至2019年,累計幫助33.43萬名城鎮就業困難人員實現就業,確保零就業家庭24小時動態清零。對高校畢業生,實施就業創業促進計劃、基層成長計劃、“三支一扶”計劃、青年就業啟航計劃等,引導和鼓勵畢業生到基層就業、到企業就業和自主創業。2019年,新疆高校應屆畢業生就業率達90.36%,返疆內地高校新疆籍少數民族畢業生就業率達95.08%,均創曆史新高。
Encouraging innovation and entrepreneurship to generate employment. Xinjiang promotes innovation as a new engine for creating jobs, and advances reform to streamline administration, delegate power, improve regulation and upgrade services. To encourage people who are eager and eligible to start their own businesses, the local government eases market access, improves policies in support of business startups, and sees to it that guaranteed loans, interest subsidies, allowances and tax breaks for startups are implemented. Xinjiang fosters platforms for innovation and entrepreneurship, improves capacity building for startups, and develops makerspaces which are market-oriented, professional, integrated and networked, to provide young entrepreneurs with more platforms and equal access to services. Currently, Xinjiang has 5 business incubation demonstration bases at national level and 27 at provincial and equivalent level, which have fostered 1,412 micro and small businesses and created more than 10,000 jobs. Xinjiang supports innovation-driven startups and entrepreneurs as capable job creators, and encourages Internet plus entrepreneurship to multiply employment opportunities. In 2019, Hotan Prefecture alone issued RMB910 million guaranteed loans for business startups, which helped 12,500 people to start businesses, including university graduates, rural workers and people having difficulty finding work. Xiao Min and five other women from Changji City, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture founded a human resources service company. It has become a leader of the local labor supply chain, integrating human resource services, dispatch of labor, logistics outsourcing, policy consultancy, and IT application. It has more than 4,800 employees from various ethnic groups and serves 318 enterprises and public institutions across the whole of Xinjiang. It has provided jobs for more than 30,000 unemployed and surplus rural laborers, and has created a total value of RMB156 million. 支持創新創業帶動就業。把創新作為擴大就業的新引擎,大力推進放管服改革,降低市場准入門檻,持續完善創業扶持政策,落實創業擔保貸款及貼息、自主創業補貼、稅費減免,支持有意願、有條件的創業者創業。培育創新創業載體,加強創業服務能力建設,加快發展市場化、專業化、集成化、網絡化的眾創空間,為創業者提供更多的創業平台和均等化服務。目前,新疆已建設國家級創業孵化示範基地5個,自治區級(兵團級)創業孵化示範基地27個,累計孵化小微企業1412家,帶動就業10121人。培育支持吸納就業能力強的創新型創業企業和帶頭人,鼓勵發展“互聯網+創業”,切實發揮創業帶動就業的倍增效應。2019年,僅和田地區發放創業擔保貸款9.1億元,幫助高校畢業生、農村勞動力、就業困難人員等1.25萬人創業。昌吉市蕭民等6名婦女在當地人社部門的扶持下,創辦了新疆巾幗眾心人力資源服務有限公司,逐步成長為集人力資源服務、勞務派遣、後勤托管、政策咨詢、信息化建設等多項業務為一體的勞務產業供應鏈龍頭企業,有各族員工4800多人,為全疆318家企事業單位提供勞務服務,累計安置失業人員、農村富余勞動力3萬多人次,實現總產值1.56億元。
Providing vocational training to facilitate employment. Based on the market demand for labor, Xinjiang focuses on improving employability of workers and promoting stable employment. It has developed a complete system of vocational education and training, including colleges for higher vocational and technical education, secondary technical schools, technical institutes, job placement training centers, employee training centers, and vocational education and training centers, with the goal of raising the basic quality of trainees and organizing training oriented to specific demands, jobs and employers. In 2019, Hotan Prefecture alone provided vocational training for 103,300 farmers and herders, of whom 98,300 found work, with an employment rate of over 95 percent. 開展技能培訓促進就業。根據勞動力市場需求,著眼提升勞動者就業能力、增強就業穩定性,通過發展高等職業技術學院、中等專業技術學校、技工院校、就業培訓中心、企業職工培訓中心、職業技能教育培訓中心等職業教育和培訓機構,積極開展基本勞動素質培訓和訂單、定崗、定向就業技能培訓,構建了比較完整的職業教育和培訓體系。以和田地區為例,2019年共有10.33萬農牧民參加就業技能培訓,實現就業9.83萬人,就業率達95.16%。
Leveraging institutional strengths to expand employment channels. China has institutional strengths that promote equality and mutual assistance among all ethnic groups towards common development and progress. It has also formed a mechanism in which better-developed provinces pair up with and provide assistance for various parts of Xinjiang. Fully leveraging these strengths and this mechanism, Xinjiang coordinates jobs in and outside the autonomous region, to create favorable conditions for its local residents to work in other parts of China. Since 2014, 117,000 people in Xinjiang have achieved employment with higher income in other parts of the country. Following the principle of "providing training according to market demand and before dispatching workers", Xinjiang has organized employment-oriented training on standard spoken and written Chinese, relevant legal knowledge, general knowhow of urban life, and labor skills. Recipients of relocation assistance are provided by their employers with daily necessities and proper accommodation. In some provinces, enterprises provide them with public rental housing, low-rent housing, or housing for couples. Xinjiang provides timely registration and certification services for those who find employment through relocation assistance, to facilitate their medical care in their host provinces. Employers and host provinces help guarantee their children's access to kindergartens and schools, and help them integrate into local life and share local resources. 發揮制度優勢拓寬就業渠道。新疆充分發揮中華民族大家庭各民族平等互助、共同發展進步的制度優勢,利用國家對口援疆機制,統籌疆內疆外就業崗位,為各族群眾到內地省(市)就業積極創造條件。2014年以來,已有11.7萬人轉移至收入更高的內地省(市)就業。新疆按照“按需培訓、先培訓後輸出”的原則,開展以國家通用語言文字、法律知識、城市生活常識、勞動技能等為主要內容的就業培訓。轉移就業人員到達就業所在地後,由企業安排住宿,提供被褥、洗漱品等日常生活用品,保障務工人員的住宿條件。部分省(市)企業還為務工人員提供公租房、廉租房、夫妻房。新疆及時為轉移就業人員辦理異地就業備案手續,解決轉移就業人員在當地看病就醫問題。內地省(市)及企業及時幫助轉移就業人員解決子女入托、上學等問題,推動務工人員與當地群眾共事共學共享共樂。
Securing employment and public wellbeing in the face of Covid-19. In response to the impact of Covid-19, Xinjiang has coordinated epidemic prevention and control with social and economic development. It has worked hard to stabilize employment, finance, foreign trade, inbound investment, domestic investment, and market expectations, and has put in place measures to guarantee jobs, daily living needs, food and energy, industrial and supply chains, the interests of market players, and the smooth functioning of grassroots government. The local government has taken multiple measures to alleviate economic difficulties and stabilize and boost employment, and adopted policies offering periodical and targeted cuts in taxes and other employer contributions, aiming to facilitate the resumption of production and business activities, and increase employment generated by investment and industries. Through all these measures, Xinjiang has achieved significant progress in increasing employment and ensuring public wellbeing while implementing Covid-19 control on an ongoing basis. This can be exemplified by the following statistics as of the end of June 2020:
-- cuts of some RMB7.6 billion to old-age insurance, unemployment insurance, and work-related injury compensation insurance paid by enterprises, which represents a 50 percent reduction of RMB1.9 billion for large enterprises, and a complete exemption of RMB5.7 billion for micro, small and medium enterprises.
-- approval to 1,237 enterprises in difficulties to postpone the payment of their social insurance premiums, totaling RMB706 million.
-- reimbursement of unemployment insurance premiums of RMB904 million to 83,100 enterprises, benefiting 1.8 million employees.
-- provision of various employment subsidies totaling about RMB1.7 billion to 552,400 people.
-- creation of 339,700 new jobs in cities and towns, 41,800 new businesses hiring 69,500 employees, and jobs for 31,600 people with difficulty finding work.
-- placement of 2.6 million surplus rural workers through relocation, a year-on-year increase of 46.1 percent.
III. Full Respect for Workers' Job Preferences 三、充分尊重勞動者的就業意願
Workers' job preferences have always served as an important reference for the local government of Xinjiang in designing its employment policies, expanding employment channels, creating jobs, organizing vocational training sessions, and providing placement services. This ensures that the people can make their own choices about work and enjoy a happy life. 新疆始終把尊重勞動者意願作為制定就業政策、拓寬就業渠道、開發就業崗位、開展就業培訓、提供就業服務的重要依據,確保廣大勞動者能夠自主自願、心情舒暢地生產生活。
...... 全面了解勞動力資源狀況。持續完善就業失業統計指標體系,實施農村勞動力資源定點監測、企業用工監測和人力資源市場供求情況監測,建立失業監測預警機制,依托鄉鎮(街道)勞動保障事務所、村(社區)勞動保障工作站,對轄區內勞動力數量、年齡、性別、文化程度、就業狀況等基本信息進行摸底,根據監測和調查結果制定就業政策和規劃。調查顯示,截至2019年底,全疆有農村富余勞動力259.03萬人,其中,南疆地區165.41萬人,占比63.86%。

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