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Energy in China's New Era
《新时代的中国能源发展》白皮书
【法宝引证码】
 
  

Energy in China's New Era

 

新时代的中国能源发展

(December 2020) (2020年12月)
The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

Contents 目录
Preamble 前言
I. Developing High-Quality Energy in the New Era 一、走新时代能源高质量发展之路
1. The New Energy Security Strategy (一)能源安全新战略
2. Guiding Philosophies for Energy Policies in the New Era (二)新时代能源政策理念
II. Historic Achievements in Energy Development 二、能源发展取得历史性成就
1. Growing Capacity to Ensure Energy Supply (一)能源供应保障能力不断增强
2. Remarkable Achievements in Optimizing Energy Conservation and Consumption (二)能源节约和消费结构优化成效显著
3. Rapid Improvements in Energy Technology (三)能源科技水平快速提升
4. Significant Progress in Eco-Environmental Friendliness of the Energy Sector (四)能源与生态环境友好性明显改善
5. Continuous Improvement in the Energy Governance Mechanism (五)能源治理机制持续完善
6. Solid Benefits for People's Lives (六)能源惠民利民成果丰硕
III. An All-Round Effort to Reform Energy Consumption   三、全面推进能源消费方式变革
1. Implementing a Dual Control System of Total Energy Consumption and Energy Intensity (一)实行能耗双控制度
2. Improving Laws, Regulations and Standards for Energy Conservation (二)健全节能法律法规和标准体系
3. Improving Energy-Saving and Low-Carbon Incentives (三)完善节能低碳激励政策
4. Improving Energy Efficiency in Key Areas (四)提升重点领域能效水平
5. Promoting Clean Final Energy Consumption (五)推动终端用能清洁化
IV. Building a Clean and Diversified Energy Supply System 四、建设多元清洁的能源供应体系
1. Prioritizing Non-Fossil Energy (一)优先发展非化石能源
2. Promoting Clean and Efficient Development and Utilization of Fossil Energy (二)清洁高效开发利用化石能源
3. Improving the Energy Storage, Transportation and Peak-Shaving System (三)加强能源储运调峰体系建设
4. Supporting Energy Development in Rural and Poor Areas (四)支持农村及贫困地区能源发展
V. Leveraging the Role of Innovation as the Primary Driver of Development 五、发挥科技创新第一动力作用
1. Improving Top Level Design for Energy Policies Relating to Scientific and Technological Innovation (一)完善能源科技创新政策顶层设计
2. Creating Diversified Platforms for Technological Innovation in Energy at Various Levels (二)建设多元化多层次能源科技创新平台
3. Promoting Coordinated Scientific and Technological Innovation in Key Realms of the Energy Sector (三)开展能源重大领域协同科技创新
4. Launching Major Energy Projects to Upgrade Energy Technologies and Equipment (四)依托重大能源工程提升能源技术装备水平
5. Supporting the Development of New Technologies and New Business Forms and Models (五)支持新技术新模式新业态发展
VI. Deeper Reform of the Energy System in All Areas 六、全面深化能源体制改革
1. Creating an Energy Market with Effective Competition (一)构建有效竞争的能源市场
2. Improving the Market-Based Mechanism for Deciding Energy Prices (二)完善主要由市场决定能源价格的机制
3. Innovative Management of the Energy Sector and Improved Government Services (三)创新能源科学管理和优化服务
4. Improving the Rule of Law in the Energy Sector (四)健全能源法治体系
VII. Strengthening International Energy Cooperation Across the Board 七、全方位加强能源国际合作
1. Opening the Energy Sector Further to the World (一)持续深化能源领域对外开放
2. Promoting Energy Cooperation Among BRI Countries (二)着力推进共建“一带一路”能源合作
3. Actively Participating in Global Energy Governance (三)积极参与全球能源治理
4. Joining Forces to Tackle Global Climate Change (四)携手应对全球气候变化
5. China's Proposals for Developing Synergy on Sustainable Global Energy Development (五)共同促进全球能源可持续发展的中国主张
Conclusion 结束语
Preamble 前言
Energy is the foundation and driving force for the progress of human civilization. It matters to the economy, to people's lives, to national security, and to the survival and development of humanity. It is of vital importance in advancing social and economic development and public welfare. 能源是人类文明进步的基础和动力,攸关国计民生和国家安全,关系人类生存和发展,对于促进经济社会发展、增进人民福祉至关重要。
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), a relatively complete energy industry system has been established. This has largely been achieved through self-reliance and hard work. Since the launch of the reform and opening-up policy in 1978, to adapt to the rapid development of the economy and society, China has promoted the development of energy in a comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable manner. Today, China has become the world's largest energy producer and consumer. Its transition to efficient energy utilization has been the fastest in the world. 新中国成立以来,在中国共产党领导下,中国自力更生、艰苦奋斗,逐步建成较为完备的能源工业体系。改革开放以来,中国适应经济社会快速发展需要,推进能源全面、协调、可持续发展,成为世界上最大的能源生产消费国和能源利用效率提升最快的国家。
Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China has entered a new era, as has its energy development. In 2014, President Xi Jinping put forward a new energy security strategy featuring Four Reforms and One Cooperation , pointing out the direction for the quality growth of the energy industry with Chinese characteristics in the new era. China upholds the vision of innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development with focus on high quality and restructuring of the supply side. It has been working on all fronts to reform the ways energy is consumed, to build a clean and diversified energy supply system, to implement an innovation-driven energy strategy, to further the reform of the energy system, and to enhance international energy cooperation. China has entered a stage of high-quality energy development. 中共十八大以来,中国发展进入新时代,中国的能源发展也进入新时代。习近平主席提出“四个革命、一个合作”能源安全新战略,为新时代中国能源发展指明了方向,开辟了中国特色能源发展新道路。中国坚持创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,以推动高质量发展为主题,以深化供给侧结构性改革为主线,全面推进能源消费方式变革,构建多元清洁的能源供应体系,实施创新驱动发展战略,不断深化能源体制改革,持续推进能源领域国际合作,中国能源进入高质量发展新阶段。
A thriving civilization calls for a good eco-environment. Facing increasingly severe global problems such as climate change, environmental risks and challenges, and energy and resource constraints, China embraces the vision of a global community of shared future and accelerates its transformation towards green and low-carbon development in economy and society. In addition to promoting clean and low-carbon energy use domestically, China has been an active participant in global energy governance, exploring a path of worldwide sustainable energy alongside other countries. At the general debates of the 75th United Nations General Assembly in September 2020, President Xi pledged that China will scale up its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions by adopting more vigorous policies and measures, striving to have carbon dioxide emissions peak before 2030 and to achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. In the new era, China's energy strategy will provide forceful support for sound and sustained economic and social development, and make a significant contribution to ensuring world energy security, addressing global climate change, and boosting global economic growth. 生态兴则文明兴。面对气候变化、环境风险挑战、能源资源约束等日益严峻的全球问题,中国树立人类命运共同体理念,促进经济社会发展全面绿色转型,在努力推动本国能源清洁低碳发展的同时,积极参与全球能源治理,与各国一道寻求加快推进全球能源可持续发展新道路。习近平主席在第七十五届联合国大会一般性辩论上宣布,中国将提高国家自主贡献力度,采取更加有力的政策和措施,二氧化碳排放力争于2030年前达到峰值,努力争取2060年前实现碳中和。新时代中国的能源发展,为中国经济社会持续健康发展提供有力支撑,也为维护世界能源安全、应对全球气候变化、促进世界经济增长作出积极贡献。
The Chinese government is publishing this white paper to provide a full picture of China's achievements in its energy development and its major policies and measures for energy reform. 为介绍新时代中国能源发展成就,全面阐述中国推进能源革命的主要政策和重大举措,特发布本白皮书。
I. Developing High-Quality Energy in the New Era 一、走新时代能源高质量发展之路
China's energy strategy in the new era endeavors to adapt to domestic and international changes and meet new requirements. China will continue to develop high-quality energy to better serve economic and social progress, support the Beautiful China and Healthy China initiatives, and build a clean and beautiful world. 新时代的中国能源发展,积极适应国内国际形势的新发展新要求,坚定不移走高质量发展新道路,更好服务经济社会发展,更好服务美丽中国、健康中国建设,更好推动建设清洁美丽世界。
1. The New Energy Security Strategy (一)能源安全新战略
In its energy plans for the new era, China has adopted a new strategy featuring Four Reforms and One Cooperation. 新时代的中国能源发展,贯彻“四个革命、一个合作”能源安全新战略。
– One reform to improve the energy consumption structure by containing unnecessary consumption. China is determined to carry out the principle of prioritizing energy conservation, and has tightened the control of total energy consumption and energy use intensity, and enforced energy conservation in all areas of social and economic development. It resolves to adjust its industrial structure. It emphasizes energy conservation in the process of urbanization, and works to develop a green and low-carbon transport system. China encourages hard work and thrift and calls people to conserve energy and work and live with green energy, and move faster towards an energy-saving society. ——推动能源消费革命,抑制不合理能源消费。坚持节能优先方针,完善能源消费总量管理,强化能耗强度控制,把节能贯穿于经济社会发展全过程和各领域。坚定调整产业结构,高度重视城镇化节能,推动形成绿色低碳交通运输体系。在全社会倡导勤俭节约的消费观,培育节约能源和使用绿色能源的生产生活方式,加快形成能源节约型社会。
– One reform to build a more diversified energy supply structure. In the direction of green development, China has been vigorously promoting the clean and efficient utilization of fossil energy, prioritizing the development of renewable energy, developing nuclear power in a safe and orderly manner, and raising the proportion of non-fossil energy in the energy supply structure. China has intensified efforts for the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas resources, to increase reserve and production volumes. China has been building the production, supply, storage and sales systems for coal, electricity, oil and gas, while improving energy transportation networks, storage facilities, the emergency response system for energy storage, transportation and peak load management, and enhancing its supply capacity for safer and higher-quality energy. ——推动能源供给革命,建立多元供应体系。坚持绿色发展导向,大力推进化石能源清洁高效利用,优先发展可再生能源,安全有序发展核电,加快提升非化石能源在能源供应中的比重。大力提升油气勘探开发力度,推动油气增储上产。推进煤电油气产供储销体系建设,完善能源输送网络和储存设施,健全能源储运和调峰应急体系,不断提升能源供应的质量和安全保障能力。
– One reform to improve energy technologies to upgrade the industry. China is implementing the innovation-driven development strategy, building a system that nurtures innovation in green energy technologies, and upgrading energy technologies and equipment in an all-round way. China has strengthened basic research on energy, innovation in generic and disruptive technologies, and original and integrated innovation. China has started to integrate digital, big-data and AI technologies with technologies for clean and efficient energy exploration and exploitation, with a focus on smart energy technologies, to turn these technologies and related industries into new growth drivers for industrial upgrading. ——推动能源技术革命,带动产业升级。深入实施创新驱动发展战略,构建绿色能源技术创新体系,全面提升能源科技和装备水平。加强能源领域基础研究以及共性技术、颠覆性技术创新,强化原始创新和集成创新。着力推动数字化、大数据、人工智能技术与能源清洁高效开发利用技术的融合创新,大力发展智慧能源技术,把能源技术及其关联产业培育成带动产业升级的新增长点。
– One reform to optimize the energy system for faster growth of the energy sector. China is determined to promote energy market reform, to marketize energy commodities and form a unified and open market with orderly competition. China is furthering energy pricing reform, to create a mechanism in which the market determines the price. China has been working to modernize its law-based energy governance system, developing new models of efficient energy management, and pushing forward reforms to streamline government administration, delegate powers, improve regulation, and upgrade service. It has strengthened planning and policy guidance for the energy sector, and improved the regulatory system of the energy industry. ——推动能源体制革命,打通能源发展快车道。坚定不移推进能源领域市场化改革,还原能源商品属性,形成统一开放、竞争有序的能源市场。推进能源价格改革,形成主要由市场决定能源价格的机制。健全能源法治体系,创新能源科学管理模式,推进“放管服”改革,加强规划和政策引导,健全行业监管体系。
– Comprehensive cooperation with other countries to realize energy security in an open environment. Under the principle of equality and mutual benefit, China is opening its door wider to the world. China promotes green and sustainable energy under the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), and endeavors to improve energy infrastructure connectivity. China has been an active participant in global energy governance, increasing energy cooperation and exchanges with other countries, and facilitating international trade and investment in the energy sector. China has joined the international community in building a new model of energy cooperation, maintaining energy market stability, and safeguarding common energy security. ——全方位加强国际合作,实现开放条件下能源安全。坚持互利共赢、平等互惠原则,全面扩大开放,积极融入世界。推动共建“一带一路”能源绿色可持续发展,促进能源基础设施互联互通。积极参与全球能源治理,加强能源领域国际交流合作,畅通能源国际贸易、促进能源投资便利化,共同构建能源国际合作新格局,维护全球能源市场稳定和共同安全。
2. Guiding Philosophies for Energy Policies in the New Era (二)新时代能源政策理念
– Putting people first. China upholds the principle of energy development for the people, by the people and answerable to the people. Its primary goal is to ensure energy supply for people's life and to ensure that the poverty-stricken population have access to electricity. To this end, China has been improving energy infrastructure related to people's life and public services, and has integrated energy development with poverty eradication. China has launched programs on poverty reduction through energy support, which exemplify the fundamental role of energy supply, infrastructure and services in the battle against poverty. ——坚持以人民为中心。牢固树立能源发展为了人民、依靠人民、服务人民的理念,把保障和改善民生用能、贫困人口用能作为能源发展的优先目标,加强能源民生基础设施和公共服务能力建设,提高能源普遍服务水平。把推动能源发展和脱贫攻坚有机结合,实施能源扶贫工程,发挥能源基础设施和能源供应服务在扶贫中的基础性作用。
– Promoting a clean and low-carbon energy. China embraces the vision of harmonious coexistence between humanity and nature, directing its efforts towards clean and low-carbon energy. China promotes green energy production and consumption, and has improved the relevant structures accordingly. China is increasing the proportion of clean energy and non-fossil energy at the consumption stage, reducing carbon dioxide emissions and pollutant discharge by large margins, and working hard to accelerate its transformation towards green and low-carbon development for the Beautiful China initiative. ——坚持清洁低碳导向。树立人与自然和谐共生理念,把清洁低碳作为能源发展的主导方向,推动能源绿色生产和消费,优化能源生产布局和消费结构,加快提高清洁能源和非化石能源消费比重,大幅降低二氧化碳排放强度和污染物排放水平,加快能源绿色低碳转型,建设美丽中国。
– Ensuring the core status of innovation. China is focusing on transforming the energy sector through technical advancement. China is actively promoting independent innovation in energy technologies, and increasing sci-tech input in the national energy development. With enterprises playing a key role in innovation, China has been promoting close collaboration along the energy industrial chain between enterprises, universities and research institutes, to reduce technology imports and boost independent innovation so as to develop a new model where innovations of both upper and lower streams well interact and coordinate with each other. ——坚持创新核心地位。把提升能源科技水平作为能源转型发展的突破口,加快能源科技自主创新步伐,加强国家能源战略科技力量,发挥企业技术创新主体作用,推进产学研深度融合,推动能源技术从引进跟随向自主创新转变,形成能源科技创新上下游联动的一体化创新和全产业链协同技术发展模式。
– Pursuing development through reform. China will fully leverage the decisive role of the market in allocating energy resources, and ensure the government better play its part in this regard. It is endeavoring to advance market-oriented reform in the competitive areas of the energy sector, further display the role of the market mechanism, and build a high-quality energy market system. China has highlighted the guiding role of its energy strategy and planning, formed a law-based governance system and a regulatory system in the energy industry, and improved the financial and fiscal systems that support green and low-carbon energy transformation. All these measures aim to unlock potential and provide support for quality growth of the energy sector. ——坚持以改革促发展。充分发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用,更好发挥政府作用,深入推进能源行业竞争性环节市场化改革,发挥市场机制作用,建设高标准能源市场体系。加强能源发展战略和规划的导向作用,健全能源法治体系和全行业监管体系,进一步完善支持能源绿色低碳转型的财税金融体制,释放能源发展活力,为能源高质量发展提供支撑。
– Building a global community of shared future. Confronted by the severe impact of climate change, China advocates a global community of shared future, greater international cooperation on energy governance, and a new round of energy reform directed towards clean and low-carbon development. China has joined other countries in seeking sustainable energy and building a clean and beautiful world. ——坚持推动构建人类命运共同体。面对日趋严峻的全球气候变化形势,树立人类命运共同体意识,深化全球能源治理合作,加快推动以清洁低碳为导向的新一轮能源变革,共同促进全球能源可持续发展,共建清洁美丽世界。
II. Historic Achievements in Energy Development 二、能源发展取得历史性成就
China is committed to driving an energy revolution. As a result, major changes have taken place in the production and use of energy and historic achievements have been realized in energy development. Energy production and consumption are being optimized, energy efficiency has increased significantly, and energy use has become more convenient for both work and life. China's capacity to ensure energy security has been strengthened. All this provides important support to quality economic development, victory in the battle against poverty, and building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. 中国坚定不移推进能源革命,能源生产和利用方式发生重大变革,能源发展取得历史性成就。能源生产和消费结构不断优化,能源利用效率显著提高,生产生活用能条件明显改善,能源安全保障能力持续增强,为服务经济高质量发展、打赢脱贫攻坚战和全面建成小康社会提供了重要支撑。
1. Growing Capacity to Ensure Energy Supply (一)能源供应保障能力不断增强
A diversified energy production infrastructure consisting of coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, nuclear energy, new energy and renewable energy is in place. Preliminary calculations show that China's primary energy production in 2019 reached 3.97 billion tons of standard coal, making it the world's largest energy producer.Coal remains the basic energy source. Since 2012, the annual production of raw coal has ranged between 3.41 and 3.97 billion tons. Crude oil production remains stable. Since 2012, the annual production of crude oil has ranged between 190 and 210 million tons. The production of natural gas has increased notably, from 110.6 billion cu m in 2012 to 176.2 billion cubic meters in 2019. China's electricity supply capacity has risen to a cumulative installed capacity of 2.01 billion kW in 2019, up 75 percent since 2012, and an electricity output of 7.5 trillion kWh, up 50 percent. Renewable energy resources have expanded rapidly, with cumulative installed capacities of hydropower, wind power, and solar photovoltaic (PV) power each ranking top in the world. As of the end of 2019, the total installed capacity of nuclear power plants under construction and in operation reached 65.93 million kW, the second largest in the world. The installed capacity of nuclear power plants under construction ranked first. 基本形成了煤、油、气、电、核、新能源和可再生能源多轮驱动的能源生产体系。初步核算,2019年中国一次能源生产总量达39.7亿吨标准煤,为世界能源生产第一大国。煤炭仍是保障能源供应的基础能源,2012年以来原煤年产量保持在34.1亿-39.7亿吨。努力保持原油生产稳定,2012年以来原油年产量保持在1.9亿-2.1亿吨。天然气产量明显提升,从2012年的1106亿立方米增长到2019年的1762亿立方米。电力供应能力持续增强,累计发电装机容量20.1亿千瓦,2019年发电量7.5万亿千瓦时,较2012年分别增长75%、50%。可再生能源开发利用规模快速扩大,水电、风电、光伏发电累计装机容量均居世界首位。截至2019年底,在运在建核电装机容量6593万千瓦,居世界第二,在建核电装机容量世界第一。
Energy transport capacity has risen remarkably. China has built natural gas trunk lines measuring over 87,000 km, oil trunk lines totaling 55,000 km, and 302,000 km of electricity transmission lines of 330 kv or more. 能源输送能力显著提高。建成天然气主干管道超过8.7万公里、石油主干管道5.5万公里、330千伏及以上输电线路长度30.2万公里。

 
The energy reserve system has been steadily improved. China has built
nine national oil reserve bases; it has achieved preliminary results in
building a natural gas production, supply, reserve and sale system; the
coordinated guarantee system for coal production and transport is sound;
the country has become a global leader in operating a secure and stable
power grid; and its capacity in comprehensive energy emergency response
has been strengthened significantly.
 能源储备体系不断健全。建成9个国家石油储备基地,天然气产供储销体系建设取得初步成效,煤炭生产运输协同保障体系逐步完善,电力安全稳定运行达到世界先进水平,能源综合应急保障能力显著增强。

Panel  1 China's Renewable Energy Exploitation Ranks First in the World

As of the end of 2019, China's total installed  capacity of power generation using renewable energy resources reached 790  million kW, accounting for about 30 percent of the global total. The total  installed capacity of hydropower reached 356 million kW, wind power 210  million kW, solar PV power 204 million kW, and biomass power 23.69 million  kW. All of these ranked first in the world. Since 2010, China has invested a  total of about US$818 billion in new energy power generation, accounting for  30 percent of the global total investment over the same period.

Heating-supply using renewable energy has been  widely adopted. By the end of 2019 the total surface area of solar panels on  solar water heaters had reached 500 million sq m. The total floor area of  buildings heated using shallow, medium and deep geothermal energy exceeded  1.1 billion sq m.

A complete industrial chain has been formed in  the manufacture of wind power and solar PV power generation equipment, with  the scale of output and level of technology leading the world. In 2019, the  output of polysilicon accounted for 67 percent of the global total. The  figure for solar PV cells was 79 percent, and for solar PV modules 71  percent. Solar PV products were exported to more than 200 countries and  regions. The production of complete wind power assemblies
 accounted for 41 percent of the world total, making China a key player in the  global industry chain of wind power equipment manufacture.

 
2. Remarkable Achievements in Optimizing Energy Conservation and Consumption (二)能源节约和消费结构优化成效显著
Significant improvement has been made in energy efficiency. Since 2012, energy consumption per unit of GDP has been reduced by 24.4 percent, equivalent to 1.27 billion tons of standard coal. From 2012 to 2019, China saw an average annual growth of 7 percent in the economy, while annual energy consumption rose by only 2.8 percent. 能源利用效率显著提高。2012年以来单位国内生产总值能耗累计降低24.4%,相当于减少能源消费12.7亿吨标准煤。2012年至2019年,以能源消费年均2.8%的增长支撑了国民经济年均7%的增长。
The shift towards clean and low-carbon energy consumption is accelerating. Preliminary calculations show that in 2019, coal consumption accounted for 57.7 percent of total energy consumption, a decrease of 10.8 percentage points from 2012; the consumption of clean energy (natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, wind power) accounted for 23.4 percent of total energy consumption, an increase of 8.9 percentage points over 2012. Non-fossil energy accounted for 15.3 percent of total energy consumption, up 5.6 percentage points against 2012. With this China has reached the target of raising the share of non-fossil energy to 15 percent in total energy consumption by 2020. The number of new energy vehicles is rising rapidly. In 2019 the total number of new energy vehicles reached 3.8 million, with 1.2 million new energy vehicles going on road that year. Both of these figures represent more than half of the global totals. As of the end of 2019, there were 1.2 million electric-vehicle charging stations nationwide, constituting the largest charging network in the world, and effectively improving energy efficiency and optimizing energy consumption in the transport sector. 能源消费结构向清洁低碳加快转变。初步核算,2019年煤炭消费占能源消费总量比重为57.7%,比2012年降低10.8个百分点;天然气、水电、核电、风电等清洁能源消费量占能源消费总量比重为23.4%,比2012年提高8.9个百分点;非化石能源占能源消费总量比重达15.3%,比2012年提高5.6个百分点,已提前完成到2020年非化石能源消费比重达到15%左右的目标。新能源汽车快速发展,2019年新增量和保有量分别达120万辆和380万辆,均占全球总量一半以上;截至2019年底,全国电动汽车充电基础设施达120万处,建成世界最大规模充电网络,有效促进了交通领域能效提高和能源消费结构优化。
 

 
3. Rapid Improvements in Energy Technology (三)能源科技水平快速提升
China continues to pursue technological innovation in the energy sector. Its energy technologies are continuously improving, and technological progress has become a basic driver for the transformation of the energy industry. There are complete industrial chains for the manufacturing of clean energy equipment for hydropower, nuclear power, wind power, and solar power. China has successfully developed and manufactured the world's largest single-unit hydropower generators, with a capacity of 1 million kW; it is able to manufacture a full range of wind turbines with a maximum single-unit capacity of 10 mw; and it continues to establish new world bests in the conversion efficiency of solar PV cells. China has built a number of nuclear power plants using advanced third-generation technologies, and made significant breakthroughs in a number of nuclear energy technologies such as new-generation nuclear power generation and small modular reactors. Its technological capabilities in oil and gas exploration and development keep improving. It leads the world in technologies such as the high-efficiency development of low-permeability crude oil and heavy oil, and a new generation of compound chemical flooding. The technology and equipment for shale oil and gas exploration and development have greatly improved, and successful natural gas hydrate production tests have been completed. China is developing green, efficient and intelligent coal mining technology. It has achieved mechanization in 98 percent of its large coal mines, and mastered the technology for producing oil and gas from coal. It has built a safe, reliable, and world-leading power grid which is the largest across the globe, with reliability of supply at the forefront of the world. A large number of new energy technologies, new businesses, and new models such as “Internet +” smart energy, energy storage, block chain, and integrated energy services are booming. 持续推进能源科技创新,能源技术水平不断提高,技术进步成为推动能源发展动力变革的基本力量。建立完备的水电、核电、风电、太阳能发电等清洁能源装备制造产业链,成功研发制造全球最大单机容量100万千瓦水电机组,具备最大单机容量达10兆瓦的全系列风电机组制造能力,不断刷新光伏电池转换效率世界纪录。建成若干应用先进三代技术的核电站,新一代核电、小型堆等多项核能利用技术取得明显突破。油气勘探开发技术能力持续提高,低渗原油及稠油高效开发、新一代复合化学驱等技术世界领先,页岩油气勘探开发技术和装备水平大幅提升,天然气水合物试采取得成功。发展煤炭绿色高效智能开采技术,大型煤矿采煤机械化程度达98%,掌握煤制油气产业化技术。建成规模最大、安全可靠、全球领先的电网,供电可靠性位居世界前列。“互联网+”智慧能源、储能、区块链、综合能源服务等一大批能源新技术、新模式、新业态正在蓬勃兴起。
4. Significant Progress in Eco-Environmental Friendliness of the Energy Sector (四)能源与生态环境友好性明显改善
China sees green energy as an important measure to enhance eco-environmental progress, and resolutely fights pollution, especially air pollution. Its capabilities in clean coal mining and utilization have greatly improved, and significant results have been achieved in regulating coal mining subsidence areas and building green mines. It has amended the Law on Air Pollution Prevention and Control to strengthen the prevention and control of pollution from coal and other energy sources, and ensure that more environmentally friendly energy sources are used to replace coal in equal or reduced amount in newly-built, renovated, or expanded coal-consuming projects in key areas for air pollution control. The green development of the energy sector has significantly improved air quality, and the emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and soot have dropped notably. Green development of the energy sector has played an important role in reducing carbon emissions. By 2019, carbon emission intensity in China had decreased by 48.1 percent compared with 2005, which exceeded the target of reducing carbon emission intensity by 40 to 45 percent between 2005 and 2020, reversing the trend of rapid carbon dioxide emission growth. 中国把推进能源绿色发展作为促进生态文明建设的重要举措,坚决打好污染防治攻坚战、打赢蓝天保卫战。煤炭清洁开采和利用水平大幅提升,采煤沉陷区治理、绿色矿山建设取得显著成效。落实修订后的《大气污染防治法》,加大燃煤和其他能源污染防治力度。推动国家大气污染防治重点区域内新建、改建、扩建用煤项目实施煤炭等量或减量替代。能源绿色发展显著推动空气质量改善,二氧化硫、氮氧化物和烟尘排放量大幅下降。能源绿色发展对碳排放强度下降起到重要作用,2019年碳排放强度比2005年下降48.1%,超过了2020年碳排放强度比2005年下降40%-45%的目标,扭转了二氧化碳排放快速增长的局面。

Panel  2 Achievements in Clean Development of Fossil Energy

Clean coal mining capacity has  increased significantly. China is actively  promoting clean coal mining technologies such as cut-and-fill mining and  water-preserved mining, and strengthening the comprehensive utilization of  coal mine resources. In 2019, the coal washing rate reached 73.2 percent, the  comprehensive utilization rate of mine water reached 75.8 percent, and the  land recovery rate for farming reached 52 percent.

China has built the world's  largest clean coal power supply system. It has  rolled out ultra-low emission transformation of coal-fired power plants. As  of the end of 2019, the total capacity of ultra-low-emission coal power  generating units reached 890 million kW, accounting for 86 percent of the  total installed capacity of all coal power generating units. Coal-fired power  generation units with a total capacity of more than 750 million kW have  undergone energy-saving transformation. As a result, the coal consumption of  coal-fired power generation has been reduced year by year.

Remarkable  results have been achieved in the replacement and transformation of  coal-fired furnaces and kilns. Over 200,000 small  coal-fired boilers have been phased out, and coal-fired boilers below 35 t/h  in key pollution control areas have been basically eliminated. Clean fuel  substitution is being implemented for industrial kilns that use coal,  petroleum coke, and heavy oil as fuel.

The  environmental standards of vehicle fuel have been steadily raised. Through a special campaign to upgrade the quality of refined oil  products, the standards of gasoline and diesel for vehicles have been  upgraded rapidly, from the National III emission standard in 2012 to the  National VI emission standard in 2019, significantly reducing vehicle exhaust  emissions.

 

 
5. Continuous Improvement in the Energy Governance Mechanism (五)能源治理机制持续完善
China is making every effort to ensure that the market plays a greater role in the energy sector. Now, in a better business environment and a more viable market, market entities and individuals enjoy more convenient services and find it easier to start businesses. Market access for foreign capital in the energy sector has been extended, private investment is growing, and investment entities have become more diverse. Policies on power generation and consumption plans have been relaxed in an orderly manner, trading institutions can operate independently and in accordance with regulations, and the power market has further developed. China has accelerated reforms such as the deregulation of the oil and gas exploration market and the circulation of mining rights, reform of the pipeline network operation mechanism, and the dynamic management of crude oil imports. It has improved the construction of oil and gas trading centers. China encourages the market to play a decisive role in determining energy prices. It has further relaxed control on the prices in competitive areas, and has preliminarily established a reasonable pricing mechanism for power transmission and distribution and oil and gas pipeline networks. It coordinates energy reform with law-based governance, and the legal framework regarding the energy sector has been improved. An energy governance mechanism covering strategies, plans, policies, standards, supervision, and services is in place. 全面提升能源领域市场化水平,营商环境不断优化,市场活力明显增强,市场主体和人民群众办事创业更加便利。进一步放宽能源领域外资市场准入,民间投资持续壮大,投资主体更加多元。发用电计划有序放开、交易机构独立规范运行、电力市场建设深入推进。加快推进油气勘查开采市场放开与矿业权流转、管网运营机制改革、原油进口动态管理等改革,完善油气交易中心建设。推进能源价格市场化,进一步放开竞争性环节价格,初步建立电力、油气网络环节科学定价制度。协同推进能源改革和法治建设,能源法律体系不断完善。覆盖战略、规划、政策、标准、监管、服务的能源治理机制基本形成。
6. Solid Benefits for People's Lives (六)能源惠民利民成果丰硕
Ensuring public wellbeing and improving people's lives is China's fundamental goal in energy development. China is ensuring that urban and rural residents have access to basic energy supply and services, as a fundamental element in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and supporting rural revitalization. From 2016 to 2019, the total investment in transforming and upgrading rural power grids reached RMB830 billion, and the average power outage time in rural areas was reduced to about 15 hours per year. The quality of power services for rural residents has improved significantly. From 2013 to 2015 China implemented an action plan to ensure access to electricity for every citizen, and completed this historic task by the end of 2015. It has implemented poverty alleviation projects based on solar PV power generation, and other energy-related poverty alleviation projects. China prioritizes poverty-stricken areas in planning energy development projects and has introduced energy projects for the benefit of the rural residents. This has promoted economic development in poverty-stricken areas and raised the incomes of the poor. It has improved the infrastructure for natural gas utilization, supplied natural gas to more areas, and improved its ability to ensure gas supply for people's daily life. Significant progress has been made in clean heating in northern China, with improvements in the energy use and living environment of urban and rural residents. As of the end of 2019, clean heating in northern China covered a floor space of 11.6 billion sq m, an increase of 5.1 billion sq m over 2016. 把保障和改善民生作为能源发展的根本出发点,保障城乡居民获得基本能源供应和服务,在全面建成小康社会和乡村振兴中发挥能源供应的基础保障作用。2016年至2019年,农网改造升级总投资达8300亿元,农村平均停电时间降低至15小时左右,农村居民用电条件明显改善。2013年至2015年,实施解决无电人口用电行动计划,2015年底完成全部人口都用上电的历史性任务。实施光伏扶贫工程等能源扶贫工程建设,优先在贫困地区进行能源开发项目布局,实施能源惠民工程,促进了贫困地区经济发展和贫困人口收入增加。完善天然气利用基础设施建设,扩大天然气供应区域,提高民生用气保障能力。北方地区清洁取暖取得明显进展,改善了城乡居民用能条件和居住环境。截至2019年底,北方地区清洁取暖面积达116亿平方米,比2016年增加51亿平方米。
 
III. An All-Round Effort to Reform Energy Consumption 三、全面推进能源消费方式变革
China perseveres with its fundamental national policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment. Prioritizing energy saving, it understands that energy conservation means increasing resources, reducing pollution, and benefiting humanity, and exercises energy saving throughout the whole process and in all areas of economic and social development. 坚持节约资源和保护环境的基本国策,坚持节能优先方针,树立节能就是增加资源、减少污染、造福人类的理念,把节能贯穿于经济社会发展全过程和各领域。
1. Implementing a Dual Control System of Total Energy Consumption and Energy Intensity (一)实行能耗双控制度
A dual control system of total energy consumption and energy intensity is in place. China sets the targets of total energy consumption and energy intensity for different provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government and applies oversight and checks over the performance of local governments at all levels. It has introduced the energy-saving index into the performance evaluation system of eco-environmental progress and green development, to guide the transformation of the development philosophy. It breaks down the dual control targets of total energy consumption and energy intensity for key energy consumers, and evaluates their performance accordingly to strengthen energy-saving management. 实行能源消费总量和强度双控制度,按省、自治区、直辖市行政区域设定能源消费总量和强度控制目标,对各级地方政府进行监督考核。把节能指标纳入生态文明、绿色发展等绩效评价指标体系,引导转变发展理念。对重点用能单位分解能耗双控目标,开展目标责任评价考核,推动重点用能单位加强节能管理。
2. Improving Laws, Regulations and Standards for Energy Conservation (二)健全节能法律法规和标准体系
China has revised the Energy Conservation Law. It has put in place an energy-saving system in key areas including industry, construction and transport as well as in public institutions. It continues to improve the supporting legal institutions for energy conservation supervision, energy-efficiency labeling, energy-saving checks on fixed assets investment projects, and energy conservation management of key energy consumers. It has strengthened standard-setting as a constraining factor and improved energy-saving standards system. It has carried out 100 projects to upgrade energy efficiency standards, enacted more than 340 national energy-saving standards, including almost 200 mandatory standards, covering most high energy-consuming industries and final energy consumption products. China has strengthened oversight over energy-saving law enforcement, reinforced operational and post-operational supervision, and exercised strict accountability for law enforcement to ensure the effective implementation of energy conservation laws, regulations, and mandatory standards. 修订实施《节约能源法》,建立完善工业、建筑、交通等重点领域和公共机构节能制度,健全节能监察、能源效率标识、固定资产投资项目节能审查、重点用能单位节能管理等配套法律制度。强化标准引领约束作用,健全节能标准体系,实施百项能效标准推进工程,发布实施340多项国家节能标准,其中近200项强制性标准,实现主要高耗能行业和终端用能产品全覆盖。加强节能执法监督,强化事中事后监管,严格执法问责,确保节能法律法规和强制性标准有效落实。
3. Improving Energy-Saving and Low-Carbon Incentives (三)完善节能低碳激励政策
Corporate income tax and value-added tax incentives are awarded to energy-saving businesses. China encourages the imports of energy-saving technologies and equipment, and controls the exports of energy-intensive and heavy-polluting products. China is improving the green financial system, and makes use of energy efficiency credits and green bonds to support energy conservation projects. It is exploring new ground in pricing to advance green development. Differential pricing, time-of-use pricing, and tiered pricing for electricity and natural gas have been adopted. China is improving its policies of environment-friendly electricity pricing to arouse the enthusiasm of market entities and the public in energy conservation. It has conducted trials of paid use of and trading in energy-using right in four provinces and cities including Zhejiang, and carbon emissions trading in seven provinces and cities including Beijing. The government is promoting energy performance contracting (EPC) and developing integrated energy services, and encourages innovations in energy-saving technology and business models. It has strengthened the management of demand-side power use and implemented a market response mechanism to guide the economical, orderly and rational utilization of electricity. A “leader board” of best energy-savers has been put in place to increase the efficiency of final energy consumption products, energy-intensive industries, and public institutions. 实行促进节能的企业所得税、增值税优惠政策。鼓励进口先进节能技术、设备,控制出口耗能高、污染重的产品。健全绿色金融体系,利用能效信贷、绿色债券等支持节能项目。创新完善促进绿色发展的价格机制,实施差别电价、峰谷分时电价、阶梯电价、阶梯气价等,完善环保电价政策,调动市场主体和居民节能的积极性。在浙江等4省市开展用能权有偿使用和交易试点,在北京等7省市开展碳排放权交易试点。大力推行合同能源管理,鼓励节能技术和经营模式创新,发展综合能源服务。加强电力需求侧管理,推行电力需求侧响应的市场化机制,引导节约、有序、合理用电。建立能效“领跑者”制度,推动终端用能产品、高耗能行业、公共机构提升能效水平。
...... ......



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