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Constitution of the People's Republic of China (2018 Amendment) [Effective]
中华人民共和国宪法(2018修正) [现行有效]
  • Issuing authority: National People's Congress
  • Document Number: Announcement No. 1 of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China
  • Date issued: 03-11-2018
  • Effective date: 03-11-2018
  • Level of Authority: Laws
  • Area of Law:Constitution

Constitution of the People's?Republic of China



(Adopted at the Fifth Session of the Fifth National People's Congress and promulgated by the Announcement of the National People's Congress on December 4, 1982; amended in accordance with the Amendment to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China?adopted at the First Session of the Seventh National People's Congress on April 12, 1988, the Amendment to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China?adopted at the First Session of the Eighth National People's Congress on March 29, 1993, the Amendment to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China?adopted at the Second Session of the Ninth National People's Congress on March 15, 1999, the Amendment to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China?adopted at the Second Session of the Tenth National People's Congress on March 14, 2004, and the Amendment to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China?adopted at the First Session of the Thirteenth National People's Congress on March 11, 2018) (1982年12月4日第五届全国人民代表大会第五次会议通过 1982年12月4日全国人民代表大会公告公布施行 根据1988年4月12日第七届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》、1993年3月29日第八届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》、1999年3月15日第九届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》、2004年3月14日第十届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》和2018年3月11日第十三届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》修正)
Contents 目录
Preamble 序言
Chapter I – General Principles 第一章 总纲
Chapter II – Fundamental Rights and Obligations of Citizens 第二章 公民的基本权利和义务
Chapter III – State Institutions 第三章 国家机构
Section 1 – The National People's Congress 第一节 全国人民代表大会
Section 2 – The President of the People's Republic of China 第二节 中华人民共和国主席
Section 3 – The State Council 第三节 国务院
Section 4 – The Central Military Commission 第四节 中央军事委员会
Section 5 – Local People's Congresses at All Levels and Local People's Governments at All Levels 第五节 地方各级人民代表大会和地方各级人民政府
Section 6 – Autonomous Organs of Ethnic Autonomous Areas 第六节 民族自治地方的自治机关
Section 7 – Commissions of Supervision 第七节 监察委员会
Section 8 – People's Courts and People's Procuratorates 第八节 人民法院和人民检察院
Chapter IV – The National Flag, National Anthem, National Emblem and the Capital 第四章 国旗、国歌、国徽、首都
Preamble 序言
China is one of the countries with the longest histories in the world. The Chinese people of all ethnic groups jointly created its magnificent culture and have a proud?revolutionary tradition. 中国是世界上历史最悠久的国家之一。中国各族人民共同创造了光辉灿烂的文化,具有光荣的革命传统。
After 1840, feudal China gradually became a semi-colonial, semi-feudal country. The Chinese people, wave upon wave, waged heroic struggles for national independence and liberation?and for democracy and freedom. 一八四○年以后,封建的中国逐渐变成半殖民地、半封建的国家。中国人民为国家独立、民族解放和民主自由进行了前仆后继的英勇奋斗。
In the 20th century, momentous historical changes took place in China. 二十世纪,中国发生了翻天覆地的伟大历史变革。
The Revolution of 1911, led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, abolished the feudal monarchy and gave birth to the Republic of China. However, the historic mission of the Chinese people to oppose imperialism and feudalism was not yet accomplished. 一九一一年孙中山先生领导的辛亥革命,废除了封建帝制,创立了中华民国。但是,中国人民反对帝国主义和封建主义的历史任务还没有完成。
In 1949, after engaging in protracted, arduous and tortuous struggles, armed and in other forms, the Chinese people of all ethnic groups led by the Communist Party of China with Chairman Mao Zedong as its leader finally overthrew the rule of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, won a great victory in the New Democratic Revolution, and founded the People's Republic of China. The Chinese people thus secured power and became masters of their own country. 一九四九年,以毛泽东主席为领袖的中国共产党领导中国各族人民,在经历了长期的艰难曲折的武装斗争和其他形式的斗争以后,终于推翻了帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义的统治,取得了新民主主义革命的伟大胜利,建立了中华人民共和国。从此,中国人民掌握了国家的权力,成为国家的主人。
After the founding of the People's Republic of China, our country gradually achieved the transition from a new democratic society to a socialist society. The socialist transformation of private ownership of the means of production has been completed, the system of exploitation of man by man abolished, and a socialist system established. The people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on an alliance of workers and peasants, which in essence is a dictatorship of the proletariat, has been consolidated and developed. The Chinese people and the Chinese People's Liberation Army have defeated imperialist and hegemonist aggression, sabotage and armed provocations, safeguarded national independence and security, and strengthened national defense. Major achievements have been made in economic development. An independent and relatively complete socialist industrial system has now basically been established, and agricultural output has markedly increased. Significant advances have been made in education, science, culture and other fields, and education about socialist thought has made notable progress. The lives of the people have been considerably improved. 中华人民共和国成立以后,我国社会逐步实现了由新民主主义到社会主义的过渡。生产资料私有制的社会主义改造已经完成,人剥削人的制度已经消灭,社会主义制度已经确立。工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政,实质上即无产阶级专政,得到巩固和发展。中国人民和中国人民解放军战胜了帝国主义、霸权主义的侵略、破坏和武装挑衅,维护了国家的独立和安全,增强了国防。经济建设取得了重大的成就,独立的、比较完整的社会主义工业体系已经基本形成,农业生产显著提高。教育、科学、文化等事业有了很大的发展,社会主义思想教育取得了明显的成效。广大人民的生活有了较大的改善。
Both the victory in China's New Democratic Revolution and the successes in its socialist cause have been achieved by the Chinese people of all ethnic groups under the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought by upholding truth, correcting errors, and surmounting many difficulties and obstacles. Our country will long remain in the primary stage of socialism. The fundamental task for our country is to concentrate on achieving socialist modernization along the road of socialism with Chinese?characteristics. We the Chinese people of all ethnic groups will continue, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, to uphold the people's democratic dictatorship, stay on the socialist road, carry out reform and opening up, steadily improve the socialist institutions, develop the socialist market economy and socialist democracy, improve socialist rule of law, apply the new development?philosophy, and work hard in?a spirit of self-reliance to modernize step by step the country's industry, agriculture, national defense, and science and technology and promote coordinated material, political, cultural-ethical, social and ecological advancement, in order to build China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious and beautiful, and realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. 中国新民主主义革命的胜利和社会主义事业的成就,是中国共产党领导中国各族人民,在马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想的指引下,坚持真理,修正错误,战胜许多艰难险阻而取得的。我国将长期处于社会主义初级阶段。国家的根本任务是,沿着中国特色社会主义道路,集中力量进行社会主义现代化建设。中国各族人民将继续在中国共产党领导下,在马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观、习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指引下,坚持人民民主专政,坚持社会主义道路,坚持改革开放,不断完善社会主义的各项制度,发展社会主义市场经济,发展社会主义民主,健全社会主义法治,贯彻新发展理念,自力更生,艰苦奋斗,逐步实现工业、农业、国防和科学技术的现代化,推动物质文明、政治文明、精神文明、社会文明、生态文明协调发展,把我国建设成为富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国,实现中华民族伟大复兴。
In our country the exploiting class, as a class, has been eliminated, but class struggle will continue to exist within a certain scope for a long time to come. The people of China must fight against those domestic and foreign forces and elements that are hostile to and undermine our country's socialist system. 在我国,剥削阶级作为阶级已经消灭,但是阶级斗争还将在一定范围内长期存在。中国人民对敌视和破坏我国社会主义制度的国内外的敌对势力和敌对分子,必须进行斗争。
Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of the People's Republic of China. It is the sacred duty of all the Chinese people, including our fellow Chinese in Taiwan, to achieve the great reunification of the motherland. 台湾是中华人民共和国的神圣领土的一部分。完成统一祖国的大业是包括台湾同胞在内的全中国人民的神圣职责。
The cause of building socialism must rely on workers, peasants and intellectuals and unite all forces that can be united. Through the long process of revolution, development and reform, a broad patriotic united front has formed under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, with the participation of other political parties and people's organizations and including all socialist working people, people involved in building socialism,?patriots who support socialism, and patriots who support China's reunification and are dedicated to the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.?This united front will continue to be consolidated and developed. The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference is a broadly representative organization of the united front, and has played a significant historical role. In the future, it will play an even more important role in the country's political and social life and its friendly foreign activities, in socialist modernization and in safeguarding the unity and solidarity of the country. The system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China will continue and develop long into the future. 社会主义的建设事业必须依靠工人、农民和知识分子,团结一切可以团结的力量。在长期的革命、建设、改革过程中,已经结成由中国共产党领导的,有各民主党派和各人民团体参加的,包括全体社会主义劳动者、社会主义事业的建设者、拥护社会主义的爱国者、拥护祖国统一和致力于中华民族伟大复兴的爱国者的广泛的爱国统一战线,这个统一战线将继续巩固和发展。中国人民政治协商会议是有广泛代表性的统一战线组织,过去发挥了重要的历史作用,今后在国家政治生活、社会生活和对外友好活动中,在进行社会主义现代化建设、维护国家的统一和团结的斗争中,将进一步发挥它的重要作用。中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度将长期存在和发展。
The People's Republic of China is a unified multiethnic state founded by the Chinese people of all ethnic groups. Socialist ethnic relations of equality, unity, mutual assistance and harmony are established and will continue to be strengthened. In the struggle to safeguard ethnic unity, we should oppose major ethnic group chauvinism, which mainly refers to Han chauvinism, and local ethnic chauvinism. The state makes every effort to promote the shared prosperity of all the country's ethnic groups. 中华人民共和国是全国各族人民共同缔造的统一的多民族国家。平等团结互助和谐的社会主义民族关系已经确立,并将继续加强。在维护民族团结的斗争中,要反对大民族主义,主要是大汉族主义,也要反对地方民族主义。国家尽一切努力,促进全国各民族的共同繁荣。
The achievements of China's revolution, development and reform would have been impossible without the support of the world's people. The future of China is closely bound up with the future of the world. China pursues an independent foreign policy, observes the five principles of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual nonaggression, mutual noninterference in internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence, keeps to a path of peaceful development, follows a mutually beneficial strategy of opening up, works to develop diplomatic relations and economic and cultural exchanges with other countries, and promotes the building of a human community with a shared future. China consistently?opposes imperialism, hegemonism and colonialism, works to strengthen its solidarity with the people of all other countries, supports oppressed peoples and other developing countries in their just struggles to win and safeguard their independence and develop their economies, and strives to safeguard world peace and promote the cause of human progress. 中国革命、建设、改革的成就是同世界人民的支持分不开的。中国的前途是同世界的前途紧密地联系在一起的。中国坚持独立自主的对外政策,坚持互相尊重主权和领土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互利、和平共处的五项原则,坚持和平发展道路,坚持互利共赢开放战略,发展同各国的外交关系和经济、文化交流,推动构建人类命运共同体;坚持反对帝国主义、霸权主义、殖民主义,加强同世界各国人民的团结,支持被压迫民族和发展中国家争取和维护民族独立、发展民族经济的正义斗争,为维护世界和平和促进人类进步事业而努力。
This Constitution affirms, in legal form, the achievements of the struggles of the Chinese people of all ethnic groups and stipulates the fundamental system and task of the state. It is the fundamental law of the state and has supreme legal force. The people of all ethnic groups, all state organs and armed forces, all political parties and social organizations, and all enterprises and public institutions in the country must treat the Constitution as the fundamental standard of conduct; they have a duty to uphold the sanctity of the Constitution and ensure its compliance. 本宪法以法律的形式确认了中国各族人民奋斗的成果,规定了国家的根本制度和根本任务,是国家的根本法,具有最高的法律效力。全国各族人民、一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织,都必须以宪法为根本的活动准则,并且负有维护宪法尊严、保证宪法实施的职责。
Chapter I General Principles 

第一章 总纲

Article 1 The People's Republic of China is a socialist state governed by a people's democratic dictatorship that is led by the working class and based on an alliance of workers and peasants.   第一条 中华人民共和国是工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政的社会主义国家。
The socialist system is the fundamental system of the People's Republic of China.?Leadership by the Communist Party of China is the defining?feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics.?It is prohibited for any organization or individual to damage the socialist system. 社会主义制度是中华人民共和国的根本制度。中国共产党领导是中国特色社会主义最本质的特征。禁止任何组织或者个人破坏社会主义制度。
Article 2 All power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the people.   第二条 中华人民共和国的一切权力属于人民。
The organs through which the people exercise state power are the National People's Congress and the local people's congresses at all levels. 人民行使国家权力的机关是全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会。
The people shall, in accordance with the provisions of law, manage state affairs, economic and cultural undertakings, and social affairs through various channels and in various ways. 人民依照法律规定,通过各种途径和形式,管理国家事务,管理经济和文化事业,管理社会事务。
Article 3 The state institutions of the People's Republic of China shall?practice?the principle of democratic centralism.   第三条 中华人民共和国的国家机构实行民主集中制的原则。
The National People's Congress and the local people's congresses at all levels shall be created through democratic election and shall be responsible to the people and subject to their oversight. 全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会都由民主选举产生,对人民负责,受人民监督。
All administrative, supervisory, adjudicatory and procuratorial organs?of the state shall be created by the people's congresses and shall be responsible to them and subject to their oversight. 国家行政机关、监察机关、审判机关、检察机关都由人民代表大会产生,对它负责,受它监督。
The division of functions and powers between the central and local state institutions shall honor the principle of giving full play to the initiative and motivation of?local authorities?under the unified leadership of the central authorities. 中央和地方的国家机构职权的划分,遵循在中央的统一领导下,充分发挥地方的主动性、积极性的原则。
Article 4 All ethnic groups of the People's Republic of China are equal. The state shall?protect?the lawful rights and interests of all ethnic minorities and uphold?and promote relations of equality, unity, mutual assistance and harmony among all ethnic groups. Discrimination against and oppression of any ethnic group are prohibited; any act that undermines the unity of ethnic groups or creates divisions among them is prohibited.   第四条 中华人民共和国各民族一律平等。国家保障各少数民族的合法的权利和利益,维护和发展各民族的平等团结互助和谐关系。禁止对任何民族的歧视和压迫,禁止破坏民族团结和制造民族分裂的行为。
The state shall, in light of the characteristics and needs of all ethnic minorities, assist all ethnic minority areas in?accelerating their economic and cultural development. 国家根据各少数民族的特点和需要,帮助各少数民族地区加速经济和文化的发展。
All areas inhabited by ethnic minorities?shall practice regional autonomy, establish autonomous organs, and?exercise the power to self-govern. All ethnic autonomous areas are inseparable parts of the People's Republic of China. 各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权。各民族自治地方都是中华人民共和国不可分离的部分。
All ethnic groups shall have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages and to preserve or reform their own traditions and customs. 各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由。
Article 5 The People's Republic of China shall?practice law-based governance and build a socialist state under the rule of law.   第五条 中华人民共和国实行依法治国,建设社会主义法治国家。
The state shall safeguard the unity and sanctity of the socialist legal system. 国家维护社会主义法制的统一和尊严。
No law, administrative regulation?or local regulation shall be in conflict with the Constitution. 一切法律、行政法规和地方性法规都不得同宪法相抵触。
All state organs and?armed forces, all political parties and social?organizations, and all enterprises and public institutions must abide by the Constitution and the law. Accountability must be enforced for all acts?that?violate?the Constitution or laws. 一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织都必须遵守宪法和法律。一切违反宪法和法律的行为,必须予以追究。
No organization or individual shall have?any privilege beyond the Constitution or the law. 任何组织或者个人都不得有超越宪法和法律的特权。
Article 6 The foundation?of the socialist economic system of the People's Republic of China is socialist public ownership of the means of production, that is, ownership by the whole people?and collective ownership by the working people. The system of socialist public ownership has eradicated the system of exploitation of man by man, and practices the principle of “from each according to his ability, to each according to his work.”   第六条 中华人民共和国的社会主义经济制度的基础是生产资料的社会主义公有制,即全民所有制和劳动群众集体所有制。社会主义公有制消灭人剥削人的制度,实行各尽所能、按劳分配的原则。
In the primary stage of socialism, the state shall?uphold a fundamental economic system under which public ownership is the mainstay and diverse forms of ownership develop together, and shall uphold an income distribution system under which distribution according to work is the mainstay, while multiple forms of distribution exist alongside it. 国家在社会主义初级阶段,坚持公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,坚持按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式并存的分配制度。
Article 7 The state sector of the economy, that is, the sector of the socialist economy under ownership by the whole people, shall be the leading force in the economy. The state shall ensure the consolidation and development of the state sector of the economy.   第七条 国有经济,即社会主义全民所有制经济,是国民经济中的主导力量。国家保障国有经济的巩固和发展。
Article 8 Rural collective economic organizations shall?practice a two-tiered system of both unified and separate operations with household contract management as its basis. Rural economic cooperatives —?producer, supply and marketing, credit and consumer cooperatives —?are part of the socialist economy under collective ownership?by the working people. Working people who belong to rural collective economic organizations shall have the right, within the scope?prescribed by law, to farm cropland and hillsides allotted to them for their private use, engage in household sideline production, and raise privately owned livestock.   第八条 农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制。农村中的生产、供销、信用、消费等各种形式的合作经济,是社会主义劳动群众集体所有制经济。参加农村集体经济组织的劳动者,有权在法律规定的范围内经营自留地、自留山、家庭副业和饲养自留畜。
The various forms of cooperative economic activities in cities and towns, such as those in the handicraft, industrial, building, transport, commercial and service trades,?shall?all be part of?the socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people. 城镇中的手工业、工业、建筑业、运输业、商业、服务业等行业的各种形式的合作经济,都是社会主义劳动群众集体所有制经济。
The state shall protect the lawful rights and interests of urban and rural collective economic organizations and shall encourage, guide and assist the growth of the collective sector of the economy. 国家保护城乡集体经济组织的合法的权利和利益,鼓励、指导和帮助集体经济的发展。
Article 9 All mineral resources, waters, forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land, mudflats and other natural resources are owned by the state, that is, by the whole people,?except for the forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land and mudflats that are owned by collectives as prescribed by law.   第九条 矿藏、水流、森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等自然资源,都属于国家所有,即全民所有;由法律规定属于集体所有的森林和山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂除外。
The state shall ensure the rational use of natural resources and protect rare animals and plants. It is prohibited for any organization or individual to seize or damage natural resources by any means. 国家保障自然资源的合理利用,保护珍贵的动物和植物。禁止任何组织或者个人用任何手段侵占或者破坏自然资源。
Article 10 Land in cities is owned by the state.   第十条 城市的土地属于国家所有。
Land in rural and suburban areas is owned by collectives except for that which belongs to the state as prescribed by law; housing sites and cropland and hillsides allotted for private use are also owned by collectives. 农村和城市郊区的土地,除由法律规定属于国家所有的以外,属于集体所有;宅基地和自留地、自留山,也属于集体所有。
The state may, in order to meet the demands of the public interest and in accordance with the provisions of law, expropriate or requisition land and furnish compensation. 国家为了公共利益的需要,可以依照法律规定对土地实行征收或者征用并给予补偿。
No organization or individual?shall?unlawfully transfer land through seizure, sale and purchase, or in any other form. Land-use rights may be transferred in accordance with the provisions of law. 任何组织或者个人不得侵占、买卖或者以其他形式非法转让土地。土地的使用权可以依照法律的规定转让。
All organizations and individuals using land must use it in an appropriate manner. 一切使用土地的组织和个人必须合理地利用土地。
Article 11 Non-public economic sectors that are within the scope?prescribed by law, such as individually owned and private businesses, are an important component of the socialist market economy.   第十一条 在法律规定范围内的个体经济、私营经济等非公有制经济,是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分。
The state shall?protect the lawful rights and interests of non-public economic sectors such as?individually owned and private businesses.?The state shall?encourage, support and guide the development of non-public economic sectors and exercise oversight and regulation over non-public economic sectors in accordance with law.? 国家保护个体经济、私营经济等非公有制经济的合法的权利和利益。国家鼓励、支持和引导非公有制经济的发展,并对非公有制经济依法实行监督和管理。
Article 12 Socialist public property is sacred and inviolable.   第十二条 社会主义的公共财产神圣不可侵犯。
The state shall protect socialist public property. It is prohibited for any organization or individual to seize or damage state or collective property by any means. 国家保护社会主义的公共财产。禁止任何组织或者个人用任何手段侵占或者破坏国家的和集体的财产。
Article 13 Citizens' lawful private property is inviolable.?   第十三条 公民的合法的私有财产不受侵犯。
The state shall?protect the right of citizens to own and inherit private property in accordance with the provisions of law. 国家依照法律规定保护公民的私有财产权和继承权。
The state may, in order to meet the demands of the public interest and in accordance with the provisions of law, expropriate or requisition citizens' private property and furnish compensation.? 国家为了公共利益的需要,可以依照法律规定对公民的私有财产实行征收或者征用并给予补偿。
Article 14 The state shall continually raise labor productivity and improve economic performance?to develop productive forces by?increasing working people's?motivation and level of technical skill, promoting advanced science and technology, improving the systems of economic management and enterprise operation and management, practicing different forms of socialist responsibility system?and improving the organization of work.   第十四条 国家通过提高劳动者的积极性和技术水平,推广先进的科学技术,完善经济管理体制和企业经营管理制度,实行各种形式的社会主义责任制,改进劳动组织,以不断提高劳动生产率和经济效益,发展社会生产力。
The state shall practice strict economy and combat waste. 国家厉行节约,反对浪费。
The state shall appropriately handle?accumulation and consumption, give due consideration at once to the interests of the state, collectives and individuals and, based on the development of production, gradually improve the material and cultural wellbeing?of the people. 国家合理安排积累和消费,兼顾国家、集体和个人的利益,在发展生产的基础上,逐步改善人民的物质生活和文化生活。
The state shall?establish a sound social security system compatible with the level of economic development. 国家建立健全同经济发展水平相适应的社会保障制度。
Article 15 The state shall practice a socialist market economy.   第十五条 国家实行社会主义市场经济。
The state shall strengthen economic legislation and improve macro regulation. 国家加强经济立法,完善宏观调控。
The state shall, in accordance with law,?prohibit disruption of the socioeconomic order by any organization or individual. 国家依法禁止任何组织或者个人扰乱社会经济秩序。
Article 16 State-owned enterprises shall, within the scope?prescribed by law, have the right to operate autonomously.   第十六条 国有企业在法律规定的范围内有权自主经营。
State-owned enterprises shall, in accordance with the provisions of law, practice democratic management through employee congresses and other means. 国有企业依照法律规定,通过职工代表大会和其他形式,实行民主管理。
Article 17 Collective economic organizations shall, on the condition that they abide by relevant laws, have the autonomy to independently conduct economic activities.   第十七条 集体经济组织在遵守有关法律的前提下,有独立进行经济活动的自主权。
Collective economic organizations shall practice democratic management and shall, in accordance with the provisions of law, elect and remove their management?personnel and decide on major issues concerning their operations and management. 集体经济组织实行民主管理,依照法律规定选举和罢免管理人员,决定经营管理的重大问题。
Article 18 The People's Republic of China shall permit foreign enterprises, other economic organizations and individuals, to invest in China and to enter into various forms of economic cooperation with Chinese enterprises or other economic organizations in accordance with the provisions of law of the People's Republic of China.   第十八条 中华人民共和国允许外国的企业和其他经济组织或者个人依照中华人民共和国法律的规定在中国投资,同中国的企业或者其他经济组织进行各种形式的经济合作。
All foreign enterprises, other foreign economic organizations and Chinese-foreign joint ventures in the territory of China shall abide by the law of the People's Republic of China. Their lawful rights and interests shall be protected by the law of the People's Republic of China. 在中国境内的外国企业和其他外国经济组织以及中外合资经营的企业,都必须遵守中华人民共和国的法律。它们的合法的权利和利益受中华人民共和国法律的保护。
Article 19 The state shall develop socialist education?to raise the scientific and cultural level of the whole nation.   第十九条 国家发展社会主义的教育事业,提高全国人民的科学文化水平。
The state shall run?schools of all types, provide universal compulsory primary education, develop secondary, vocational and higher education, and also develop preschool education. 国家举办各种学校,普及初等义务教育,发展中等教育、职业教育和高等教育,并且发展学前教育。
The state shall develop?different types of educational facilities, eliminate illiteracy, provide political, cultural, scientific, technical and field-specific education for workers, peasants, state employees and other working people, and encourage people to become accomplished individuals through self-study. 国家发展各种教育设施,扫除文盲,对工人、农民、国家工作人员和其他劳动者进行政治、文化、科学、技术、业务的教育,鼓励自学成才。
The state shall encourage collective economic organizations, state enterprises, public institutions and other social actors to run education programs of various types in accordance with the provisions of law. 国家鼓励集体经济组织、国家企业事业组织和其他社会力量依照法律规定举办各种教育事业。
The state shall promote the common speech — putonghua — used nationwide. 国家推广全国通用的普通话。
Article 20 The state shall develop the natural and social sciences, disseminate scientific and technological knowledge,?and commend?and award research achievements and?technological discoveries and inventions.?   第二十条 国家发展自然科学和社会科学事业,普及科学和技术知识,奖励科学研究成果和技术发明创造。
Article 21 To protect the people's health, the state shall develop medical and health care,?develop modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, encourage and support the running of various medical and health facilities by rural collective economic organizations, state enterprises, public institutions and?neighborhood organizations, and promote public health?activities.   第二十一条 国家发展医疗卫生事业,发展现代医药和我国传统医药,鼓励和支持农村集体经济组织、国家企业事业组织和街道组织举办各种医疗卫生设施,开展群众性的卫生活动,保护人民健康。
To improve the people's physical fitness, the state shall develop sports and promote public sports activities. 国家发展体育事业,开展群众性的体育活动,增强人民体质。
Article 22 The state shall develop art and literature, the press, radio and television broadcasting, publishing, libraries, museums and cultural centers, and other cultural undertakings that serve the people and socialism; and shall promote public cultural activities.   第二十二条 国家发展为人民服务、为社会主义服务的文学艺术事业、新闻广播电视事业、出版发行事业、图书馆博物馆文化馆和其他文化事业,开展群众性的文化活动。
The state shall protect places of scenic beauty and historical interest, valuable cultural relics and other forms of important?historical and cultural heritage. 国家保护名胜古迹、珍贵文物和其他重要历史文化遗产。
Article 23 The state shall train all kinds of specialized personnel to serve socialism, expand the ranks of intellectuals, and create the conditions for giving full play to their role in socialist modernization.   第二十三条 国家培养为社会主义服务的各种专业人才,扩大知识分子的队伍,创造条件,充分发挥他们在社会主义现代化建设中的作用。
Article 24 The state shall promote socialist cultural-ethical advancement?through?widely accessible education on ideals, morality, culture, discipline and law, and through the formulation and observance of different forms of rules of conduct and public pledges among different urban and rural populations.   第二十四条 国家通过普及理想教育、道德教育、文化教育、纪律和法制教育,通过在城乡不同范围的群众中制定和执行各种守则、公约,加强社会主义精神文明的建设。
The state shall?champion core socialist values; advocate the civic virtues of love for the motherland, for the people, for work, for science and for socialism; educate the people in patriotism and collectivism, in internationalism and communism, and in dialectical and historical materialism; and combat capitalist, feudal and other forms of decadent thought. 国家倡导社会主义核心价值观,提倡爱祖国、爱人民、爱劳动、爱科学、爱社会主义的公德,在人民中进行爱国主义、集体主义和国际主义、共产主义的教育,进行辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的教育,反对资本主义的、封建主义的和其他的腐朽思想。
Article 25 The state shall promote family planning?to see that?population growth is consistent with?economic and social development plans.   第二十五条 国家推行计划生育,使人口的增长同经济和社会发展计划相适应。
Article 26 The state shall protect and improve living environments and the ecological environment, and prevent and control pollution and other public hazards.   第二十六条 国家保护和改善生活环境和生态环境,防治污染和其他公害。
The state shall organize and encourage afforestation and protect forests. 国家组织和鼓励植树造林,保护林木。
Article 27 All state organs?shall practice the principle of lean and efficient?administration, a work responsibility system, and a system of employee training and evaluation in order to keep?improving the quality and efficiency of their work and combat bureaucratism.   第二十七条 一切国家机关实行精简的原则,实行工作责任制,实行工作人员的培训和考核制度,不断提高工作质量和工作效率,反对官僚主义。
All state organs and state employees must rely on the support of the people, stay engaged with them, listen to their opinions and suggestions, accept their oversight, and work hard to serve them. 一切国家机关和国家工作人员必须依靠人民的支持,经常保持同人民的密切联系,倾听人民的意见和建议,接受人民的监督,努力为人民服务。
State employees, when assuming office, should make a public pledge of allegiance to the Constitution in accordance with the provisions of law. 国家工作人员就职时应当依照法律规定公开进行宪法宣誓。
Article 28 The state shall maintain public order, suppress treason and other criminal activities that jeopardize?national security, punish criminal activities, including those that endanger public security?or harm the socialist economy, and punish and reform criminals.   第二十八条 国家维护社会秩序,镇压叛国和其他危害国家安全的犯罪活动,制裁危害社会治安、破坏社会主义经济和其他犯罪的活动,惩办和改造犯罪分子。
Article 29 The armed forces of the People's Republic of China belong to the people. Their missions are to strengthen national defense, resist aggression, defend the motherland, safeguard the people's peaceful work, participate in national development, and work hard to serve the people.   第二十九条 中华人民共和国的武装力量属于人民。它的任务是巩固国防,抵抗侵略,保卫祖国,保卫人民的和平劳动,参加国家建设事业,努力为人民服务。
The state shall make the armed forces more revolutionary, more modernized and better regulated in order to strengthen national defense capabilities. 国家加强武装力量的革命化、现代化、正规化的建设,增强国防力量。
Article 30 The administrative areas of the People's Republic of China shall be delineated as follows:   第三十条 中华人民共和国的行政区域划分如下:
(1) The country?consists of?provinces, autonomous regions and cities directly under central government jurisdiction; (一)全国分为省、自治区、直辖市;
(2) Provinces and autonomous regions consist of autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties and cities; and (二)省、自治区分为自治州、县、自治县、市;
(3) Counties and autonomous counties consist of?townships, ethnic townships and towns. (三)县、自治县分为乡、民族乡、镇。
Cities directly under central government jurisdiction?and other large cities?consist of?districts and counties. Autonomous prefectures consist of counties, autonomous counties and cities. 直辖市和较大的市分为区、县。自治州分为县、自治县、市。
All autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties are ethnic autonomous areas. 自治区、自治州、自治县都是民族自治地方。
Article 31 The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems instituted in special administrative regions shall, in light of specific circumstances, be prescribed by laws enacted by the National People's Congress.   第三十一条 国家在必要时得设立特别行政区。在特别行政区内实行的制度按照具体情况由全国人民代表大会以法律规定。
Article 32 The People's Republic of China shall protect the lawful rights and interests of foreigners in the territory of China; foreigners in the territory of China must abide by the law of the People's Republic of China.   第三十二条 中华人民共和国保护在中国境内的外国人的合法权利和利益,在中国境内的外国人必须遵守中华人民共和国的法律。
The People's Republic of China may grant asylum to foreigners who request it on?political grounds. 中华人民共和国对于因为政治原因要求避难的外国人,可以给予受庇护的权利。
Chapter II Fundamental Rights and Obligations of Citizens 

第二章 公民的基本权利和义务

Article 33 All persons holding the nationality of the People's Republic of China are citizens of the People's Republic of China.   第三十三条 凡具有中华人民共和国国籍的人都是中华人民共和国公民。
All citizens of the People's Republic of China are equal before the law. 中华人民共和国公民在法律面前一律平等。
The state shall respect and protect human rights. 国家尊重和保障人权。
Every citizen shall?enjoy the rights prescribed by the Constitution and the law and must fulfill the obligations prescribed by the Constitution and the law. 任何公民享有宪法和法律规定的权利,同时必须履行宪法和法律规定的义务。
Article 34 All citizens of the People's Republic of China who have reached the age of 18, regardless of ethnicity, race, gender, occupation, family background, religious belief, level of education, property status?or length of residence,?shall?have the right to vote and stand for election; persons deprived of political rights?in accordance with law?shall?be an exception.   第三十四条 中华人民共和国年满十八周岁的公民,不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,都有选举权和被选举权;但是依照法律被剥夺政治权利的人除外。
Article 35 Citizens of the People's Republic of China shall?enjoy freedom of speech, the press, assembly, association, procession?and demonstration.   第三十五条 中华人民共和国公民有言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威的自由。
Article 36 Citizens of the People's Republic of China shall?enjoy freedom of religious belief.   第三十六条 中华人民共和国公民有宗教信仰自由。
No state?organ, social organization or individual shall?coerce citizens to believe in or not to believe in any religion, nor shall they discriminate against citizens who believe in or do not believe in any religion. 任何国家机关、社会团体和个人不得强制公民信仰宗教或者不信仰宗教,不得歧视信仰宗教的公民和不信仰宗教的公民。
The state shall?protect normal religious activities. No one shall?use religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the state's education system. 国家保护正常的宗教活动。任何人不得利用宗教进行破坏社会秩序、损害公民身体健康、妨碍国家教育制度的活动。
Religious groups and religious affairs shall not?be subject to?control by foreign forces. 宗教团体和宗教事务不受外国势力的支配。
Article 37 The personal freedom of citizens of the People's Republic of China shall not be violated.   第三十七条 中华人民共和国公民的人身自由不受侵犯。
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