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Human Rights Action Plan of China (2021-2025)

Human Rights Action Plan of China (2021-2025)



(The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China, September 2021) (中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室 2021年9月)

Contents 目录
Introduction 导言
I. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 一、经济、社会和文化权利
1. Right to Basic Standard of Living (一)基本生活水准权利
2. Right to Work (二)工作权利
3. Right to Social Security (三)社会保障权利
4. Right to Property (四)财产权益
5. Right to Health   (五)健康权利
6. Right to Education (六)受教育权
7. Cultural Rights (七)文化权利
II. Civil and Political Rights 二、公民权利和政治权利
1. Right to Life (一)生命权
2. Personal Rights (二)人身权利
3. Individuals' Information Rights and Interests (三)个人信息权益
4. Freedom of Religious Belief (四)宗教信仰自由
5. Rights to Vote and to Stand for Election (五)选举权和被选举权
6. Rights to Be Informed and to Participate (六)知情权和参与权
7. Rights to Be Heard and to Exercise Public Scrutiny (七)表达权和监督权
8. Right to a Fair Trial (八)获得公正审判的权利
III. Environmental Rights 三、环境权利
1. Pollution Prevention and Control (一)污染防治
2. Eco-Environmental Information Disclosure (二)生态环境信息公开
3. Public Participation in Environmental Decision-Making (三)环境决策公众参与
4. Public Interest Environmental Litigation and Eco-Environmental Damage Compensation (四)环境公益诉讼和生态环境损害赔偿
5. Territorial Eco-Environmental Restoration and Protection (五)国土空间生态保护修复
6. Response to Climate Change (六)应对气候变化
IV. Protecting the Rights of Particular Groups 四、特定群体权益保障
1. Rights of Ethnic Minority Groups (一)少数民族权益
2. Women's Rights (二)妇女权益
3. Children's Rights (三)儿童权益
4. Rights of the Elderly (四)老年人权益
5. Rights of Persons with Disabilities (五)残疾人权益
V. Education and Research on Human Rights 五、人权教育和研究
1. On-Campus Education (一)学校人权教育
2. Specialized Research (二)人权研究
3. Workplace Training (三)人权知识培训
4. Promotional Activities for the General Public (四)人权知识普及
VI. Participating in Global Human Rights Governance 六、参与全球人权治理
1. Fulfilling Obligations to International Human Rights Conventions (一)履行国际人权条约义务
2. Engaging Substantially in the Work of UN Human Rights Bodies (二)深度参与联合国人权机构工作
3. Joining in Constructive Dialogue and Cooperation on Human Rights (三)开展建设性人权对话与合作
4. Contributing to the International Cause of Human Rights (四)为全球人权事业作出中国贡献
VII. Implementation, Supervision and Assessment 七、实施、监督和评估
Introduction 导言
China has formulated and implemented three action plans on human rights since 2009. During this period, the Chinese people have prospered, their rights have been better protected, the policies and legal measures protecting the rights of particular groups have improved, and the legal safeguards for human rights have been strengthened. China has fully participated in global human rights governance, making a major contribution to the international cause of human rights. 自2009年以来,中国先后制定实施了三期国家人权行动计划,人民的生活水平持续提升,各项权利得到更加切实保障,保护特定群体权益的政策和法律措施更加完善,人权法治保障进一步加强,全面参与全球人权治理,为世界人权事业发展作出了重要贡献。
The First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects has been realized. The five-year period from 2021 to 2025 will see China set out on a new journey towards the Second Centenary Goal of building a modern socialist country. 2021-2025年是中国在全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标之后,乘势而上开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程、向第二个百年奋斗目标进军的第一个五年。
This period will also witness a new beginning for human rights in China. China's economy has moved to a stage of high-quality development, so the country now has more favorable conditions to advance the cause of human rights. The principal challenge facing Chinese society is now the gap between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people's ever-growing expectation for a better life, including higher expectations for the protection of their human rights. In the international arena, the world today is undergoing a scale of change unseen in a century, exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic. The international situation is becoming ever more complex, with mounting instability and uncertainty. The cause of human rights is encountering new challenges not only in China but throughout the world . 全面建设社会主义现代化国家是中国人权事业发展的新起点。中国已经进入高质量发展阶段,中国人权事业发展具备了多方面的优势和条件。同时,社会主要矛盾已经转化为人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾,人民对美好生活的向往更加强烈,对人权保障的要求不断提高。当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,叠加全球新冠肺炎疫情大流行,国际环境日趋复杂,不稳定性不确定性明显增强,中国和世界人权事业发展面临新挑战。
The Chinese government has reviewed the implementation of the previous three human rights action plans and summarized the experience gained. Now it presents the Human Rights Action Plan of China (2021-2025) (the Action Plan) to define the objectives and tasks of respecting, protecting and promoting human rights in the period from 2021 to 2025. 在总结前三期国家人权行动计划执行情况和实施经验的基础上,依据国家尊重和保障人权的宪法原则,遵循《世界人权宣言》和有关国际人权公约精神,结合《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和2035年远景目标纲要》,立足促进人权事业全面发展,中国政府制定《国家人权行动计划(2021-2025年)》(以下简称《行动计划》),确定2021-2025年尊重、保护和促进人权的阶段性目标和任务。
This Action Plan adheres to the constitutional principle of respecting and protecting human rights, and the Outline for the 14th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development and Long-Range Objectives Through the Year 2035. It follows the spirit embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights conventions. 制定和实施《行动计划》的指导思想是:坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,坚持人民幸福生活是最大的人权,将促进人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕作为人权事业发展的出发点和落脚点,发展全过程人民民主,维护社会公平正义,着力解决人民群众急难愁盼问题,使全体人民的各项人权得到更高水平的保障,不断增强人民对于人权保障的获得感、幸福感、安全感。
The guidelines for formulating and implementing the Action Plan are: Following the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era; Staying committed to a people-centered philosophy of development, believing that a happy life for the people is the most important human right; Promoting well-rounded development of and common prosperity for all the people as the ultimate goal; Developing whole-process people's democracy, safeguarding social fairness and justice, and resolving the most pressing difficulties and problems which are of great concern to the people; Ensuring a higher level of human rights protection for all, so that they will have a stronger sense of gain, happiness and security.
The basic principles in formulating and implementing the Action Plan are: incorporating the development of human rights into the legal framework;
promoting all-round and balanced development of all human rights; integrating the general principles of human rights with the real conditions in China; fully guaranteeing all social members' rights to equal participation and development; pooling the efforts of governments, enterprises, public institutions, and social organizations; tapping the potential of digital technology in expanding the free and well-rounded development of every person.
The targets of the Action Plan are as follows: 制定和实施《行动计划》的目标是:
– Promoting the free, well-rounded and common development of all individuals as the general goal. The Chinese government will hold fast to its people-centered approach, and exert itself to meet the people's growing expectations for human rights protection. It will guarantee the principal position of the people, and ensure that development is for the people and relies on the people, and that development benefits are shared by the people. --将促进全体人民的自由全面共同发展作为人权事业发展的总目标。坚持以人民为中心,将满足人民对人权保障的新需求作为奋斗方向。坚持人民主体地位,坚持发展为了人民,发展依靠人民,发展成果由人民共享,增进人民的获得感、幸福感、安全感。
– Protecting the people's economic, social and cultural rights to meet their expectation for a better life, and creating more favorable economic, social and cultural conditions to achieve this goal. --充分保障人民的经济社会文化权利,不断实现人民对美好生活的向往,为人的全面发展创造更加有利的经济社会文化条件。
– Safeguarding the civil and political rights and promoting effective participation in social affairs, thus laying a sound democratic and legal foundation for well-rounded development of the people. --切实保障公民权利和政治权利,促进人民有效社会参与,为实现人的全面发展提供更为坚实的民主法治基础。
– Cherishing clear waters and green mountains as invaluable assets. China will continue to respect, work with, and protect mother nature, and promote the harmonious coexistence of humanity and nature. It will promote eco-environmental progress and work to build a beautiful China, in order to create a sustainable environment for human beings and later generations. --坚持绿水青山就是金山银山理念,坚持尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然,促进人与自然和谐共生,推进生态文明建设,建设美丽中国,为全人类和子孙后代共享发展创造可持续条件。
– Reinforcing the equal protection of the rights and interests of particular groups and providing them with extra assistance, to ensure all have an equal share in the fruits of development, and to provide policy support for the well-rounded development of all. --加强对特定群体权益的平等保护和特殊扶助,促进所有人平等分享发展成果,为实现所有人全面发展提供政策支持。
– Conducting extensive research, education, and training, and building awareness in this field, to create a social atmosphere of respecting and protecting human rights. --广泛开展人权教育、研究、培训和知识普及,营造全社会尊重和保障人权的文化氛围。
– Participating in global human rights governance. China will engage itself in all work relating to the UN human rights mechanisms, propel the international community to establish a more just, fair, reasonable and inclusive governance system, and work together to build a global community of shared future. --积极参与全球人权治理,深度参与联合国人权机制工作,推动建设更加公平公正合理包容的全球人权治理体系,共同构建人类命运共同体。
Compiled under the leadership of the State Council Information Office and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and reviewed and approved by the joint meeting for the National Human Rights Action Plan, the Human Rights Action Plan of China (2021-2025) is hereby released by the State Council Information Office. 《行动计划》由国务院新闻办公室和外交部牵头编制,经国家人权行动计划联席会议机制审核同意,现授权国务院新闻办公室发布。
I. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights   一、经济、社会和文化权利
China will work to promote common prosperity for its people and protect their economic, social and cultural rights through the following: consolidating its achievements in poverty alleviation, carrying out the strategy of rural revitalization, prioritizing employment, implementing the Healthy China Initiative, improving the social security system, promoting equal access to education, and improving public cultural services. 巩固脱贫攻坚成果,开展乡村振兴建设,贯彻就业优先政策,实施健康中国战略,完善社会保障体系,推动教育公平发展,加强公共文化服务,促进全体人民共同富裕,保障公民的经济、社会和文化权利。
1. Right to Basic Standard of Living (一)基本生活水准权利
China will support further development of formerly impoverished areas, by ensuring access to affordable and safe housing, clean water, safe and secure supplies of food, and convenient transport. 接续推进脱贫地区发展。保障居民基本住房、用水、食品安全和出行便利。
– Connecting poverty alleviation with rural revitalization. Assistance mechanisms for low-income rural populations and undeveloped areas will be improved, and major alleviation policies and financial input will remain steady. Follow-up measures will be taken to help people relocated from inhospitable areas to places with better economic prospects, by accelerating urbanization of the resettlement sites. --巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果同乡村振兴有效衔接。建立完善农村低收入人口和欠发达地区帮扶机制,保持主要帮扶政策和财政投入力度总体稳定。做好易地扶贫搬迁后续帮扶,加强大型搬迁安置区新型城镇化建设。
– Strengthening food security. The government will secure the supply of major farm produce, including grain, cotton, edible oil, sugar, meat and dairy products. The strictest controls will be put in place to keep the country's farmland above the red line of 120 million hectares. The government will create 71.7 million hectares of contiguous high-standard farmland, establishing agricultural belts for national food security. --夯实粮食安全基础。保障粮、棉、油、糖、肉、奶等重要农产品供给安全。坚持最严格的耕地保护制度,严守18亿亩耕地红线。建设国家粮食安全产业带,建成10.75亿亩集中连片高标准农田。
– Promoting food safety. Critical moves will be made to implement the Program for Ensuring Food Safety, focusing on smart supervision throughout the food processing process from farm to table. --实施食品安全战略。开展食品安全放心工程建设攻坚行动,着力提升智慧监管能力,推动健全从农田到餐桌全过程食品安全监管体系。
– Ensuring access to safe and clean water. China will construct new irrigation facilities with a water supply capacity of 29 billion cu m. By implementing the Program of Water Supply Security for Rural Areas and the Program of Safe Drinking Water for Rural Areas, it will raise the tap water coverage in rural areas to 88 percent or higher. --提升用水安全保障水平。新增水利工程供水能力290亿立方米。实施农村供水保障工程和农村饮用水安全工程建设,农村自来水普及率达到88%以上。
– Improving housing security. Housing security will be improved by providing more government-subsidized rental housing and joint-ownership housing. Households in receipt of subsistence allowances or with low incomes that have difficulty finding housing will be provided with both public rental homes and housing subsidies. More subsidized rental housing will be built to help special social groups with housing difficulties, such as new urban residents and young people. The joint house ownership scheme will be further developed to help those who cannot afford to buy commercial homes to own a share in a property. --完善住房保障体系。加快完善以公租房、保障性租赁住房和共有产权住房为主体的住房保障体系。公租房实行实物保障和货币补贴并举,对低保低收入住房困难家庭应保尽保;推进保障性租赁住房建设,帮助新市民、青年人等群体缓解住房困难问题。发展共有产权住房,帮助有一定支付能力又买不起商品住房的群体拥有产权住房。
– Securing safe housing. China will continue with the renovation of dilapidated homes, identifying and closing all safety loopholes affecting rural houses in the next three years, and supporting seismic retrofit in high seismic zones. --加强住房安全保障。继续实施农村危房改造,用三年左右时间完成农村房屋安全隐患排查整治工作,支持地震高烈度设防地区实施农房抗震改造。
– Improving transport facilities. Measures will be taken to build more trunk railway lines, improve nationwide highway connectivity, accelerate the construction of border highways, and expand the traffic capacity of heavily frequented highways. More efforts will be made to build or renovate highways connecting towns and townships with other places, and to build paved roads for villages. --优化交通条件。推动干线铁路建设,实现国家高速公路贯通互联,加快沿边抵边公路建设,对繁忙路段实施扩容改造。加强乡镇对外公路建设改造,实施自然村(组)通硬化路建设。
– Bridging the digital divide between urban and rural areas. China will coordinate efforts to build smart cities and villages, promoting integrated development of IT application in cities and the countryside and improving digital literacy and skills among all the people. --弥合城乡数字鸿沟。统筹推进智慧城市与数字乡村建设,促进城乡信息化融合发展,提升全民数字素养与技能。
2. Right to Work (二)工作权利
China will prioritize employment, eliminate employment and career discrimination, improve the wage/salary and welfare system, improve mechanisms for coordinating labor relations, implement the safety management system (SMS), and tighten supervision on labor law enforcement. 全面贯彻就业优先政策,消除就业和职业歧视,完善工资福利制度,健全劳动关系协调机制,落实安全生产管理制度,加强劳动法律实施监督。
– Increasing employment. China aims to achieve high-level and high-quality employment, with an urban unemployment rate below 5.5 percent. Efforts will be made to increase non-full-time employment, support and develop new forms of employment, and provide startup services for returned rural migrant workers. Moves will be made to train innovation and entrepreneurship leaders, and establish demonstration zones and incubation bases for rural startups. Lawful rights and interests relating to work and employment will be better protected, in particular for groups such as young migrant workers and young people in flexible employment. Measures will be taken to increase subsidized jobs, and help women seeking to return to work after maternity leave, people with disabilities, members of zero-employment households and other disadvantaged groups to find jobs. --促进就业。实现更加充分更高质量就业,城镇调查失业率控制在5.5%以内。增加非全日制就业机会,支持和规范发展新就业形态,为农村外出返乡人员提供创业服务。实施创新创业带头人培育行动,引导建设各类农村创业创新示范园区和孵化实训基地。完善进城务工青年、灵活就业青年等群体的劳动就业合法权益。扩大公益性岗位安置,着力帮扶生育后再就业妇女、残疾人、零就业家庭成员等困难人员就业。
– Securing employment for people raised from poverty. Efforts will be intensified to organize people recently raised from poverty to find employment outside of their home regions. Work-relief programs will be expanded in the construction and management of agricultural projects in former impoverished areas. Preferential policies will be continued to support factory workshops in poverty alleviation. The policies for forest rangers will be adjusted and improved. Rural subsidized jobs will be put to better use through better coordination. --促进脱贫人口稳定就业。加大脱贫人口有组织劳务输出力度。支持脱贫地区在涉农项目建设和管护方面广泛采取以工代赈方式。延续支持扶贫车间的优惠政策。调整优化生态护林员政策。统筹用好乡村公益岗位。
– Improving vocational training for rural migrant workers. China will move on with upskilling initiatives and specialized vocational training programs such as those for rural migrant workers, young people and professional caregivers. Some 7 million rural migrant workers will receive employability training every year. Support will be provided to help enterprises to organize pre-employment training, apprenticeship training, and on-the-job training. --加强农民工职业技能培训。实施职业技能提升行动和农民工稳就业职业技能培训、百万青年技能培训行动、康养职业技能培训等专项计划。每年培训农民工700万人次。支持企业开展岗前培训、新型学徒制培训和岗位技能提升培训。
– Providing reasonable remuneration. China will improve the mechanisms for setting, raising and ensuring regular payment of wages/salaries, refine the mechanisms for setting minimum wage levels and wage guidelines, and continue to implement the collective wage bargaining system. Employment agencies will be better regulated to ensure equal pay for equal work. Employment security policies for online jobs will be introduced. Long-term mechanisms will be improved to eliminate the practice of withholding wages/salaries and punish violations in accordance with the law. --保障劳动者获得合理报酬。健全工资决定、合理增长和支付保障机制,完善最低工资标准和工资指导线形成机制,积极推行工资集体协商制度。规范劳务派遣用工行为,保障劳动者同工同酬。制定互联网平台就业劳动保障政策。完善欠薪治理长效机制,依法纠正拖欠劳动报酬等违法违规行为。
– Punishing forced labor. China will redouble its efforts to protect workers' rights and interests, and punish cases of forced labor according to law. --打击和惩处强迫劳动。加强劳动者权益保护,依法惩处强迫劳动犯罪。
– Improving the safety management system (SMS). China will amend the Law on Workplace Safety, and enact a law on safe production of hazardous chemicals and a regulation on coal mine safety. The SMS will be enhanced throughout the entire operation of enterprises, and the workplace safety accountability system will be enforced. The Five-year Action Plan on Workplace Injury Prevention (2021-2025) will be implemented, aiming to reduce key industries' workplace injury incidence rate by around 20 percent. --健全落实安全生产管理制度。修改安全生产法,制定危险化学品安全法、煤矿安全条例等法律法规。健全企业全过程安全生产管理制度,落实安全生产责任制。实施《工伤预防五年行动计划(2021-2025年)》。重点行业工伤事故发生率降低20%左右。
3. Right to Social Security (三)社会保障权利
Under the principle of social security benefits for all eligible, the government will action policy requirements to help those most in need, to build a tightly woven safety net, and to build the necessary institutions, as it works to develop a sustainable multi-tiered social security system that covers the entire population in both urban and rural areas and follows fair and uniform standards. 坚持应保尽保原则,按照兜底线、织密网、建机制的要求,加快健全覆盖全民、统筹城乡、公平统一、可持续的多层次社会保障体系。
– Improving the systems and mechanisms for social security. For rural and non-working urban residents facing financial difficulties, the government will cover part or all of their premiums to the basic pension scheme. The mechanism for adjusting basic pension rates for urban employees will be established. Enterprise annuity (a supplemental retirement savings program for employees of enterprises) and occupational annuity (a supplementary pensions program for employees of government agencies and public institutions) will be improved, and private pension plans will be encouraged. Policies will be enacted on subsidies for family dependents of the deceased and for people with non-work-related illnesses and disabilities, should they be covered by the basic pension scheme for urban employees. --完善社会保障体制机制。为参加城乡居民养老保险的缴费困难群体代缴部分或全部保费。落实职工基本养老金合理调整机制。完善企业年金、职业年金制度,推动个人养老金发展。落实职工基本养老保险遗属待遇和病残津贴政策。
– Improving the system for social relief. The state will provide special relief funds on healthcare, education, housing, and employment to people with financial difficulties, in a timely and targeted manner. It will improve financial aid and support for severely impoverished rural residents through higher-quality relief services. It will provide a tiered and categorized social assistance program and improve the subsistence allowance scheme. The eligible age of minors covered by the relief scheme for severely impoverished people will be extended from 16 to 18. Households and individuals eligible for temporary assistance will be provided with interim emergency subsistence allowances. --健全社会救助制度体系。及时有针对性地给予困难群众医疗、教育、住房、就业等专项救助。完善农村特困人员救助供养制度,合理提高救助供养水平和服务质量。健全分层分类的社会救助体系,完善最低生活保障制度,特困人员救助供养覆盖的未成年人年龄从16周岁延长至18周岁。对符合临时救助条件的家庭或个人给予应急性、过渡性生活保障。
4. Right to Property (四)财产权益
China will enforce the Civil Code to better protect property rights, including the transfer of management right of contracted land, and the right to use rural land designated for a residence (rural residential land). It will further reform the system of rural collective property rights, complete the system of property rights in natural resource assets, and better protect property rights in data. 贯彻实施民法典,健全产权保护制度,保障农民土地承包经营权流转和宅基地使用权,深入推进农村集体产权制度改革,健全自然资源资产产权体系,完善数据产权保障制度。
– Improving institutions for the protection of property rights. China will amend the Regulations on the Implementation of the Land Management Law. Institutional guarantees will be put in place to protect property rights in data, knowledge and the environment. Institutions, laws and regulations concerning property rights in natural resource assets will be improved. --健全产权保护制度。修改土地管理法实施条例。加强数据、知识、环境等领域产权制度建设,健全自然资源资产产权制度和法律法规。
– Strengthening protection of property rights in judiciary and law enforcement. China provides equal protection by law for the property rights of enterprises under diverse forms of ownership, including state-owned enterprises, private businesses and foreign-owned companies. It protects property rights and innovation revenues of entrepreneurs, and punishes in accordance with the law crimes that encroach on the legitimate property rights and interests of individuals, enterprises and organizations, including theft, robbery, forcible seizure, fraud, racketeering and infringement on intellectual property. Long-term mechanisms for identifying and correcting legal errors resulting in wrongful convictions of enterprises will be set up. A modern judicial regulatory system for enterprises suited to China's needs will be piloted. --强化产权司法执法保护。依法平等保护国有、民营、外资等各种所有制企业产权。依法保护企业家的财产权和创新收益。依法严厉打击侵犯公民、企业和组织合法财产权益的盗窃、抢劫、抢夺、诈骗、敲诈勒索和侵犯知识产权等各类犯罪行为。推动涉企冤错案件依法甄别纠正常态化机制化。积极探索中国特色现代企业规制司法制度。
– Protecting farmers' property rights. The current round of rural land contracts will be extended for another 30 years upon expiration, and the system of separating the ownership rights, contract rights and management rights of contracted rural land will be improved. Research will be conducted on the specific ways of separating ownership, entitlement, and the right to use of rural residential land. The government will ensure that people from rural areas who have become permanent urban residents can continue to enjoy their land contract right, homesteading right, and rights to share in the proceeds from rural collective operations. It will advance the reform of collective forest tenure, ensure procedure-based grassland use and transfer based on contract, and proceed with the confirmation, registration and certification of grassland tenure. --保障农民财产权利。落实第二轮土地承包到期后再延长30年政策,完善农村承包地所有权、承包权、经营权分置制度。探索农村宅基地所有权、资格权、使用权分置实现形式。依法保障进城落户农民农村土地承包权、宅基地使用权、集体收益分配权。深化集体林权制度改革,规范草原承包经营和流转,推进草原确权登记颁证。
– Tightening the protection of intellectual property rights (IPR). China will refine the litigation system for IPR cases, improve the mechanisms for punitive damages from IPR violations, and increase the compensation amount. It will reform the ownership and proceeds distribution mechanisms for state-owned IPR to give research institutes and higher education institutions greater autonomy in IPR assignment. --实行严格的知识产权保护制度。完善知识产权案件诉讼制度。健全知识产权侵权惩罚性赔偿制度,加大损害赔偿力度。改革国有知识产权归属和权益分配机制,扩大科研机构和高等院校知识产权处置自主权。
5. Right to Health (五)健康权利
The Healthy China initiative will be implemented in full to provide a complete range of health services to the people throughout their lifespan. The ability to combat major epidemics and respond to public health emergencies will be considerably reinforced. The Chinese people will be healthier both physically and mentally, and enjoy better and more equal healthcare. 深入实施健康中国行动,为人民提供全方位全生命周期健康服务。重大疫情和突发公共卫生事件应急能力显著增强,人民身心健康素质明显提高,健康公平显著改善。
– Building a strong public health system. Following the principle of putting people and lives first no matter the cost, China will continue to take effective measures to contain the Covid-19 spread. China's disease prevention and control system will be reformed, with better monitoring, early warning, risk assessment, epidemiological investigation, testing, and emergency response. Measures will be enacted to improve public health colleges and cultivate more professionals. The national immunization program will be expanded to strengthen the prevention and control of major infectious diseases and the prevention, early screening and intervention of chronic diseases. The healthcare system for mental health will be improved. Twenty national bases for the prevention, control and treatment of major infectious diseases and 20 national bases for emergency rescue will be renovated and upgraded. About 15 regional healthcare centers will be built by making use of the resources of existing centers for disease control and prevention. --构建强大公共卫生体系。坚持人民至上、生命至上,有效防控、阻击新冠肺炎疫情,不惜一切代价维护人民生命安全和身体健康。改革疾病预防控制体系,强化监测预警、风险评估、流行病学调查、检验检测、应急处置等职能。加强公共卫生学院和人才队伍建设。扩大国家免疫规划,加强重大传染病防治,强化慢性病预防、早期筛查和综合干预。完善心理健康和精神卫生服务体系。升级改造20个国家重大传染病防控救治基地。依托现有疾控机构建设15个左右区域公共卫生中心。升级改造20个国家紧急医学救援基地。
– Improving the healthcare system. Services provided by town, township and community healthcare centers will be raised to national standards by improving public hospitals and medical service networks for urban and rural areas. Provincial and city hospitals will be encouraged to share quality medical resources with their county-level peers. More progress will be made in expanding the tiered diagnosis and treatment model and partnerships between medical institutions operating at different levels. Private healthcare providers and experienced practicing physicians will be encouraged to set up and run clinics. --完善医疗卫生服务体系建设。加强公立医院建设。完善城乡医疗服务网络,促进乡镇卫生院和社区卫生服务中心的服务能力达到国家标准。推动省市优质医疗资源支持县级医院发展。加快建设分级诊疗体系,积极发展医疗联合体。支持社会办医,鼓励有经验的执业医师开办诊所。
– Strengthening the prevention and control of chronic and endemic diseases. National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Chronic Diseases will be expanded to cover 20 percent of China's counties and county-level districts. The premature mortality rate resulting from major chronic diseases will be reduced by 20 percent compared to 2015. Efforts will continue to control and eliminate endemic diseases and schistosomiasis (bilharzia). --完善慢性病、地方病防治体系。国家慢性病综合防控示范区建设覆盖全国20%的县(区)。重大慢性病过早死亡率在2015年基础上降低20%。持续控制和消除地方病、血吸虫病危害。
– Increasing the scale and quality of medical training. The number of pediatricians and general practitioners will be increased to address the current shortfall, and the number of registered nurses per 1,000 people will be increased to 3.8. Training programs will be carried out to increase the number of general practitioners per 10,000 people, which will be raised to 3.93. --提升医护人员培养质量与规模。扩大儿科、全科等短缺医师规模,每千人口拥有注册护士数提高到3.8人。加快壮大全科医生队伍,开展人员培训,每万人口平均拥有全科医生3.93人。
– Upgrading the universal medical insurance system. The state will improve the general support mechanism for covering outpatient medical bills under basic medical insurance, and put in place a better system of medical insurance and assistance for major diseases. Qualified online medical services will be covered by medical insurance with due procedures, and real-time settlement of medical expenses for treatment incurred outside the province where the patient resides will be implemented. An insurance system for long-term care will be established. --健全全民医保制度。巩固完善全民医保制度。完善基本医疗保险门诊共济保障机制,健全重大疾病医疗保险和救助制度。将符合条件的互联网医疗服务按规定纳入医保支付范围,落实异地就医结算。稳步建立长期护理保险制度。
– Improving medical services for mental health. A society-wide service system for mental health will be improved to alleviate academic, professional, emotional and life pressure, as well as other social pressure, and provide post-traumatic care and better diagnosis reporting and follow-up management for people with severe mental disorders. The target for the management of patients with severe mental disorders will be 90 percent. --提高精神健康服务水平。完善社会化心理健康服务体系,缓解学业、职业、生活和情感等社会压力,加强创伤后心理建设。完善严重精神障碍诊断报告、随访管理服务,严重精神障碍患者管理率达到90%。
– Improving teenagers' health and physique. Teenagers should be encouraged to follow a healthy lifestyle, taking care of their eyes, following a reasonable diet, and taking proper exercise. At least 90 percent of teenagers should reach the physical fitness standard, and the rate of myopia will not exceed 65 percent in junior high schools and 75 percent in senior high schools. --持续提升青少年健康和体质水平。倡导合理用眼、合理膳食、科学运动等健康生活方式。青少年体质达标率不低于90%,青年学生近视检出率初中生不高于65%、高中生不高于75%。
– Ensuring food and drug safety. Risk monitoring on food and drug safety, spot checks, supervision and law enforcement will all be strengthened, timely reporting and response will be accelerated, mechanisms will be put in place to manage drugs and vaccines throughout their life cycles, and the electronic traceability system for drugs will be improved. Illegal and criminal acts in the field of food and drugs will be severely punished in accordance with the law, and a punitive compensation system in public-interest civil litigation concerning food and drug safety will be established. --确保食品药品安全。加强食品药品安全风险监测、抽检和监管执法,强化快速通报和快速反应。构建药品和疫苗全生命周期管理机制,完善药品电子追溯体系。依法严厉打击食品、药品领域违法犯罪行为。探索建立食品药品安全领域民事公益诉讼惩罚性赔偿适用。
– Promoting traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Equal importance will be attached to TCM and Western medicine with a more vigorous effort to promote TCM so that the two can complement each other. About 30 national centers for TCM practice and innovation will be built, forming a number of unique and leading disciplines. --促进中医药发展。坚持中西医并重和优势互补,大力发展中医药事业。打造30个左右国家中医药传承创新中心,形成一批中医药特色学科和优势学科。
– Promoting intelligent medical service. Efforts will be made to improve electronic health archives and databases such as medical records and e-prescriptions, and speed up data sharing among medical institutions. Application of telemedicine will be promoted, including computer-aided detection in medical imaging and computer-aided clinical diagnosis. Big data will also be used to better supervise medical institutions and medical services. --推进智慧医疗。完善电子健康档案和病历、电子处方等数据库,加快医疗卫生机构数据共享。推广远程医疗,推进医学影像辅助判读、临床辅助诊断等应用。运用大数据提升对医疗机构和医疗行为的监管能力。
– Carrying out a nationwide fitness campaign. In order to improve the public service system for fitness and physical activity, efforts will be made to build public sports fields and facilities, open school sports venues to the public, build more community sports facilities such as sports tracks, and build sports parks in line with local conditions. --广泛开展全民健身运动。完善全民健身公共服务体系,推进社会体育场地设施建设和学校场馆开放共享,提高健身步道等便民健身场所覆盖面,因地制宜发展体育公园。
6. Right to Education (六)受教育权
Efforts will be made to increase the coverage of preschool education, the completion rate of compulsory education, and the enrollment rate of senior high schools. Equal access to education will be guaranteed, and education quality will be increased, so that the students can develop in an all-round way. 提高学前教育普及率、义务教育巩固率、高中阶段入学率。保证教育公平,提升教育质量,促进人的全面发展。
– Increasing educational investment in areas formerly classified as extremely poor. Special plans for educational investment in the central budget will continue, to build a national platform for paired-up assistance among colleges and universities in the eastern, central and western regions, and to support areas formerly classified as extremely poor in consolidating their achievements in poverty alleviation through education, so as to end generational poverty. --加大对原深度贫困地区的教育投入。继续实施中央预算内投资教育专项计划,建设东中西部高校全国性对口支援对接平台,支持原深度贫困地区巩固教育脱贫攻坚成果,阻断贫困代际传递。
– Promoting full coverage of preschool education. Efforts will be made to further increase the coverage of preschool education, develop public kindergartens, and support the development of government-funded and privately-run non-profit kindergartens. The gross enrollment rate of preschool education will be raised to over 90 percent. --推进学前教育全面普及。继续提升学前教育普及水平,大力发展公办幼儿园,积极扶持普惠性民办幼儿园。学前教育毛入园率提高到90%以上。
– Promoting high-quality and balanced development of compulsory education. Measures will be taken to promote quality, balanced compulsory education and urban-rural integration, and to speed up the growth of schools for compulsory education under uniform requirements. A responsibility system will be improved to prevent school dropouts and increase the completion rate of compulsory education. Conditions of small village schools and town/township boarding schools will also be improved. --促进义务教育优质均衡发展。推动义务教育优质均衡发展和城乡一体化,加快义务教育学校标准化建设。提升义务教育巩固水平,健全控辍保学工作责任体系。持续改善乡村小规模学校和乡镇寄宿制学校条件。
– Increasing the coverage of senior high school education. The government will improve general senior high schools at county level and below, and encourage diversified development in general senior high schools. Support will be increased for senior high school education in less developed areas of central and western China and high-altitude regions. The gross enrollment ratio for senior secondary education will reach 92 percent or higher. --提升高中阶段教育普及水平。加强县域普通高中建设,鼓励普通高中多样化特色化发展。加大对中西部贫困地区和高海拔地区高中阶段教育的扶持力度。高中阶段教育毛入学率提高到92%以上。
– Improving vocational education. A system with coordinated development of secondary and higher vocational education and integrated development of vocational and general education will be established. The integrated development of industry and education will be promoted, and the system of school-enterprise cooperation will be improved. Students receiving secondary vocational education will be exempted from tuition and other fees on a phased and categorized basis. The average length of schooling for new entrants to the labor force will be no less than 14 years. --完善职业教育体系。构建职业中等教育和职业高等教育有机衔接、职业教育和普通教育相互融通的职业教育体系。推动产教融合发展,完善校企合作制度。逐步分类推进中等职业教育免除学杂费。新增劳动力平均受教育年限不低于14年。
– Boosting high-quality higher education. China will continue to implement programs to increase innovation in institutions of higher learning, to develop first-rate universities and academic disciplines on a categorized basis, and to raise the gross enrollment rate of higher education to 60 percent. It will further higher education in central and western regions, and encourage first-rate institutions of higher learning with first-rate disciplines to increase their enrollment from central and western China, ethnic minority areas, and rural areas. --促进高等教育高质量发展。实施高等学校创新能力提升计划,分类建设一流大学和一流学科,高等教育毛入学率提高到60%。实施中西部高等教育振兴计划,扩大“双一流”高校对中西部、民族地区和农村地区招生规模。
– Ensuring the right of disadvantaged children to education. Care and protection for children of migrant workers left behind in the countryside will be strengthened, as will the education services for these children. The expansion of urban schools will be accelerated to ensure equal access to basic public education services for children of rural migrants. The policy of financial aid to students from impoverished families and the nutritional improvement plan for rural students receiving compulsory education will continue. --切实保障困境儿童受教育权利。加强对留守儿童的关爱保护,完善留守儿童教育服务体系。加快城镇学校扩容增位,保障农业转移人口随迁子女平等享有基本公共教育服务。继续实施家庭经济困难学生资助政策和农村义务教育学生营养改善计划。
– Guarding against sexual assault and harassment. Kindergartens and schools are required to institute measures to prevent sexual assaults and harassment against minors, give minors proper sex education suited to their age, raise their awareness of and ability to protect themselves against sexual assault and harassment, and report any such crimes to the public security organs and educational administration departments in a timely manner. Relevant institutions and government departments should provide victim minors with protection and legal assistance. --预防性侵害和性骚扰。建立预防性侵害和性骚扰的工作制度,对未成年人开展符合其年龄的性教育,提高未成年人防范性侵害和性骚扰的自我保护意识和能力。对性侵害和性骚扰未成年人的违法犯罪活动及时向公安机关、教育行政部门报告,为遭受性侵害和性骚扰的未成年人提供保护和维权服务。
– Curbing school bullying. Under the Law on the Protection of Minors and the Regulations on the Protection of Minors in Schools, systems will be established and educational campaigns will be carried out on a regular basis to prevent and control student bullying and protect the mental and physical health of every student. --遏制校园欺凌。落实未成年人保护法和《未成年人学校保护规定》。建立学生欺凌防控工作制度,定期对全体学生开展防治欺凌专题教育活动,保障每一位儿童身心健康成长。
– Preventing digital divide in online education. Information technology equipment will be provided to students from impoverished families to ensure equal access to quality online education for all students. --有效预防在线教育数字鸿沟。为家庭生活困难的学生提供必要的信息技术设备,确保全体学生公平享有优质在线教育。
7. Cultural Rights (七)文化权利
To better ensure citizens' cultural rights, public cultural services will be improved with better services to facilitate a culture of reading among the people, and more measures to pass on and protect fine traditional Chinese culture and promote emerging cultural industries. 完善公共文化服务体系,提升全民阅读服务水平,加强中华优秀传统文化传承和保护,促进新兴文化产业发展,更充分保障公民文化权利。
– Improving the infrastructure for public cultural services. Efforts will be made to plan and build more public libraries, cultural centers, museums, art galleries, comprehensive cultural stations in towns, townships and sub-districts, and comprehensive cultural service centers in urban and rural communities. Public cultural infrastructure of all types and at all levels will be improved. --完善公共文化服务基础设施。做好公共图书馆、文化馆、博物馆、美术馆、乡镇(街道)综合文化站、村(社区)综合性文化服务中心等的规划建设。健全各级各类公共文化服务基础设施。
– Addressing shortcomings in public cultural services. In line with the requirements specified in national standards on basic public services, the state will promote cultural development at the grassroots, increase total supply, optimize the supply structure, and direct more high-quality cultural resources to rural areas, old revolutionary base areas, ethnic minority areas, and border areas, so as to narrow the gap in public cultural services between urban and rural areas and between different regions. Radio and TV projects in the public interest will be carried out, and the network of rural cultural infrastructure will be improved. --补齐公共文化服务短板。落实国家基本公共服务标准要求,加强基层文化建设,增加供给总量,优化供给结构,推动优质文化资源向农村地区、革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区倾斜,缩小城乡和地区之间公共文化服务差距。实施广播电视惠民工程,完善农村文化基础设施网络。
– Promoting the application of digital technology in the cultural sector. The state will coordinate major projects in digitizing public cultural services, such as a national smart library system and a public culture cloud platform. --推动公共数字文化建设。统筹推进公共文化数字化重点工程建设。实施全国智慧图书馆体系建设、公共文化云建设等项目。
– Upgrading reading services. Community libraries will be promoted, the allocation of reading resources at the grassroots will be optimized, the reading environment in public places and reading accommodations for the dyslexic will be improved, and rural libraries will be digitalized. Efforts will be made to increase the number of people who read online and paper books, newspapers, periodicals and other publications to 83 percent of the total population. --提升全民阅读服务水平。推进社区图书馆建设,优化基层阅读资源配置,改善公共场所阅读环境和阅读障碍者的阅读条件,推进农家书屋数字化升级,力争国民综合阅读率达到83%。
– Establishing a system to carry forward fine traditional Chinese culture. More efforts will be made to record and conserve the knowledge and skills of the bearers of the intangible cultural heritage items on the national representative list, and to advance the research and training program for the bearers. As the project to collate Chinese classics and records proceeds, 300 Chinese classic titles will be compiled and published. The national digitization project of ancient books will also be implemented. --构建中华优秀传统文化传承体系。推进国家级非物质文化遗产代表性传承人记录工作,实施中国非物质文化遗产传承人研修培训计划。实施中华典籍整理工程,整理出版300种中华典籍。实施国家古籍数字化工程。
– Strengthening systematic protection of cultural heritage. Protection and development of key cultural and natural heritage sites, major ruins, key cultural relics sites, and historic and cultural cities, towns and villages will be strengthened, as will the support to non-state-owned museums. The Yin Ruins in Anyang and other historic sites will come under more stringent protection, and national archaeological parks will be built there as appropriate. There will be a program to build 20 archaeological specimen repositories in key areas, 30 state cultural preservation areas, and 20 state intangible cultural heritage museums. The protection list of traditional villages at all levels will be expanded. --提升文化遗产系统性保护水平。加强对国家重大文化和自然遗产地、大遗址、重点文物保护单位、历史文化名城名镇名村的保护建设,加大对非国有博物馆业务帮扶。加强安阳殷墟等遗址保护,开展国家考古遗址公园建设。建设20个国家重点区域考古标本库房、30个国家级文化生态保护区和20个国家级非物质文化遗产馆。继续推进各级传统村落保护名录建设。
– Building state cultural parks. Major cultural resources along the Great Wall, the Grand Canal, the Long March routes and the Yellow River will be integrated, and cultural relics and intangible heritage will be preserved and passed on in their true and complete form as important symbols of Chinese culture. --推进国家文化公园建设。整合长城、大运河、长征、黄河沿线等重要文化资源,强化文物和非物质文化遗产真实完整保护传承,打造中华文化重要标志。
– Promoting emerging cultural industries. Innovation will be encouraged in the forms of cultural operations, and greater efforts will be made to boost creative culture. Positive and healthy cyber culture will be developed to promote robust and orderly growth of online art and literature. --促进新兴文化产业发展。推进文化业态创新,发展创意文化产业。发展积极健康的网络文化,推动网络文艺繁荣有序发展。
II. Civil and Political Rights   二、公民权利和政治权利
China will work to expand the space for citizens' independent participation and free development, to improve systems for protecting personal rights, personal information rights, property rights and right to freedom of religious belief, to strengthen legal protection for human rights, to better protect people's rights to vote and stand for election, to be informed, to participate, to be heard, and to exercise public scrutiny, and to respect and guarantee citizens' civil and political rights. 扩大公民自主参与和自由发展空间,完善人身权利、个人信息权益、财产权利和宗教信仰自由权利保障制度,加强人权法治保障,提升选举权和被选举权、知情权和参与权、表达权和监督权保障水平,切实尊重和保障公民权利和政治权利。
1. Right to Life (一)生命权
China protects the life and dignity of citizens against illegal infringements under all conditions, normal or emergency. 保护公民的生命安全和生命尊严在常态和应急状态下均不受非法侵害。
– Strengthening overall capacity in guaranteeing public security. China will improve and better implement the responsibility system for workplace safety, strengthen supervision and law enforcement in this field, and effectively curb major and serious accidents. The aim is to enhance workplace safety and prevent and control biosafety risks. --全面提高公共安全保障能力。完善和落实安全生产责任制,加强安全生产监管执法,有效遏制重特大安全事故。提高安全生产水平,加强生物安全风险防控。
– Improving guarantees for the right to life in emergencies. China will revise the Emergency Response Law, and put in place a comprehensive, procedure-based, and effective legal system for disaster management. Efforts will be made to improve the emergency aid system, the standards of natural disaster prevention projects, and the system for guaranteeing emergency supplies, so as to ensure a higher level of disaster response and a greater capacity for guaranteeing essential supplies. --完善应急状态下生命权保障体系。修改突发事件应对法,构建系统完备、科学规范、运行有效的应急管理法律体系,加强应急管理标准化工作。健全应急救助体系,提升自然灾害防御工程标准,加强应急物资保障体系建设,提高应急救助水平和物资保障能力。
– Strictly controlling and prudently applying the death penalty. China will enforce more rigorous procedures for reviewing capital sentences with standardized procedures for supervising this review, and implement a more stringent mechanism for reporting and reviewing death penalty cases. The application of laws, procedures and rules for capital sentences will be specified further to ensure the death penalty is only applicable to very few criminals guilty of very serious crimes. --严格慎重适用死刑。强化死刑复核程序,规范死刑复核监督程序,严格落实死刑案件报备和审查机制。细化死刑案件法律适用标准和诉讼程序规则,确保死刑只适用于极少数罪行极其严重的犯罪分子。
2. Personal Rights (二)人身权利
China fully respects and protects citizens' personal rights in legislation, law enforcement, and judicature, punishing crimes while protecting human rights in accordance with the law. 在立法、执法和司法中充分尊重和保障公民的各项人身权利,坚持依法惩治犯罪与保障人权相统一。
– Protecting the right to dignity. China will implement the principle of injuncting any (imminent) infringement of the right to dignity, and provide relevant guidance or judicial interpretations, so that citizens' right to dignity is protected in a timely and effective manner. --依法保障人格权利。实施人格权侵害禁令制度,制定相关指导意见或者司法解释,使人格权得到及时有效的保护。
...... --依法惩处“软暴力”犯罪。禁止采取跟踪贴靠、滋扰纠缠、聚众造势等侵害人身权利的手段实施“软暴力”。

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