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Decision of the Supreme People's Court to Amend 27 Civil Judicial Interpretations Including the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Application of the Trade Union Law of the People's Republic of China in Civil Trials [Effective]
最高人民法院关于修改《最高人民法院关于在民事审判工作中适用<中华人民共和国工会法>若干问题的解释》等二十七件民事类司法解释的决定 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】
 
  
  
Announcement of the Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China 

中华人民共和国最高人民法院公告

The Decision of the Supreme People's Court to Amend 27 Civil Judicial Interpretations Including the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Application of the Trade Union Law of the People's Republic of China in Civil Trials, as adopted at the 1,823rd session of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on December 23, 2020, is hereby issued, and shall come into force on January 1, 2021. 《最高人民法院关于修改〈最高人民法院关于在民事审判工作中适用《中华人民共和国工会法》若干问题的解释〉等二十七件民事类司法解释的决定》已于2020年12月23日由最高人民法院审判委员会第1823次会议通过,现予公布,自2021年1月1日起施行。
Supreme People's Court 最高人民法院
December 29, 2020 2020年12月29日
Decision of the Supreme People's Court to Amend 27 Civil Judicial Interpretations Including the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Application of the Trade Union Law of the People's Republic of China in Civil Trials 最高人民法院关于修改《最高人民法院关于在民事审判工作中适用〈中华人民共和国工会法〉若干问题的解释》等二十七件民事类司法解释的决定
(Adopted at the 1,823rd session of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on December 23, 2020, effective on January 1, 2021, No. 17 [2020] of the Supreme People's Court) (2020年12月23日最高人民法院审判委员会第1823次会议通过,自2021年1月1日起施行 法释〔2020〕17号)
As needed for judicial practice, it is decided at the 1,823rd session of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court to make the following amendments to 27 judicial interpretations, including the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Application of the Trade Union Law of the People's Republic of China in Civil Trials: 根据审判实践需要,经最高人民法院审判委员会第1823次会议决定,对《最高人民法院关于在民事审判工作中适用〈中华人民共和国工会法〉若干问题的解释》等二十七件司法解释作如下修改:
I. Amending the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Application of the Trade Union Law of the People's Republic of China in Civil Trials   一、修改《最高人民法院关于在民事审判工作中适用〈中华人民共和国工会法〉若干问题的解释
1. The introduction is amended to read: 1.将引言修改为:
"For the purposes of correctly trying the civil cases involving the funds and property of trade unions and the rights of the staff of trade unions and maintaining the lawful rights and interests of trade unions and employees, the issues concerning the application of the relevant law are, in accordance with the Civil Code of the People's Republic of China, the Trade Union Law of the People's Republic of China, the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China, and other laws, hereby interpreted as follows:" “为正确审理涉及工会经费和财产、工会工作人员权利的民事案件,维护工会和职工的合法权益,根据《中华人民共和国民法典》《中华人民共和国工会法》和《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》等法律的规定,现就有关法律的适用问题解释如下:”
2. Article 6 is amended to read: 2.将第六条修改为:
"In accordance with Article 52 of the Trade Union Law, when trying a labor dispute case in which the labor contract of an employee, or a staff member of a trade union, is rescinded because of his or her participation in the activities of the trade union or performance of the duties prescribed by the Trade Union Law, the people's court may, at the request of the party, rule that his or her employer should reinstate him or her and retroactively pay the remunerations payable for the period of the rescission of the labor contract, or rule that the employer should pay compensation of two times his or her annual income and pay economic compensation at the time of the rescission of the labor contract in accordance with Articles 46 and 47 of the Labor Contract Law." “根据工会法五十二条规定,人民法院审理涉及职工和工会工作人员因参加工会活动或者履行工会法规定的职责而被解除劳动合同的劳动争议案件,可以根据当事人的请求裁判用人单位恢复其工作,并补发被解除劳动合同期间应得的报酬;或者根据当事人的请求裁判用人单位给予本人年收入二倍的赔偿,并根据劳动合同法四十六条、第四十七条规定给予解除劳动合同时的经济补偿。”
3. Article 7 is amended to read: 3.将第七条修改为:
"If an enterprise or a public institution delays allocating or refuses to allocate trade union funds without justification, Article 188 of the Civil Code shall apply to the prescriptive period for the trade union organization to request the people's court to protect its right." “对于企业、事业单位无正当理由拖延或者拒不拨缴工会经费的,工会组织向人民法院请求保护其权利的诉讼时效期间,适用民法典一百八十八条的规定。”
4. Article 8 is amended to read: 4.将第八条修改为:
"If a trade union organization applies to the people's court for an order of payment regarding the allocation of trade union funds, it shall pay the application fee in accordance with Article 14 of the Measures on the Payment of Litigation Costs; and if after termination of the procedure for urging debt payment, the trade union organization brings a separate action, it shall pay the litigation fees according to the acceptance fee rates for property cases prescribed in Article 13 of the Measures on the Payment of Litigation Costs." “工会组织就工会经费的拨缴向人民法院申请支付令的,应当按照《诉讼费用交纳办法》第十四条的规定交纳申请费;督促程序终结后,工会组织另行起诉的,按照《诉讼费用交纳办法》第十三条规定的财产案件受理费标准交纳诉讼费用。”
II. Amending the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Cases Involving Disputes over Mineral Rights   二、修改《最高人民法院关于审理矿业权纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的解释
1. The introduction is amended to read: 1.将引言修改为:
"For the purposes of correctly trying cases involving disputes over mineral rights and legally safeguarding the lawful rights and interests of the parties, this Interpretation is formulated in accordance with the Civil Code of the People's Republic of China, the Mineral Resources Law of the People's Republic of China, the Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China, and other applicable laws and regulations, in light of judicial practice." “为正确审理矿业权纠纷案件,依法保护当事人的合法权益,根据《中华人民共和国民法典》《中华人民共和国矿产资源法》《中华人民共和国环境保护法》等法律法规的规定,结合审判实践,制定本解释。”
2. Article 2 is amended to read: 2.将第二条修改为:
"For a contract for the transfer of mineral rights concluded by the natural resources department of the people's government at or above the county level as the transferor and the transferee, unless otherwise provided for by laws and administrative regulations, where a party claims the confirmation that the contract is effective on the date of formation in accordance with the law, the people's court shall support such claim." “县级以上人民政府自然资源主管部门作为出让人与受让人签订的矿业权出让合同,除法律、行政法规另有规定的情形外,当事人请求确认自依法成立之日起生效的,人民法院应予支持。”
3. Article 4 is amended to read: 3.将第四条修改为:
"When the transferor fails to hand over the exploration operation area or mining area and issue a mineral resource exploration permit or mining permit by contract, if the transferee claims the rescission of the transfer contract, the people's court shall support such claim. “出让人未按照出让合同的约定移交勘查作业区或者矿区、颁发矿产资源勘查许可证或者采矿许可证,受让人请求解除出让合同的,人民法院应予支持。
When the transferee fails to explore and mine mineral resources as required by the plan for mine geological environmental protection and land reclamation as approved by the natural resources department, and refuses to take corrective action within the time limit prescribed by the natural resources department, or is subject to revocation of the mineral resource exploration permit or mining permit because of a violation of laws and regulations, or fails to pay for the transfer of mineral rights by contract, if the transferor claims the rescission of the transfer contract, the people's court shall support such claim." 受让人勘查开采矿产资源未达到自然资源主管部门批准的矿山地质环境保护与土地复垦方案要求,在自然资源主管部门规定的期限内拒不改正,或者因违反法律法规被吊销矿产资源勘查许可证、采矿许可证,或者未按照出让合同的约定支付矿业权出让价款,出让人解除出让合同的,人民法院应予支持。”
4. Article 6 is amended to read: 4.将第六条修改为:
"A contract for the transfer of mineral rights shall become legally binding on the date of formation in accordance with the law. Where an application for the transfer of mineral rights is not approved by the natural resources department, and the transferee makes a claim for initiation by the transferor of the registration formalities for modification of mineral rights, the people's court shall not support such claim. “矿业权转让合同自依法成立之日起具有法律约束力。矿业权转让申请未经自然资源主管部门批准,受让人请求转让人办理矿业权变更登记手续的,人民法院不予支持。
Where a party makes a claim for conformation of invalidity of the transfer contract only on the ground that the application for the transfer of mineral rights is not approved by the natural resources department, the people's court shall not support such claim." 当事人仅以矿业权转让申请未经自然资源主管部门批准为由请求确认转让合同无效的,人民法院不予支持。”
5. Article 9 is amended to read: 5.将第九条修改为:
"Where a contract for the transfer of mineral rights stipulates that the approval procedures will be initiated after the transferee has paid the transfer price in whole or in part, and the transferor claims the transferee's performance of the payment obligation before the initiation of the approval procedures, the people's court shall support such claim, unless the transferee has conclusive evidence of the transfer of the same mineral rights to a third party by the transferor, the imminent merger or restructuring of the holder of the mineral rights, and other circumstances prescribed in Article 527 of the Civil Code." “矿业权转让合同约定受让人支付全部或者部分转让款后办理报批手续,转让人在办理报批手续前请求受让人先履行付款义务的,人民法院应予支持,但受让人有确切证据证明存在转让人将同一矿业权转让给第三人、矿业权人将被兼并重组等符合民法典五百二十七条规定情形的除外。”
6. Article 10 is amended to read: 6.将第十条修改为:
"Where a contract for the transfer of mineral rights is rescinded because the natural resources department does not approve the application for the transfer of mineral rights, the transferee claims the refund of the paid transfer price with interest, and the holder of the mining rights claims the transferee's restitution of the mineral products and income obtained, or the holder of the prospecting rights claims the transferee's restitution of exploration information, mineral products recycled in the exploration, and income, the people's court shall support such claim, provided that the transferee may claim the deduction of the relevant costs and expenses. “自然资源主管部门不予批准矿业权转让申请致使矿业权转让合同被解除,受让人请求返还已付转让款及利息,采矿权人请求受让人返还获得的矿产品及收益,或者探矿权人请求受让人返还勘查资料和勘查中回收的矿产品及收益的,人民法院应予支持,但受让人可请求扣除相关的成本费用。
Where a party is at fault for failure to obtain approval of the application for the transfer of mineral rights, it shall compensate the other party for the resultant loss; or if both parties are at fault, they shall assume the corresponding liability respectively." 当事人一方对矿业权转让申请未获批准有过错的,应赔偿对方因此受到的损失;双方均有过错的,应当各自承担相应的责任。”
7. Article 11 is amended to read: 7.将第十一条修改为:
"Where after the lawful formation of a contract for the transfer of mineral rights, and before the approval of the natural resources department, the holder of the mineral rights transfers the mineral rights to a third party with the approval of and registration with the natural resources department, and the transferee claims the rescission of the transfer contract, refund of the paid transfer price with interest, and assumption of the liability for breach of contract by the holder of the mineral rights, the people's court shall support such claim." “矿业权转让合同依法成立后、自然资源主管部门批准前,矿业权人又将矿业权转让给第三人并经自然资源主管部门批准、登记,受让人请求解除转让合同、返还已付转让款及利息,并由矿业权人承担违约责任的,人民法院应予支持。”
8. Article 15 is amended to read: 8.将第十五条修改为:
"Where a party claims the confirmation that the mortgage on the mineral rights is created at the time of registration according to the law, the people's court shall support such claim. “当事人请求确认矿业权之抵押权自依法登记时设立的,人民法院应予支持。
The recordation procedures for the mortgage on the mineral rights initiated by the natural resources department that issues the mineral resource exploration permit or mining permit in accordance with the relevant provisions shall be deemed as "registration" for the purposes of the preceding subparagraph." 颁发矿产资源勘查许可证或者采矿许可证的自然资源主管部门根据相关规定办理的矿业权抵押备案手续,视为前款规定的登记。”
9. Article 19 is amended to read: 9.将第十九条修改为:
"Where the tort liability dispute, arising from the exploration and mining of mineral resources beyond the approved limits, involves the overlapped scope or unclear limits of exploration and mining as approved by the natural resources department, the people's court shall notify the parities that they should first file an application with the natural resources department for a solution." “因越界勘查开采矿产资源引发的侵权责任纠纷,涉及自然资源主管部门批准的勘查开采范围重复或者界限不清的,人民法院应告知当事人先向自然资源主管部门申请解决。”
10. Article 21 is amended to read: 10.将第二十一条修改为:
"Where the exploration and mining of mineral resources cause environmental pollution or result in such ecological damage as geological hazard and vegetation damage, and an agency specified by the state or an organization specified by the law files an environmental public interest action, the people's court shall accept the case according to the law. “勘查开采矿产资源造成环境污染,或者导致地质灾害、植被毁损等生态破坏,国家规定的机关或者法律规定的组织提起环境公益诉讼的,人民法院应依法予以受理。
Where an agency specified by the state or an organization specified by the law files an action in order to protect the interest of the state or the environmental public interest, the filing of an action by a natural person, a legal person, or an unincorporated organization that sustains personal or property damage as a result of the same act of exploration and mining in accordance with Article 119 of the Civil Procedure Law shall not be affected." 国家规定的机关或者法律规定的组织为保护国家利益、环境公共利益提起诉讼的,不影响因同一勘查开采行为受到人身、财产损害的自然人、法人和非法人组织依据民事诉讼法一百一十九条的规定提起诉讼。”
III. Amending the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Cases Involving Disputes over Sales Contracts   三、修改《最高人民法院关于审理买卖合同纠纷案件适用法律问题的解释
1. The introduction is amended to read: 1.将引言部分修改为:
"For the purpose of properly trying cases involving disputes over sales contracts, this Interpretation is formulated according to the Civil Code of the People's Republic of China, the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China and other laws, in light of judicial practice." “为正确审理买卖合同纠纷案件,根据《中华人民共和国民法典》《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》等法律的规定,结合审判实践,制定本解释。”
2. "I. Formation and Validity of Sales Contracts" is replaced with: 2.将“一、买卖合同的成立及效力”修改为:
"I. Formation of Sales Contracts”. “一、买卖合同的成立”。
3. Articles 2, 3, 4, 15, 16, 18, 28, 30, 32, 35, 37, 41, and 43 are deleted. 3.删除第二条、第三条、第四条、第十五条、第十六条、第十八条、第二十八条、第三十条、第三十二条、第三十五条、第三十七条、第四十一条、第四十三条。
4. Article 5 is amended to read: 4.将第五条修改为:
"Where the subject matter is an electronic information product that does not need to be delivered in a corporeal medium, the parties have not explicitly agreed upon the delivery mode, and the delivery mode also cannot be determined according to Article 510 of the Civil Code, delivery shall be deemed to be made when the buyer receives the agreed-upon electronic information product or a certification of rights." “标的物为无需以有形载体交付的电子信息产品,当事人对交付方式约定不明确,且依照民法典五百一十条的规定仍不能确定的,买受人收到约定的电子信息产品或者权利凭证即为交付。”
5. Article 6 is amended to read: 5.将第六条修改为:
"According to Article 629 of the Civil Code, where the buyer rejects the excess over the subject matter, the buyer may keep custody of the excess for the seller. Where the buyer claims that the seller should assume reasonable expenses during the custody period, the people's court shall support such claim. “根据民法典六百二十九条的规定,买受人拒绝接收多交部分标的物的,可以代为保管多交部分标的物。买受人主张出卖人负担代为保管期间的合理费用的,人民法院应予支持。
Where the buyer claims that the seller should assume any losses not caused by the intentional conduct or gross negligence of the buyer during the custody period, the people's court shall support such claim." 买受人主张出卖人承担代为保管期间非因买受人故意或者重大过失造成的损失的,人民法院应予支持。”
6. Article 7 is amended to read: 6.将第七条修改为:
"The 'In addition to the document for taking delivery of the subject matter... relevant documents and information' as prescribed in Article 599 of the Civil Code shall mainly include insurance policies, warranties, ordinary invoices, special VAT invoices, product qualification certificates, quality guarantee certificates, quality appraisal certificates, quality inspection certificates, product entry-exit quarantine certificates, certificates of origin, users' manuals, and packing lists." 民法典五百九十九条规定的‘提取标的物单证以外的有关单证和资料',主要应当包括保险单、保修单、普通发票、增值税专用发票、产品合格证、质量保证书、质量鉴定书、品质检验证书、产品进出口检疫书、原产地证明书、使用说明书、装箱单等。”
7. Article 11 is amended to read: 7.将第十一条修改为:
"For the purposes of paragraph 2(1), Article 603 of the Civil Code, 'If the subject matter needs carriage' means a circumstance under which the seller is responsible for consignment of the subject matter, and the carrier is a person engaged in transport business independent of the parties to the sales contract. The assumption of risk for damage to or loss of the subject matter shall be governed by paragraph 2, Article 607 of the Civil Code." 民法典六百零三条第二款第一项规定的‘标的物需要运输的',是指标的物由出卖人负责办理托运,承运人系独立于买卖合同当事人之外的运输业者的情形。标的物毁损、灭失的风险负担,按照民法典六百零七条第二款的规定处理。”
8. Article 17 is amended to read: 8.将第十七条修改为:
"When determining the 'reasonable period' as prescribed in paragraph 2, Article 621 of the Civil Code, the people's court shall comprehensively take into account the transaction nature, purpose, methods, and customary business practice between the parties, the category, quantity and nature of the subject matter, the circumstances regarding installation and use, the nature of any defects, the duty of reasonable care to be assumed by the buyer, the inspection methods and their degree of difficulty, the specific environment at the location of the buyer or inspector and their own skills as well as other reasonable factors, and make a judgment based on the principle of good faith. “人民法院具体认定民法典六百二十一条第二款规定的‘合理期限'时,应当综合当事人之间的交易性质、交易目的、交易方式、交易习惯、标的物的种类、数量、性质、安装和使用情况、瑕疵的性质、买受人应尽的合理注意义务、检验方法和难易程度、买受人或者检验人所处的具体环境、自身技能以及其他合理因素,依据诚实信用原则进行判断。
For the purposes of paragraph 2, Article 621 of the Civil Code, 'two years' means the maximum reasonable period. This period is a non-variable period to which the provisions on the suspension, interruption or extension of extinctive prescription do not apply." 民法典六百二十一条第二款规定的‘二年'是最长的合理期限。该期限为不变期间,不适用诉讼时效中止、中断或者延长的规定。”
9. Article 19 is amended to read: 9.将第十九条修改为:
"Where the buyer raises an objection within the reasonable period, if the seller claims that the buyer has waived the objection on the grounds that the buyer has made payment, confirmed the amount owed, or used the subject matter, the people's court shall not support such claim, except where the parties have agreed otherwise." “买受人在合理期限内提出异议,出卖人以买受人已经支付价款、确认欠款数额、使用标的物等为由,主张买受人放弃异议的,人民法院不予支持,但当事人另有约定的除外。”
10. Article 20 is amended to read: 10.将第二十条修改为:
"After the inspection period, the reasonable period, and the two-year period as prescribed in Article 621 of the Civil Code have passed, where the buyer claims that the quantity or quality of the subject matter does not comply with the contractual agreement, the people's court shall not support such claim. 民法典六百二十一条规定的检验期限、合理期限、二年期限经过后,买受人主张标的物的数量或者质量不符合约定的,人民法院不予支持。
If the seller reneges on voluntary assumption of liability for breach of contract on the ground that the periods mentioned in the preceding paragraph have expired, the people's court shall not support such reneging." 出卖人自愿承担违约责任后,又以上述期限经过为由翻悔的,人民法院不予支持。”
11. Article 21 is amended to read: 11.将第二十一条修改为:
"Where the buyer retains a portion of the price as a financial warranty of quality as agreed, and the seller fails to resolve the quality issue in a timely manner within the period for warranty of quality, which affects the value or utility of the subject matter, if the seller claims the payment of the portion of the price, the people's court shall not support such claim." “买受人依约保留部分价款作为质量保证金,出卖人在质量保证期未及时解决质量问题而影响标的物的价值或者使用效果,出卖人主张支付该部分价款的,人民法院不予支持。”
12. Article 22 is amended to read: 12.将第二十二条修改为:
"Where the buyer raises an objection regarding quality within the inspection period, period for warranty of quality, or reasonable period, if the seller fails to repair the subject matter as demanded or, due to emergency, the buyer repairs the subject matter itself or through a third party, and the buyer claims that the seller should assume the reasonable expenses incurred thereby, the people's court shall support such claim." “买受人在检验期限、质量保证期、合理期限内提出质量异议,出卖人未按要求予以修理或者因情况紧急,买受人自行或者通过第三人修理标的物后,主张出卖人负担因此发生的合理费用的,人民法院应予支持。”
13. Article 23 is amended to read: 13.将第二十三条修改为:
"Where the quality of the subject matter does not comply with the contractual provisions, if the buyer claims a reduction of the price according to Article 582 of the Civil Code, the people's court shall support such claim. Where a party claims that the price difference should be calculated according to the market value, at the time of delivery, of the subject matter that complies with the contractual agreement as compared to the subject matter that is actually delivered, the people's court shall support such claim. “标的物质量不符合约定,买受人依照民法典五百八十二条的规定要求减少价款的,人民法院应予支持。当事人主张以符合约定的标的物和实际交付的标的物按交付时的市场价值计算差价的,人民法院应予支持。
After price has been paid, where the buyer claims that the excess over the price as reduced should be returned, the people's court shall support such claim." 价款已经支付,买受人主张返还减价后多出部分价款的,人民法院应予支持。”
14. Article 24 is amended to read: 14.将第二十四条修改为:
"A change of the payment period in a sales contract does not affect liquidated damages for late payment agreed upon by the parties; however, the starting time for computing such liquidated damages shall be changed accordingly. “买卖合同对付款期限作出的变更,不影响当事人关于逾期付款违约金的约定,但该违约金的起算点应当随之变更。
Where liquidated damages for late payment have been agreed upon in a sales contract, but the buyer refuses to pay the liquidated damages on the ground that the seller did not claim the liquidated damages for late payment when accepting payment, the people's court shall not support such refusal. 买卖合同约定逾期付款违约金,买受人以出卖人接受价款时未主张逾期付款违约金为由拒绝支付该违约金的,人民法院不予支持。
Where liquidated damages for late payment have been agreed upon in a sales contract, but there is no reference to liability for late payment in the account statement or repayment agreement, if the seller requests that the buyer pay liquidated damages for late payment according to the contractual provisions when the seller claims the amount owed on the basis of the account statement or repayment agreement, the people's court shall support such a request, unless the principal and the amount of interest accrued from late payment are expressly stated in the statement or repayment agreement, or the details agreed upon regarding the principal and interest in the sales contract have been changed. 买卖合同约定逾期付款违约金,但对账单、还款协议等未涉及逾期付款责任,出卖人根据对账单、还款协议等主张欠款时请求买受人依约支付逾期付款违约金的,人民法院应予支持,但对账单、还款协议等明确载有本金及逾期付款利息数额或者已经变更买卖合同中关于本金、利息等约定内容的除外。
When a sales contract fails to stipulate liquidated damages for late payment or calculation methods therefor, and the seller claims compensation for losses caused by late payment on the ground that the buyer is in breach of contract, the people's court may calculate the losses on the basis of the benchmark interest rate for RMB loans of the same type over the same period released by the People's Bank of China and by reference to the standards for interest rates on late payment penalties, if the breach of contract was before August 19, 2019, or on the basis of the one-year loan prime rate ("LPR") released by the National Interbank Funding Center with the authority of the People's Bank of China at the time of the breach of contract, plus a 30% to 50% increase, if the breach of contract was after August 20, 2019." 买卖合同没有约定逾期付款违约金或者该违约金的计算方法,出卖人以买受人违约为由主张赔偿逾期付款损失,违约行为发生在2019年8月19日之前的,人民法院可以中国人民银行同期同类人民币贷款基准利率为基础,参照逾期罚息利率标准计算;违约行为发生在2019年8月20日之后的,人民法院可以违约行为发生时中国人民银行授权全国银行间同业拆借中心公布的一年期贷款市场报价利率(LPR)标准为基础,加计30— 50%计算逾期付款损失。”
15. Article 25 is amended to read: 15.将第二十五条修改为:
"Where the seller fails to perform or improperly performs the accessory obligation and the buyer's purpose of the contract has been frustrated, if the buyer claims contract rescission, the people's court shall support such claim according to paragraph 1(4), Article 563 of the Civil Code." “出卖人没有履行或者不当履行从给付义务,致使买受人不能实现合同目的,买受人主张解除合同的,人民法院应当根据民法典五百六十三条第一款第四项的规定,予以支持。”
16. Article 26 is amended to read: 16.将第二十六条修改为:
"After a sales contract is rescinded due to breach of contract, where the non-breaching party claims that the liquidated damages clause should continue to apply, the people's court shall support such claim; provided that if the liquidated damages agreed upon are excessively higher than the losses caused, the people's court may handle the matter by reference to paragraph 2, Article 585 of the Civil Code." “买卖合同因违约而解除后,守约方主张继续适用违约金条款的,人民法院应予支持;但约定的违约金过分高于造成的损失的,人民法院可以参照民法典五百八十五条第二款的规定处理。”
17. Article 29 is amended to read: 17.将第二十九条修改为:
"Where one party to a sales contract causes losses to the other party due to a breach of contract and the latter claims compensation for losses to realizable interests, the people's court shall determine the scope of liability for breach of contract based on the claim by the party, in accordance with Articles 584, 591, and 592 of the Civil Code, Article 23 of this Interpretation, and other applicable provisions." “买卖合同当事人一方违约造成对方损失,对方主张赔偿可得利益损失的,人民法院在确定违约责任范围时,应当根据当事人的主张,依据民法典五百八十四条、第五百九十一条、第五百九十二条、本解释第二十三条等规定进行认定。”
18. Article 34 is amended to read: 18.将第三十四条修改为:
"Where a party to a sales contract claims that the provisions on the retention of ownership of the subject matter in Article 641 of the Civil Code apply to immovables, the people's court shall not support such claim." “买卖合同当事人主张民法典六百四十一条关于标的物所有权保留的规定适用于不动产的,人民法院不予支持。”
19. Article 36 is amended to read: 19.将第三十六条修改为:
"Where the buyer has paid 75% or more of the total price of the subject matter, and the seller claims the reclamation of the subject matter, the people's court shall not support such claim. “买受人已经支付标的物总价款的百分之七十五以上,出卖人主张取回标的物的,人民法院不予支持。
When under the circumstances as prescribed in paragraph 1(3), Article 642 of the Civil Code, a third party has acquired ownership or any other real right of the subject matter in good faith in accordance with Article 311 of the Civil Code, if the seller claims reclamation of the subject matter, the people's court shall not support such claim." 民法典六百四十二条第一款第三项情形下,第三人依据民法典三百一十一条的规定已经善意取得标的物所有权或者其他物权,出卖人主张取回标的物的,人民法院不予支持。”
20. Article 38 is amended to read: 20.将第三十八条修改为:
"For the purposes of paragraph 1, Article 634 of the Civil Code, 'installment payment' means that the buyer pays the total price payable to the seller at a minimum in three installments within a certain period. 民法典六百三十四条第一款规定的‘分期付款',系指买受人将应付的总价款在一定期限内至少分三次向出卖人支付。
When a sales contract permitting installment payment contains a stipulation in violation of paragraph 1, Article 634 of the Civil Code and injurious to the interest of the buyer, if the buyer claims that such stipulation is void, the people's court shall support such claim." 分期付款买卖合同的约定违反民法典六百三十四条第一款的规定,损害买受人利益,买受人主张该约定无效的,人民法院应予支持。”
21. Article 42 is amended to read: 21.将第四十二条修改为:
"Where a sales contract contains any of the following contents, it is not a sale by trial. Where the buyer claims that it is a sale by trial, the people's court shall not support such claim. “买卖合同存在下列约定内容之一的,不属于试用买卖。买受人主张属于试用买卖的,人民法院不予支持:
(1) When the subject matter satisfies certain requirements upon trial or inspection, the buyer shall purchase the subject matter. (一)约定标的物经过试用或者检验符合一定要求时,买受人应当购买标的物;
(2) When a third party approves the subject matter upon testing, the buyer shall purchase the subject matter. (二)约定第三人经试验对标的物认可时,买受人应当购买标的物;
(3) The buyer may request a replacement of the subject matter within a certain period. (三)约定买受人在一定期限内可以调换标的物;
(4) The buyer may return the subject matter within a certain period." (四)约定买受人在一定期限内可以退还标的物。”
22. Article 45 is amended to read: 22.将第四十五条修改为:
"Where a law or administrative regulation has established provisions on contracts for assignment of rights such as claims or equities, the law or administrative regulation shall apply; or if the law or administrative regulation is silent, the people's court may, according to Articles 467 and 646 of the Civil Code, apply the provisions on sales contracts mutatis mutandis. “法律或者行政法规对债权转让、股权转让等权利转让合同有规定的,依照其规定;没有规定的,人民法院可以根据民法典四百六十七条和第六百四十六条的规定,参照适用买卖合同的有关规定。
When the provisions on sales contracts are applied mutatis mutandis to the assignment of rights or any other onerous contract, the people's court shall invoke Article 646 of the Civil Code and then the provisions on sales contracts." 权利转让或者其他有偿合同参照适用买卖合同的有关规定的,人民法院应当首先引用民法典六百四十六条的规定,再引用买卖合同的有关规定。”
23. The numbering of articles is adjusted accordingly. 23.条文顺序作相应调整。
IV. Amending the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Cases Involving Disputes over Financial Leasing Contracts   四、修改《最高人民法院关于审理融资租赁合同纠纷案件适用法律问题的解释
1. The introduction is amended to read: 1.将引言修改为:
"For the purposes of correctly trying cases involving disputes over financial leasing contracts, this Interpretation is formulated in accordance with the Civil Code of the People's Republic of China, the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China, and other applicable laws, in light of judicial practice." “为正确审理融资租赁合同纠纷案件,根据《中华人民共和国民法典》《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》等法律的规定,结合审判实践,制定本解释。”
2. The heading of the first part is amended to read: 2.将第一部分标题修改为:
"I. Determination of Financial Leasing Contracts." “一、融资租赁合同的认定。”
3. Article 1 is amended to read: 3.将第一条修改为:
"The people's court shall determine whether there is a legal relation of financial leasing in accordance with Article 735 of the Civil Code, in light of the nature, value, and composition of rent of the subject matter as well as the rights and obligations of the parties under the contract. “人民法院应当根据民法典七百三十五条的规定,结合标的物的性质、价值、租金的构成以及当事人的合同权利和义务,对是否构成融资租赁法律关系作出认定。
Where no legal relation of financial leasing actually exists under a contract titled financial leasing contract, the people's court shall handle the matter according to the actually formed legal relation." 对名为融资租赁合同,但实际不构成融资租赁法律关系的,人民法院应按照其实际构成的法律关系处理。”
4. Articles 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, and 18 are deleted. 4.删除第三条、第四条、第六条、第七条、第九条、第十条、第十一条、第十五条、第十六条、第十七条、第十八条。
5. Article 5 is amended to read: 5.将第五条修改为:
"When the lessee causes loss to the lessor by rejecting the leasehold without timely notice to the lessor or without justification, if the lessor claims damages against the lessee, the people's court shall support such claim." “承租人拒绝受领租赁物,未及时通知出租人,或者无正当理由拒绝受领租赁物,造成出租人损失,出租人向承租人主张损害赔偿的,人民法院应予支持。”
6. Article 12 is amended to read: 6.将第十二条修改为:
"Under any of the following circumstances, if a lessor claims rescission of the financial leasing contract, the people's court shall support such claim: “有下列情形之一,出租人请求解除融资租赁合同的,人民法院应予支持:
(1) The lessee fails to pay rent according to the period and amount specified in the contract, which satisfies the conditions for rescission as set out in the contract, and upon demand by the lessor, the lessee still fails to pay within a reasonable period. (一)承租人未按照合同约定的期限和数额支付租金,符合合同约定的解除条件,经出租人催告后在合理期限内仍不支付的;
(2) The contract does not clearly provide for the circumstances under which the contract may be rescinded due to rental arrears, but the lessee owes two or more installments of rent or the amount owed is 50% or more of all the rent, and upon demand by the lessor, the lessee still fails to pay within a reasonable period. (二)合同对于欠付租金解除合同的情形没有明确约定,但承租人欠付租金达到两期以上,或者数额达到全部租金百分之十五以上,经出租人催告后在合理期限内仍不支付的;
(3) The purpose of the contract is otherwise frustrated by the lessee's breach of contract." (三)承租人违反合同约定,致使合同目的不能实现的其他情形。”
7. Article 19 is amended to read: 7.将第十九条修改为:
"When the leasehold is not conforming to the financial leasing contract, and the lessor commits any of the following conduct, if the lessee requests that the lessor assume corresponding liability in accordance with Articles 744 and 747 of the Civil Code, the people's court shall support the request: “租赁物不符合融资租赁合同的约定且出租人实施了下列行为之一,承租人依照民法典七百四十四条、第七百四十七条的规定,要求出租人承担相应责任的,人民法院应予支持:
(1) The lessor plays a decisive role in the choice of the leasehold when the lessee chooses the seller and the leasehold. (一)出租人在承租人选择出卖人、租赁物时,对租赁物的选定起决定作用的;
(2) The lessor interferes with the choice of the seller or the leasehold or requires the lessee to choose the seller or the leasehold according to the lessor's will. (二)出租人干预或者要求承租人按照出租人意愿选择出卖人或者租赁物的;
(3) The lessor modifies without authorization the seller or the leasehold which has been chosen by the lessee. (三)出租人擅自变更承租人已经选定的出卖人或者租赁物的。
Where the lessee claims that it depends on the lessor's skills in determining the leasehold or the lessor interferes with the choice of the leasehold, the lessee shall have the burden of proving the above fact." 承租人主张其系依赖出租人的技能确定租赁物或者出租人干预选择租赁物的,对上述事实承担举证责任。”
8. Article 21 is amended to read: 8.将第二十一条修改为:
"Where the lessor requests that the lessee pay all unpaid rent under the contract and that the financial leasing contract be rescinded, the people's court shall so notify as to enable the lessor to make a choice in accordance with Article 752 of the Civil Code. “出租人既请求承租人支付合同约定的全部未付租金又请求解除融资租赁合同的,人民法院应告知其依照民法典七百五十二条的规定作出选择。
When the lessor requests that the lessee pay all unpaid rent under the contract, and the lessee fails to perform the judgment rendered by the people's court, if the lessor brings another action for rescission of the financial leasing contract and recovery of the leasehold, the people's court shall accept the case." 出租人请求承租人支付合同约定的全部未付租金,人民法院判决后承租人未予履行,出租人再行起诉请求解除融资租赁合同、收回租赁物的,人民法院应予受理。”
9. Article 22 is amended to read: 9.将第二十二条修改为:
"Where the lessor claims rescission of the financial leasing contract in accordance with Article 6 of this Interpretation, recovery of the leasehold and compensation for losses, the people's court shall support such claim. “出租人依照本解释第六条的规定请求解除融资租赁合同,同时请求收回租赁物并赔偿损失的,人民法院应予支持。
The compensation for losses as mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall be compensation for the difference between all the rent and other expenses unpaid by the lessee on one side and the value of the recovered leasehold on the other. If the contract provides that the lessor shall own the leasehold when the lease term expires, the compensation for losses shall also include the residual value of the leasehold when the term of the financial leasing contract expires." 前款规定的损失赔偿范围为承租人全部未付租金及其他费用与收回租赁物价值的差额。合同约定租赁期间届满后租赁物归出租人所有的,损失赔偿范围还应包括融资租赁合同到期后租赁物的残值。”
10. Article 25 is amended to read: 10.将第二十五条修改为:
"The prescriptive period for a party to request a people's court to protect its rights in a dispute over rental arrears under a financial leasing contract shall be three years, commencing from the date of expiry of the lease term." “当事人因融资租赁合同租金欠付争议向人民法院请求保护其权利的诉讼时效期间为三年,自租赁期限届满之日起计算。”
11. The numbering of articles is adjusted accordingly. 11.条文顺序作相应调整。
V. Amending the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Trial of Cases of Compensation for Damage in Railway Transport"   五、修改《最高人民法院关于审理铁路运输损害赔偿案件若干问题的解释
1. Articles 11, 13, and 15 are deleted. 1.删除第十一条、第十三条、第十五条。
2. The numbering of articles is adjusted accordingly. 2.条文顺序作相应调整。
VI. Amending the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Cases Involving Disputes over Compensation for Personal Injuries in Railway Transport   六、修改《最高人民法院关于审理铁路运输人身损害赔偿纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的解释
1. The introduction is amended to read: 1.将引言修改为:
"For the purposes of correctly trying cases involving disputes over compensation for personal injuries in relation to railway transport and protecting the lawful rights and interests of all parties according to the law, in accordance with the Civil Code of the People's Republic of China, the Railway Law of the People's Republic of China, the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China, and other laws, in light of judicial practice, the issues concerning the application of law are hereby interpreted as follows:" “为正确审理铁路运输人身损害赔偿纠纷案件,依法维护各方当事人的合法权益,根据《中华人民共和国民法典》《中华人民共和国铁路法》《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》等法律的规定,结合审判实践,就有关适用法律问题作如下解释:”
2. Article 3 is amended to read: 2.将第三条修改为:
"Where a person entitled to compensation requests the opposite party to bear the liability for tort, the railway transport court of the place where the accident occurred, the place where the train first arrived or the place where the defendant has his domicile shall have jurisdiction; and if the person entitled to compensation requests the carrier to bear the liability for breach of contract and to make compensation for personal injury under Book Three of the Civil Code, the railway transport court of the place of departure or destination of transport, or where the defendant has his domicile shall have the jurisdiction." “赔偿权利人要求对方当事人承担侵权责任的,由事故发生地、列车最先到达地或者被告住所地铁路运输法院管辖;赔偿权利人依照民法典第三编要求承运人承担违约责任予以人身损害赔偿的,由运输始发地、目的地或者被告住所地铁路运输法院管辖。”
3. Article 12 is amended to read: 3.将第十二条修改为:
"Where any personal injury of a passenger has occurred during the period of passenger transport by railway, and the person entitled to compensation requests the railway transport enterprise to bear the liability for breach of contract, the people's court shall, in accordance with Articles 811, 822, and 823 of the Civil Code and other provisions, determine whether the railway transport enterprise shall bear liability, and if it shall, the size thereof; and if the person entitled to compensation requests the railway transport enterprise to bear the compensatory liability for tort, the people's court shall, in accordance with the relevant laws on tort liability, determine whether the railway transport enterprise shall assume liability for compensation, and if it shall, the size thereof." “铁路旅客运送期间发生旅客人身损害,赔偿权利人要求铁路运输企业承担违约责任的,人民法院应当依照民法典八百一十一条、第八百二十二条、第八百二十三条等规定,确定铁路运输企业是否承担责任及责任的大小;赔偿权利人要求铁路运输企业承担侵权赔偿责任的,人民法院应当依照有关侵权责任的法律规定,确定铁路运输企业是否承担赔偿责任及责任的大小。”
VII. Amending the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court of Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Disputes over Liability for Environmental Torts   七、修改《最高人民法院关于审理环境侵权责任纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的解释
1. The introduction is amended to read: 1.将引言修改为:
"For the purpose of correctly trying the disputes over liability for environmental torts, this Interpretation is formulated in accordance with the Civil Code of the People's Republic of China, the Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China, the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China, and other laws, in light of judicial practice." “为正确审理环境侵权责任纠纷案件,根据《中华人民共和国民法典》《中华人民共和国环境保护法》《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》等法律的规定,结合审判实践,制定本解释。”
2. Article 1 is amended to read: 2.将第一条修改为:
"A tortfeasor, whether or not at fault, shall be subject to the tort liability for harm caused to another person by environmental pollution and ecological damage. “因污染环境、破坏生态造成他人损害,不论侵权人有无过错,侵权人应当承担侵权责任。
If the tortfeasor claims that it has no liability on the ground that the pollutant discharge meets national or local pollutant discharge standards, the people's court shall not support the claim. 侵权人以排污符合国家或者地方污染物排放标准为由主张不承担责任的,人民法院不予支持。
The circumstances under which a tortfeasor has no or mitigated liability shall be governed by the Marine Environment Protection Law, the Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law, the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention and Control Law, and other separate laws on environmental protection, or by the Civil Code, if the separate laws on environmental protection are silent.” 侵权人不承担责任或者减轻责任的情形,适用海洋环境保护法水污染防治法大气污染防治法等环境保护单行法的规定;相关环境保护单行法没有规定的,适用民法典的规定。”
3. Article 2 is amended to read: 3.将第二条修改为:
"Where two or more tortfeasors cause damage by jointly committing the act of environmental pollution and ecological damage, and the victim claims the tortfeasors' assumption of joint and several liability in accordance with Article 1168 of the Civil Code, the people's court shall support the claim." “两个以上侵权人共同实施污染环境、破坏生态行为造成损害,被侵权人根据民法典一千一百六十八条规定请求侵权人承担连带责任的,人民法院应予支持。”
4. Article 3 is amended to read: 4.将第三条修改为:
"When two or more tortfeasors separately commit the act of environmental pollution and ecological damage, resulting in the same harm, and the act of environmental pollution and ecological damage by each tortfeasor is sufficient to cause the entire harm, if the victim claims the tortfeasors' assumption of joint and several liability in accordance with Article 1171 of the Civil Code, the people's court shall support such claim. “两个以上侵权人分别实施污染环境、破坏生态行为造成同一损害,每一个侵权人的污染环境、破坏生态行为都足以造成全部损害,被侵权人根据民法典一千一百七十一条规定请求侵权人承担连带责任的,人民法院应予支持。
When two or more tortfeasors separately commit the act of environmental pollution and ecological damage, resulting in the same harm, and the act of environmental pollution and ecological damage by each tortfeasor is insufficient to cause the entire harm, if the victim claims the tortfeasors' assumption of liability in accordance with Article 1172 of the Civil Code, the people's court shall support such claim. 两个以上侵权人分别实施污染环境、破坏生态行为造成同一损害,每一个侵权人的污染环境、破坏生态行为都不足以造成全部损害,被侵权人根据民法典一千一百七十二条规定请求侵权人承担责任的,人民法院应予支持。
When two or more tortfeasors separately commit the act of environmental pollution and ecological damage, resulting in the same harm, the act of environmental pollution and ecological damage by part of tortfeasors is sufficient to cause the entire harm, and the act of environmental pollution and ecological damage by the other tortfeasors causes only part of the harm, if the victim claims, in accordance with Article 1171 of the Civil Code, the assumption of joint and several liability for the jointly caused part of the harm and the assumption of liability for the entire harm by the tortfeasors whose act is sufficient to cause the entire harm and the other tortfeasors, the people's court shall support such claim." 两个以上侵权人分别实施污染环境、破坏生态行为造成同一损害,部分侵权人的污染环境、破坏生态行为足以造成全部损害,部分侵权人的污染环境、破坏生态行为只造成部分损害,被侵权人根据民法典一千一百七十一条规定请求足以造成全部损害的侵权人与其他侵权人就共同造成的损害部分承担连带责任,并对全部损害承担责任的,人民法院应予支持。”
5. Article 4 is amended to read: 5.将第四条修改为:
"Where two or more tortfeasors pollute the environment and damage the ecology, the people's court shall determine the apportionment of liability between the tortfeasors based on the types, concentration, discharge, and hazards of the pollutants, whether they have a pollutant discharge permit, whether the pollutant discharge standards are exceeded, whether the total discharge control indicators for key pollutants are exceeded, the method, scope, and extent of ecological damage, and the role of the act in the consequences of harm." “两个以上侵权人污染环境、破坏生态,对侵权人承担责任的大小,人民法院应当根据污染物的种类、浓度、排放量、危害性,有无排污许可证、是否超过污染物排放标准、是否超过重点污染物排放总量控制指标,破坏生态的方式、范围、程度,以及行为对损害后果所起的作用等因素确定。”
6. Article 5 is amended to read: 6.将第五条修改为:
"Where a victim brings separate actions or a combined action against the tortfeasor and a third party in accordance with Article 1233 of the Civil Code, the people's court shall accept the case. “被侵权人根据民法典一千二百三十三条规定分别或者同时起诉侵权人、第三人的,人民法院应予受理。
Where the victim claims the third party's assumption of compensatory liability, the people's court shall determine its compensatory liability based on the extent of its fault. 被侵权人请求第三人承担赔偿责任的,人民法院应当根据第三人的过错程度确定其相应赔偿责任。
Where the tortfeasor claims that it has no or mitigated liability on the ground that the environmental pollution and ecological damage through the fault of the third party cause harm, the people's court shall not support such claim." 侵权人以第三人的过错污染环境、破坏生态造成损害为由主张不承担责任或者减轻责任的,人民法院不予支持。”
7. Article 6 is amended to read: 7.将第六条修改为:
"Where a victim claims compensation in accordance with Chapter VII of Book Seven of the Civil Code, it shall provide evidential materials proving the following facts: “被侵权人根据民法典第七编第七章的规定请求赔偿的,应当提供证明以下事实的证据材料:
(1) The tortfeasor discharges pollutants or damages the ecology. (一)侵权人排放了污染物或者破坏了生态;
(2) Harm to the victim. (二)被侵权人的损害;
(3) The relevancy of the pollutants discharged by the tortfeasor, or the secondary pollutants, and the act of ecological damage to the harm." (三)侵权人排放的污染物或者其次生污染物、破坏生态行为与损害之间具有关联性。”
8. Article 7 is amended to read: 8.将第七条修改为:
"Where a tortfeasor presents evidence of any of the following circumstances, the people's court shall determine that there is no causation between its act of environmental pollution and ecological damage on one side and the harm on the other: “侵权人举证证明下列情形之一的,人民法院应当认定其污染环境、破坏生态行为与损害之间不存在因果关系:
(1) There is no possibility that the act of pollutant discharge and ecological damage will cause the harm. (一)排放污染物、破坏生态的行为没有造成该损害可能的;
(2) The discharged pollutants that may cause the harm have not reached the place where the harm occurred. (二)排放的可造成该损害的污染物未到达该损害发生地的;
(3) The harm has occurred before the pollutant discharge and ecological damage. (三)该损害于排放污染物、破坏生态行为实施之前已发生的;
(4) It may otherwise be determined that there is no causation between the act of environmental pollution and ecological damage on one side and the harm on the other." (四)其他可以认定污染环境、破坏生态行为与损害之间不存在因果关系的情形。”
9. Article 8 is amended to read: 9.将第八条修改为:
"For the special issues on the ascertainment of facts of environmental pollution and ecological damage cases, a judicial authentication institution with the relevant qualifications may be authorized to issue an authentication opinion, or an institution recommended by a department charged with the responsibilities for the supervision and administration of environmental and ecological protection may issue an inspection report, testing report, assessment report or monitoring data." “对查明环境污染、生态破坏案件事实的专门性问题,可以委托具备相关资格的司法鉴定机构出具鉴定意见或者由负有环境资源保护监督管理职责的部门推荐的机构出具检验报告、检测报告、评估报告或者监测数据。”
10. Article 9 is amended to read: 10.将第九条修改为:
"Where a party applies for notification to one or two persons with expertise for their appearance in court to give an opinion on the authentication opinion or determination of a pollutant, resultant harm, causation, remedial measures, and other specialized issues, the people's court may grant the application. If the applicant fails to so apply, the people's court may provide enlightenment, as it deems necessary. “当事人申请通知一至两名具有专门知识的人出庭,就鉴定意见或者污染物认定、损害结果、因果关系、修复措施等专业问题提出意见的,人民法院可以准许。当事人未申请,人民法院认为有必要的,可以进行释明。
The opinion given by a person with expertise before court, as cross-examined by the parties, may serve as the basis for determining the facts of the case." 具有专门知识的人在法庭上提出的意见,经当事人质证,可以作为认定案件事实的根据。”
11. Article 10 is amended to read: 11.将第十条修改为:
"An environmental pollution and ecological damage incident investigation report, inspection report, testing report, assessment report or monitoring data, among others, issued by a department charged with the responsibilities for the supervision and administration of environmental and resource protection or the institution authorized by it, as cross-examined by the parties, may serve as the basis for determining the facts of the case." “负有环境资源保护监督管理职责的部门或者其委托的机构出具的环境污染、生态破坏事件调查报告、检验报告、检测报告、评估报告或者监测数据等,经当事人质证,可以作为认定案件事实的根据。”
12. Article 11 is amended to read: 12.将第十一条修改为:
"For a sudden or ephemeral act of environmental pollution and ecological damage, if evidence is likely to be lost or be hard to obtain later, and a party or an interested party applies for evidence preservation in accordance with Article 81 of the Civil Procedure Law, the people's court shall grant the application." “对于突发性或者持续时间较短的环境污染、生态破坏行为,在证据可能灭失或者以后难以取得的情况下,当事人或者利害关系人根据民事诉讼法八十一条规定申请证据保全的,人民法院应当准许。”
13. Article 12 is amended to read: 13.将第十二条修改为:
"Where the respondent falls under any of the circumstances as set forth in Article 63 of the Environmental Protection Law, and a party or an interested party applies for preservation in accordance with Article 100 or 101 of the Civil Procedure Law, the people's court may render a ruling to order the respondent to immediately stop the infringement or take prevention and control measures." “被申请人具有环境保护法六十三条规定情形之一,当事人或者利害关系人根据民事诉讼法一百条或者第一百零一条规定申请保全的,人民法院可以裁定责令被申请人立即停止侵害行为或者采取防治措施。”
14. Article 13 is amended to read: 14.将第十三条修改为:
"The people's court shall, based on the claim of the victim and the specific circumstances of the case, rationally rule the tortfeasor to assume civil liability such as cessation of infringement, removal of interference, elimination of danger, restoration of the ecology and environment, making an apology, and making compensation for losses." “人民法院应当根据被侵权人的诉讼请求以及具体案情,合理判定侵权人承担停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除危险、修复生态环境、赔礼道歉、赔偿损失等民事责任。”
15. Article 14 is amended to read: 15.将第十四条修改为:
"Where the victim claims restoration of the ecology and environment, the people's court may, in accordance with the law, rule the tortfeasor to assume the liability for restoring the environment and determine the expenses for restoring the environment that shall be borne by the tortfeasor when it fails to perform the obligation to restore the environment. “被侵权人请求修复生态环境的,人民法院可以依法裁判侵权人承担环境修复责任,并同时确定其不履行环境修复义务时应当承担的环境修复费用。
Where the tortfeasor fails to perform the obligation to restore the environment within the time limit determined in the effective judgment, the people's court may authorize another person to restore the environment at the expense of the tortfeasor." 侵权人在生效裁判确定的期限内未履行环境修复义务的,人民法院可以委托其他人进行环境修复,所需费用由侵权人承担。”
16. Article 15 is amended to read: 16.将第十五条修改为:
"Where the victim brings an action to claim from the tortfeasor compensation for the property loss and personal harm caused by the environmental pollution and ecological damage and the reasonable expenses incurred for taking necessary measures to prevent the occurrence and aggravation of harm, elimination of pollution, and restoration of the ecology and environment, the people's court shall support such claim." “被侵权人起诉请求侵权人赔偿因污染环境、破坏生态造成的财产损失、人身损害以及为防止损害发生和扩大、清除污染、修复生态环境而采取必要措施所支出的合理费用的,人民法院应予支持。”
17. Article 17 is deleted. 17.删除第十七条。
18. The numbering of articles is adjusted accordingly. 18.条文顺序作相应调整。
VIII. Amending the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Cases Involving Disputes over Liability for Medical Malpractice   八、修改《最高人民法院关于审理医疗损害责任纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的解释
1. The introduction is amended to read: 1.将引言修改为:
"For the purposes of correctly trying cases involving disputes over liability for medical malpractice, legally safeguarding the lawful rights and interests of the parties, promoting the building of a harmonious doctor-patient relationship, and accelerating the development of the health cause, this Interpretation is formulated in accordance with the Civil Code of the People's Republic of China, the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China, and other applicable laws, in light of judicial practice." “为正确审理医疗损害责任纠纷案件,依法维护当事人的合法权益,推动构建和谐医患关系,促进卫生健康事业发展,根据《中华人民共和国民法典》《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》等法律规定,结合审判实践,制定本解释。”
2. Article 1 is amended to read: 2.将第一条修改为:
"This Interpretation shall apply to cases where a patient claims assumption of tort liability by a medical institution, the manufacturer, seller, or drug marketing authorization holder of a medical product, or an institution providing blood on the ground that he or she sustains personal or property damage in diagnosis and treatment. “患者以在诊疗活动中受到人身或者财产损害为由请求医疗机构,医疗产品的生产者、销售者、药品上市许可持有人或者血液提供机构承担侵权责任的案件,适用本解释。
This Interpretation shall apply to cases where a patient files a lawsuit involving tort dispute on the ground that he or she sustains a personal or property damage in medical cosmetology implemented by a cosmetology medical institution or a medical institution that sets up a medical cosmetology department. 患者以在美容医疗机构或者开设医疗美容科室的医疗机构实施的医疗美容活动中受到人身或者财产损害为由提起的侵权纠纷案件,适用本解释。
This Interpretation shall not apply to cases involving disputes over medical service contracts brought by the parties." 当事人提起的医疗服务合同纠纷案件,不适用本解释。”
3. Article 3 is amended to read: 3.将第三条修改为:
"Where a patient sustains harm due to a defective medical product and files an action against part or all of the manufacturer, seller, and drug marketing authorization holder of the medical product and the medical institution, the people's court shall accept the case. “患者因缺陷医疗产品受到损害,起诉部分或者全部医疗产品的生产者、销售者、药品上市许可持有人和医疗机构的,应予受理。
Where the patient only brings an action against part of the manufacturer, seller, and drug marketing authorization holder of the medical product and the medical institution, and a party legally files an application for adding any of the remaining as a co-defendant or third party, the people's court shall grant such application. When necessary, the people's court may legally add the relevant parties to participate in litigation. 患者仅起诉医疗产品的生产者、销售者、药品上市许可持有人、医疗机构中部分主体,当事人依法申请追加其他主体为共同被告或者第三人的,应予准许。必要时,人民法院可以依法追加相关当事人参加诉讼。
Where a patient sustains harm due to transfusion of blood not up to the standard and files a tort action, the provisions of the preceding two paragraphs shall apply mutatis mutandis." 患者因输入不合格的血液受到损害提起侵权诉讼的,参照适用前两款规定。”
4. Article 4 is amended to read: 4.将第四条修改为:
"Where a patient claims that the medical institution should assume compensatory liability in accordance with the provisions of Article 1218 of the Civil Code, he or she shall submit evidence of receipt of medical treatment from the medical institution and the harm sustained. “患者依据民法典一千二百一十八条规定主张医疗机构承担赔偿责任的,应当提交到该医疗机构就诊、受到损害的证据。
Where a patient fails to submit evidence of the fault on the part of the medical institution or its medical staff and the causal relationship between the diagnosis and treatment and the harm, and the patient files an application for medical malpractice appraisal according to the law, the people's court shall permit such application. 患者无法提交医疗机构或者其医务人员有过错、诊疗行为与损害之间具有因果关系的证据,依法提出医疗损害鉴定申请的,人民法院应予准许。
...... 医疗机构主张不承担责任的,应当就民法典一千二百二十四条第一款规定情形等抗辩事由承担举证证明责任。”
 ......



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