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China's Energy Policy (2012)
中国的能源政策(2012)
【法宝引证码】
 
  
China's Energy Policy (2012)
(October 2012, Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China)
 中国的能源政策(2012)
(2012年10月 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室)
Contents
 目录
Preface
 前 言
I. Current Energy Development
 一、能源发展现状
II. Policies and Goals of Energy Development
 二、能源发展政策和目标
III. All-round Promotion of Energy Conservation
 三、全面推进能源节约
IV. Vigorously Developing New and Renewable Energy
 四、大力发展新能源和可再生能源
V. Promoting Clean Development of Fossil Energy
 五、推动化石能源清洁发展
VI. Improving Universal Energy Service
 六、提高能源普遍服务水平
VII. Accelerating Progress of Energy Technology
 七、加快推进能源科技进步
VIII. Deepening Institutional Reform in the Energy Sector
 八、深化能源体制改革
IX. Strengthening International Cooperation in Energy
 九、加强能源国际合作
Conclusion
 结束语
Preface
Energy is the material basis for the progress of human civilization and an indispensable basic condition for the development of modern society. It remains a major strategic issue for China as the country moves towards its goals of modernization and common prosperity for its people.
Since China adopted the policy of reform and opening up in the late 1970s, its energy industry has made great advances. China is now the world's largest energy producer. It has built up a comprehensive energy supply system comprising coal, electricity, petroleum, natural gas, and new and renewable energy resources. Its universal energy service and civil energy use conditions have markedly improved. Its thriving energy industry provides a guarantee for the country to reduce poverty, improve the people's livelihood and maintain long-term, steady and rapid economic development.
However, China's energy development still faces many challenges. The country's energy resource endowment is not high and its per-capita share of coal, petroleum and natural gas is low. Its energy consumption has grown too quickly in recent years, increasing the strain on energy supply. Fossil energy resources have been exploited on a large scale, causing a certain amount of damage to the eco-environment.
To curb excessive consumption of energy resources and achieve the comprehensive, balanced and sustainable development of the economy, society and ecology, China keeps strengthening its efforts in energy conservation and emission reduction, and strives to raise the efficiency of energy utilization. As a result, energy consumption per unit of GDP has been decreasing year by year. China will continue to take the Scientific Outlook on Development as its guiding principle, and work hard to transform its development pattern, giving prominence to building a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society. It relies on scientific, technological and system innovation to raise efficiency in all aspects of energy utilization, further develops new and renewable energy resources, and promotes the clean and efficient development and utilization of fossil energy resources. The country endeavors to build a modern energy industry which is secure, stable, economical and clean, in order to provide a solid guarantee for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and make greater contributions to the world's economic development.
 前言
能源是支撑人类文明进步的物质基础,是现代社会发展不可或缺的基本条件。在中国实现现代化和全体人民共同富裕的进程中,能源始终是一个重大战略问题。
20世纪70年代末实行改革开放以来,中国的能源事业取得了长足发展。目前,中国已成为世界上最大的能源生产国,形成了煤炭、电力、石油天然气以及新能源和可再生能源全面发展的能源供应体系,能源普遍服务水平大幅提升,居民生活用能条件极大改善。能源的发展,为消除贫困、改善民生、保持经济长期平稳较快发展提供了有力保障。
中国能源发展面临着诸多挑战。能源资源禀赋不高,煤炭、石油、天然气人均拥有量较低。能源消费总量近年来增长过快,保障能源供应压力增大。化石能源大规模开发利用,对生态环境造成一定程度的影响。
为减少对能源资源的过度消耗,实现经济、社会、生态全面协调可持续发展,中国不断加大节能减排力度,努力提高能源利用效率,单位国内生产总值能源消耗逐年下降。中国将以科学发展观为指导,切实转变发展方式,着力建设资源节约型、环境友好型社会,依靠能源科技创新和体制创新,全面提升能源效率,大力发展新能源和可再生能源,推动化石能源的清洁高效开发利用,努力构建安全、稳定、经济、清洁的现代能源产业体系,为中国全面建设小康社会提供更加坚实的能源保障,为世界经济发展作出更大贡献。
I. Current Energy Development
Since the reform and opening-up policy was introduced, China's energy industry has witnessed rapid growth, achieving comprehensive development of coal, electricity, petroleum, natural gas, and new and renewable energy resources, making important contributions to the long-term, steady and rapid growth of the national economy and the sustained improvement of living standards.
-- Remarkable enhancement of energy supply capability and security. In 2011, the output of primary energy equaled 3.18 billion tons of standard coal, ranking first in the world. Of this, raw coal reached 3.52 billion tons; crude oil, 200 million tons; and refined oil products, 270 million tons. The output of natural gas ballooned to 103.1 billion cu m. The installed electricity generating capacity reached 1.06 billion kw, and the annual output of electricity was 4.7 trillion kwh. A comprehensive energy transportation system has developed rapidly. The length of oil pipelines totaled more than 70,000 km, and the natural gas trunk lines exceeded 40,000 km. Electric power grids were linked up throughout the country, and electricity transmission lines of 330 kv or more totaled 179,000 km. The first phase of the national petroleum reserve project was completed, and the country's emergency energy-supply capability keeps improving.
-- Conspicuous achievements in energy conservation. China vigorously promotes energy conservation. During the 1981-2011 period, China's energy consumption increased by 5.82 percent annually, underpinning the 10 percent annual growth of the national economy. From 2006 to 2011, the energy consumption for every 10,000 yuan of GDP dropped by 20.7 percent, saving energy equivalent to 710 million tons of standard coal. The state implemented a series of energy-saving renovations, such as of boilers, electrical machinery, buildings and installation of green lighting products. The gap between the overall energy consumption of China's high energy-consuming products and the advanced international level is narrowing. The energy utilization efficiency of new projects in the heavy and chemical industries, such as non-ferrous metals, building materials and petrochemicals, is up to the world's advanced level. The country has eliminated small thermal power units with a total generating capacity of 80 million kw, saving more than 60 million tons of raw coal annually. In 2011, coal consumption of thermal power supply per kwh was 37 grams of standard coal lower than in 2006, a decrease of 10 percent.
-- Rapid development in non-fossil energy. China has made energetic efforts in developing new and renewable energy resources. In 2011, the installed generating capacity of hydropower reached 230 million kw, ranking first in the world. Fifteen nuclear power generating units were put into operation, with a total installed capacity of 12.54 million kw. Another 26 units, still under construction, were designed with a total installed capacity of 29.24 million kw, leading the world. The installed generating capacity of wind power connected with the country's power grids reached 47 million kw, ranking top in the world. Photovoltaic power generation also reported speedy growth, with a total installed capacity of 3 million kw. Solar water heating covered a total area of 200 million sq m. The state also expedites the use of biogas, geothermal energy, tidal energy and other renewable energy resources. Non-fossil energy accounted for 8 percent of the total primary energy consumption, which means an annual reduction of more than 600 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission.
-- Quick advance in science and technology. A fairly complete system of exploration and development technologies has taken shape in the petroleum and natural gas industry, with prospecting and development techniques in geologically complicated regions and the recovery ratio of oilfields leading the world. Oil drilling rigs that are capable of operating at a maximum water depth of 3,000 m have been built. China is now able to independently design and build oil refinery equipment, each set of which boasts an annual output of 10 million tons, and ethylene production plants, each of which has an annual output of one million tons. The country's direct coal liquefaction and coal-to-olefins technologies, for which it owns independent intellectual property rights, have reached the world's advanced level and achieved new breakthroughs in technology. In addition, 60 percent of the country's coal mines have been mechanized, and mechanized underground mining equipment with an annual output of six million tons is installed nationwide. Electric power generating units featuring a large capacity and high parameters, including ultra-supercritical and air-cooled generators each with an installed capacity of one million kw, have been installed widely. The designing and manufacturing of 700,000-kw hydraulic turbine generators have reached the world's advanced level. China is now able to independently design and build one-million-kw pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants, and has made outstanding breakthroughs in the R&D of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and fast reactors. Also, 3,000-kw wind power generators have been mass-produced and 6,000 kw wind power generators have come off the production line. The solar photovoltaic industry has formed a sound manufacturing chain, with an annual output of solar panels accounting for more than 40 percent of the world's total. China leads the world in extra-high-voltage DC/AC power transmission technology and manufacturing.
-- Marked improvement in civil energy use conditions. The state actively promotes civil energy projects and works to enhance the overall level of energy service. Compared with 2006, the per-capita primary energy consumption in 2011 equaled 2.6 tons of standard coal, a 31 percent increase; the per-capita natural gas consumption reached 89.6 cu m, an increase of 110 percent; and the per-capita electricity consumption was 3,493 kw, a 60 percent increase. The first and second west-east gas pipelines have been completed, and more than 180 million people across the country have access to natural gas. The government has invested more than 550 billion yuan in power grid upgrading projects for rural areas, fundamentally improving access to electricity for rural residents. The Qinghai-Tibet electricity network project has been completed, connecting the power grid of the Tibetan plateau with those of the other parts of China. The state is accelerating the construction of electric power facilities in areas that as yet do not have electricity, and has so far ensured that more than 30 million people have access to electricity. Combined heat and power projects with a total installed capacity of 70 million kw have been built in high-altitude and frigid areas in northern China that provide more than 40 million urban residents access to heating.
-- Remarkable progress in environmental protection. The country is quickening the pace of control of coal mining subsidence areas, and establishes and improves the compensation mechanism for the exploitation of coal resources and restoration of the eco-environment. In 2011, the coal washing rate reached 52 percent and the land reclamation rate, 40 percent. Existing power plants have speeded up their desulfurization and denitration upgrading, and coal-fueled generating units with flue gas desulphurization facilities accounted for 90 percent of the national total. Coal-fueled generating units reported a 100-percent installation of dust-cleaning facilities and a 100-percent discharge of waste water up to the relevant standards. The state is intensifying efforts for the development and utilization of coal bed methane (CBM), extracting 11.4 billion sq m of CBM in 2011. China became the first country to adopt a national standard for CBM emissions. Its energy consumption per unit of GDP has dropped over the past five years, eliminating 1.46 billion tons of CO2 discharge.
-- Energy systems and mechanisms gradually improving. The market mechanism is playing an increasingly important role in resource allocation. Investors in the energy field are diversified, and private investment in it keeps growing. Market competition has been introduced into the production and distribution of coal. In the electric power industry, government administrative functions and enterprise management have been separated, as has power production from power transmission, and a supervisory system has taken shape. Energy pricing reform has been deepening, and the pricing mechanism is gradually improving. Relevant policies and measures for the sustainable development of the coal industry have been tried out. The state has also established a feed-in tariff (FIT) system for wind and photovoltaic power generation, and a renewable energy development fund. The legal system of energy-related laws has been strengthened, and a number of laws and regulations have been amended and published in the past few years, including the Energy Conservation Law, Renewable Energy Law, Circular Economy Promotion Law, Law on the Protection of Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, Regulations on Energy Conservation in Civil Buildings, and Regulations on Energy Conservation by Public Institutions.
As the world's largest energy producer, China mainly relies on its own strength to develop energy, and its rate of self-sufficiency has reached around 90 percent. China's energy development not only guarantees domestic economic and social development, but also makes significant contributions to global energy security. For some time to come, China's industrialization and urbanization will continue to accelerate, and the demand for energy will go on increasing, and so its energy supply will confront increasingly tougher challenges.
-- Prominent resources restraint. China's per-capita average of energy resources is low by world standards. China's per-capita shares of coal, petroleum and natural gas account for 67 percent, 5.4 percent, and 7.5 percent of the world's averages, respectively. Although China has experienced rapid growth in energy consumption over the past few years, its per-capita energy consumption is still low - only one third of the average of developed countries. But as the economy and society progress and living standards improve, China's energy consumption will continue to rise sharply, and there will be a growing restraint on resources.
-- Low energy efficiency. China's industrial structure is yet to be rationalized and the economic growth pattern to be improved. Energy consumption per unit of GDP is much higher than those of developed countries and some newly industrialized countries. Energy-intensive industries are backward in technology. The percentage of energy consumption by the secondary industries, especially the energy-intensive industrial sectors, is too high in the country's total. The energy consumption of four major energy-intensive industries - steel, non-ferrous metals, chemicals, and building materials - accounts for 40 percent of the national total. Low energy efficiency results in high energy consumption for every unit of GDP.
-- Increasing environmental pressure. Extensive development of fossil energy, particularly coal, has had a serious impact on the eco-environment. Large areas of arable land are taken up for other uses or even spoiled, water resources are seriously polluted, the discharge of carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and toxic heavy metals remains high, and emissions of ozone and particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) are increasing. For a long time to come, fossil energy will continue to dominate the energy consumption mix, posing a growing challenge for protecting the environment and countering climate change. A more environment-friendly energy mix is urgently needed.
-- Grave challenges to energy security. The country's dependence on foreign energy sources has been increasing in recent years. In particular, the percentage of imported petroleum in the total petroleum consumption has risen from 32 percent at the beginning of the 21st century to the present 57 percent. Marine transportation of petroleum and cross-border pipeline transmission of oil and gas face ever-greater security risks. Price fluctuations in the international energy market make it more difficult to guarantee domestic energy supply. It will not be easy for China to maintain its energy security since its energy reserves are small and its emergency response capability is weak.
-- Reforms called for current systems and mechanisms. Energy-related systems and mechanisms still suffer from some long-term, deep-rooted problems. The energy pricing mechanism is yet to be perfected, and industrial management is still weak. The overall service level needs to be enhanced. Overall, restraints of the current systems and mechanisms have seriously hindered the rational development of the country's energy industry.
The above problems challenging China's energy development are a result of the international energy competition, and China's levels of productivity and development, as well as the country's irrational industrial structure and energy mix, extensive development and utilization of energy resources, and sluggish reform of relevant systems and mechanisms. Therefore, China will vigorously promote the transformation of its energy production and utilization modes, continuously improve its energy policy, and strive to achieve a comprehensive, balanced and sustainable development of its energy, economy, society and eco-environment.
  一、能源发展现状
改革开放以来,中国能源工业快速增长,实现了煤炭、电力、石油天然气、可再生能源和新能源的全面发展,为保障国民经济长期平稳较快发展和人民生活水平持续提高作出重要贡献。
--供应保障能力显著增强。2011年,中国一次能源生产总量达到31.8亿吨标准煤,居世界第一。其中,原煤产量35.2亿吨,原油产量稳定在2亿吨,成品油产量2.7亿吨。天然气产量快速增长,达到1031亿立方米。电力装机容量10.6亿千瓦,年发电量4.7万亿千瓦时。能源综合运输体系发展较快。石油管线长度超过7万公里,天然气主干管线长度达到4万公里。电网基本实现全国互联,330千伏及以上输电线路长度17.9万公里。国家石油储备一期项目建成,能源应急保障能力不断增强。
--能源节约效果明显。中国大力推进能源节约。1981-2011年,中国能源消费以年均5.82%的增长,支撑了国民经济年均10%的增长。2006-2011年,万元国内生产总值能耗累计下降20.7%,实现节能7.1亿吨标准煤。实施锅炉改造、电机节能、建筑节能、绿色照明等一系列节能改造工程,主要高耗能产品的综合能耗与国际先进水平差距不断缩小,新建的有色、建材、石化等重化工业项目能源利用效率基本达到世界先进水平。淘汰落后小火电机组8000万千瓦,每年可由此节约原煤6000多万吨。2011年,全国火电供电煤耗较2006年降低37克标准煤/千瓦时,降幅达10%。
--非化石能源快速发展。中国积极发展新能源和可再生能源。2011年,全国水电装机容量达到2.3亿千瓦,居世界第一。已投运核电机组15台、装机容量1254万千瓦,在建机组26台、装机容量2924万千瓦,在建规模居世界首位。风电并网装机容量达到4700万千瓦,居世界第一。光伏发电增长强劲,装机容量达到300万千瓦。太阳能热水器集热面积超过2亿平方米。积极开展沼气、地热能、潮汐能等其他可再生能源推广应用。非化石能源占一次能源消费的比重达到8%,每年减排二氧化碳6亿吨以上。
--科技水平迅速提高。建成了比较完善的石油天然气勘探开发技术体系,复杂区块勘探开发、提高油气田采收率等技术在国际上处于领先地位。3000米深水钻井平台建造成功。千万吨炼油和百万吨乙烯装置实现自主设计和制造。具有世界先进水平和自主知识产权的煤炭直接液化和煤制烯烃技术取得突破。全国采煤机械化程度达到60%以上,井下600万吨综采成套装备全面推广。百万千瓦超超临界、大型空冷等大容量高参数机组得到广泛应用,70万千瓦水轮机组设计制造技术达到世界先进水平。基本具备百万千瓦级压水堆核电站自主设计、建造和运营能力,高温气冷堆、快堆技术研发取得重大突破。3兆瓦风电机组批量应用,6兆瓦风电机组成功下线。形成了比较完备的太阳能光伏发电制造产业链,光伏电池年产量占全球产量的40%以上。特高压交直流输电技术和装备制造水平处于世界领先地位。
--用能条件大为改善。积极推进民生能源工程建设,提高能源普遍服务水平。与2006年相比,2011年中国人均一次能源消费量达到2.6吨标准煤,提高了31%;人均天然气消费量89.6立方米,提高了110%;人均用电量3493千瓦时,提高了60%。建成西气东输一线、二线工程,全国使用天然气人口超过1.8亿。实施农村电网改造升级工程,累计投入5500多亿元人民币,使农村用电状况发生了根本性变化。青藏联网工程建设成功,结束了西藏电网孤网运行的历史。推进无电地区电力建设,解决了3000多万无电人口的用电问题。在北方高寒地区建设了7000万千瓦热电联产项目,解决了4000多万城市人口的供暖问题。
--环境保护成效突出。中国加快采煤沉陷区治理,建立并完善煤炭开发和生态环境恢复补偿机制。2011年,原煤入选率达到52%,土地复垦率40%。加快建设燃煤电厂脱硫、脱硝设施,烟气脱硫机组占全国燃煤机组的比重达到90%左右。燃煤机组除尘设施安装率和废水排放达标率达到100%。加大煤层气(煤矿瓦斯)开发利用力度,抽采量达到114亿立方米,在全球率先实施了煤层气国家排放标准。五年来,单位国内生产总值能耗下降减排二氧化碳14.6亿吨。
--体制机制不断完善。市场机制在资源配置中发挥出越来越大的作用。能源领域投资主体实现多元化,民间投资不断发展壮大。煤炭生产和流通基本实现市场化。电力工业实现政企分开、厂网分离,监管体系初步建立。能源价格改革不断深化,价格形成机制逐步完善。开展了煤炭工业可持续发展政策措施试点。制定了风电与光伏发电标杆上网电价制度,建立了可再生能源发展基金等制度。加强能源法制建设,近年来新修订出台了《节约能源法》、《可再生能源法》、《循环经济促进法》、《石油天然气管道保护法》以及《民用建筑节能条例》、《公共机构节能条例》等法律法规。
作为世界第一大能源生产国,中国主要依靠自身力量发展能源,能源自给率始终保持在90%左右。中国能源的发展,不仅保障了国内经济社会发展,也对维护世界能源安全作出了重大贡献。今后一段时期,中国仍将处于工业化、城镇化加快发展阶段,能源需求会继续增长,能源供应保障任务更加艰巨。
--资源约束矛盾突出。中国人均能源资源拥有量在世界上处于较低水平,煤炭、石油和天然气的人均占有量仅为世界平均水平的67%、5.4%和7.5%。虽然近年来中国能源消费增长较快,但目前人均能源消费水平还比较低,仅为发达国家平均水平的三分之一。随着经济社会发展和人民生活水平的提高,未来能源消费还将大幅增长,资源约束不断加剧。
--能源效率有待提高。中国产业结构不合理,经济发展方式有待改进。中国单位国内生产总值能耗不仅远高于发达国家,也高于一些新兴工业化国家。能源密集型产业技术落后,第二产业特别是高耗能工业能源消耗比重过高,钢铁、有色、化工、建材四大高耗能行业用能占到全社会用能的40%左右。能源效率相对较低,单位增加值能耗较高。
--环境压力不断增大。化石能源特别是煤炭的大规模开发利用,对生态环境造成严重影响。大量耕地被占用和破坏,水资源污染严重,二氧化碳、二氧化硫、氮氧化物和有害重金属排放量大,臭氧及细颗粒物(PM2.5)等污染加剧。未来相当长时期内,化石能源在中国能源结构中仍占主体地位,保护生态环境、应对气候变化的压力日益增大,迫切需要能源绿色转型。
--能源安全形势严峻。近年来能源对外依存度上升较快,特别是石油对外依存度从本世纪初的32%上升至目前的57%。石油海上运输安全风险加大,跨境油气管道安全运行问题不容忽视。国际能源市场价格波动增加了保障国内能源供应难度。能源储备规模较小,应急能力相对较弱,能源安全形势严峻。
--体制机制亟待改革。能源体制机制深层次矛盾不断积累,价格机制尚不完善,行业管理仍较薄弱,能源普遍服务水平亟待提高,体制机制约束已成为促进能源科学发展的严重障碍。
中国能源发展面临的这些问题,是由国际能源竞争格局、中国生产力水平以及所处发展阶段决定的,也与产业结构和能源结构不合理、能源开发利用方式粗放、相关体制机制改革滞后密切相关。中国将大力推动能源生产和利用方式变革,不断完善政策体系,努力实现能源与经济、社会、生态全面协调可持续发展。
II. Policies and Goals of Energy Development
As the largest developing country in the world, China is faced with the daunting tasks of developing its economy, improving its people's livelihood, and building a moderately prosperous society. It is an important strategic task of the Chinese government to maintain long-term, stable and sustainable use of energy resources. China's energy development must follow a path featuring high-tech content, low consumption of resources, less environmental pollution, satisfactory economic returns, as well as security. It is moving towards the objective of economical, clean and secure development.
The basic contents of China's energy policies are: “giving priority to conservation, relying on domestic resources, encouraging diverse development, protecting the environment, promoting scientific and technological innovation, deepening reform, expanding international cooperation, and improving the people's livelihood.” The state strives to advance the transformation of its energy production and utilization modes, and build a modern energy industrial system which features secure, stable, economical and clean development, so as to support sustainable economic and social development with sustainable energy development.
-- Giving priority to conservation. The state exercises control over both total energy consumption and intensity. It is working to build an energy-saving production and consumption system, promote the transformation of the patterns of economic development and household consumption, and accelerate the pace of building an energy-efficient country and an energy-saving society.
-- Relying on domestic resources. The country relies on domestic resource advantages and its own development basis, makes special efforts to enhance its energy supply capability and security, improves its emergency energy reserve and emergency response systems, and controls its dependence on foreign energy sources.
-- Encouraging diverse development. China endeavors to raise the proportion of clean, low-carbon fossil energy and non-fossil energy in the energy mix, promotes the efficient and clean utilization of coal, develops substitute energy resources in a scientific way, and speeds up the optimization of energy production and the consumption mix.
-- Protecting the environment. The state encourages fostering the concept of environment-friendly and low-carbon development, coordinates the development and use of energy resources with the protection of the eco-environment while paying equal attention to both, and actively fosters an energy development pattern that meets the requirements of ecological civilization.
-- Promoting scientific and technological innovation. The state strengthens basic scientific research and frontier technological research in the energy field to enhance its scientific and technological innovation capabilities. Through the implementation of key energy projects, the state advances independent innovation in key technologies and equipment, and speeds up the fostering of innovative personnel.
-- Deepening reform. The state gives full play to the role of the market mechanism, makes unified planning with due consideration for all concerned, addresses both root causes and symptoms of various problems, and expedites the reform in key fields and links to establish a framework of systems and mechanisms conducive to sustainable energy development.
-- Expanding international cooperation. China gives simultaneous consideration to both domestic and international energy development, works to increase the scope, channels and forms of international cooperation, enhances its capability to “introduce” and “go global,” propels the establishment of a new international energy order and promotes mutually beneficial cooperation.
-- Improving the people's livelihood. The state coordinates energy development in both urban and rural areas, enhances energy infrastructure and basic public services, and strives to eliminate energy poverty and improve civil energy-use conditions.
It is stipulated in the Outline of the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) for National Economic and Social Development that by 2015 non-fossil energy will rise to 11.4 percent in the national total primary energy consumption, energy consumption per unit of GDP will drop by 16 percent from 2010, and CO2 emission per unit of GDP will decrease by 17 percent from 2010.
The Chinese government has made the commitment that by 2020 non-fossil energy will account for 15 percent of its total primary energy consumption, and CO2 emission per unit of GDP will be 40-45 percent lower than in 2005. As a responsible nation, China will make every effort to fulfill its commitment.
  二、能源发展政策和目标
中国是世界上最大的发展中国家,面临着发展经济、改善民生、全面建设小康社会的艰巨任务。维护能源资源长期稳定可持续利用,是中国政府的一项重要战略任务。中国能源必须走科技含量高、资源消耗低、环境污染少、经济效益好、安全有保障的发展道路,全面实现节约发展、清洁发展和安全发展。
中国能源政策的基本内容是:坚持“节约优先、立足国内、多元发展、保护环境、科技创新、深化改革、国际合作、改善民生”的能源发展方针,推进能源生产和利用方式变革,构建安全、稳定、经济、清洁的现代能源产业体系,努力以能源的可持续发展支撑经济社会的可持续发展。
--节约优先。实施能源消费总量和强度双控制,努力构建节能型生产消费体系,促进经济发展方式和生活消费模式转变,加快构建节能型国家和节约型社会。
--立足国内。立足国内资源优势和发展基础,着力增强能源供给保障能力,完善能源储备应急体系,合理控制对外依存度,提高能源安全保障水平。
--多元发展。着力提高清洁低碳化石能源和非化石能源比重,大力推进煤炭高效清洁利用,积极实施能源科学替代,加快优化能源生产和消费结构。
--保护环境。树立绿色、低碳发展理念,统筹能源资源开发利用与生态环境保护,在保护中开发,在开发中保护,积极培育符合生态文明要求的能源发展模式。
--科技创新。加强基础科学研究和前沿技术研究,增强能源科技创新能力。依托重点能源工程,推动重大核心技术和关键装备自主创新,加快创新型人才队伍建设。
--深化改革。充分发挥市场机制作用,统筹兼顾,标本兼治,加快推进重点领域和关键环节改革,构建有利于促进能源可持续发展的体制机制。
--国际合作。统筹国内国际两个大局,大力拓展能源国际合作范围、渠道和方式,提升能源“走出去”和“引进来”水平,推动建立国际能源新秩序,努力实现合作共赢。
--改善民生。统筹城乡和区域能源发展,加强能源基础设施和基本公共服务能力建设,尽快消除能源贫困,努力提高人民群众用能水平。
《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十二个五年规划纲要》提出:到2015年,中国非化石能源占一次能源消费比重达到11.4%,单位国内生产总值能源消耗比2010年降低16%,单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放比2010年降低17%。
中国政府承诺,到2020年非化石能源占一次能源消费比重将达到15%左右,单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放比2005年下降40%-45%。作为负责任的大国,中国将为实现此目标不懈努力。
III. All-round Promotion of Energy Conservation
China is a country with a large population but relevant deficiency in resources. To attain sustainable use of energy resources and sustainable economic and social development, it must take the path of conserving energy.
......
  三、全面推进能源节约
中国人口众多、资源相对不足,要实现能源资源永续利用和经济社会可持续发展,必须走节约能源的道路。
中国始终把节约能源放在优先位置。早在20世纪80年代初,国家就提出了“开发与节约并举,把节约放在首位”的发展方针。2006年,中国政府发布《关于加强节能工作的决定》。2007年,发布《节能减排综合性工作方案》,全面部署了工业、建筑、交通等重点领域节能工作。实施“十大节能工程”,推动燃煤工业锅炉(窑炉)改造、余热余压利用、电机系统节能、建筑节能、绿色照明、政府机构节能,形成3.4亿吨标准煤的节能能力。开展“千家企业节能行动”,重点企业生产综合能耗等指标大幅下降,节约能源1.5亿吨标准煤。“十一五”期间,单位国内生产总值能耗下降19.1%。
......



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