May 31, 2010
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Several Opinions of the State Council on Comprehensively Strengthening Basic Research [Effective]
国务院关于全面加强基础科学研究的若干意见 [现行有效]
Several Opinions of the State Council on Comprehensively Strengthening Basic Research 


(No. 4 [2018] of the State Council) (国发〔2018〕4号)

The people's governments of all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government; all ministries and commissions of the State Council; and all institutions directly under the State Council: 各省、自治区、直辖市人民政府,国务院各部委、各直属机构:
Great basic research is the foundation stone of building a scientific and technological superpower. Currently, a new round of scientific-technical revolution and industry revolution is emerging, scientific exploration is evolving at an increasingly faster pace, disciplines overlap and are consolidated more closely, and prospective breakthroughs in some basic scientific issues are on the horizon. The major developed countries across the world are generally enhancing basic research strategies and arrangements, and the global scientific and technological competition continues to intensify in basic research. Attributed to years' development, basic research of China saw leapfrog progress, conspicuous rising of the overall level, increasing improvement of its international influence, and its continuously bigger role in supporting and leading economic and social development. Nevertheless, compared with the requirements for building a scientific and technological superpower, there is persistent prominent weakness in basic research of China, the weakest link of mathematics and other basic sciences, a lack of significant original achievements, insufficient investment in basic research and an unreasonable structure, a bad shortage of top talents and teams, a much needed improvement to the assessment and incentive rules, inadequate attention from enterprises, and needed further optimization of the environment in which whole society supports basic research. For the purposes of strengthening basic research, dramatically improving the capability or original innovation, and consolidating the foundation for building an innovation-oriented country and a scientific and technological superpower, the following opinions are hereby offered. 强大的基础科学研究是建设世界科技强国的基石。当前,新一轮科技革命和产业变革蓬勃兴起,科学探索加速演进,学科交叉融合更加紧密,一些基本科学问题孕育重大突破。世界主要发达国家普遍强化基础研究战略部署,全球科技竞争不断向基础研究前移。经过多年发展,我国基础科学研究取得长足进步,整体水平显著提高,国际影响力日益提升,支撑引领经济社会发展的作用不断增强。但与建设世界科技强国的要求相比,我国基础科学研究短板依然突出,数学等基础学科仍是最薄弱的环节,重大原创性成果缺乏,基础研究投入不足、结构不合理,顶尖人才和团队匮乏,评价激励制度亟待完善,企业重视不够,全社会支持基础研究的环境需要进一步优化。为进一步加强基础科学研究,大幅提升原始创新能力,夯实建设创新型国家和世界科技强国的基础,现提出以下意见。
I. General requirements   一、总体要求
1. Guiding ideology. (一)指导思想。
The spirit of the 19th CPC National Congress shall be comprehensively implemented, the Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era shall be used as guidance, the new concept of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development shall be put into practice, according to the decisions and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, the strategy of developing the country by relying on science and education and the innovation-driven development strategy shall be carried out in depth, the role of science and technology as the primary productive force shall be maximized, the cutting-edge science and technology in the world shall be aimed at, basic research shall be enhanced, the reform of the scientific and technological system shall be furthered, the consolidated and innovative development of basic research and applied research shall be boosted, significant breakthroughs in forward-looking basic research and leading original achievements shall be made vigorously, the capacity for innovation shall be fully heightened, and the building of an innovation-oriented country and scientific and technological superpower shall be advanced in all aspects, so as to provide powerful support for accelerating the building of a great modern socialist country and accomplishing the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. 全面贯彻党的十九大精神,以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,贯彻创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,按照党中央、国务院决策部署,深入实施科教兴国战略、创新驱动发展战略,充分发挥科学技术作为第一生产力的作用,充分发挥创新作为引领发展第一动力的作用,瞄准世界科技前沿,强化基础研究,深化科技体制改革,促进基础研究与应用研究融通创新发展,着力实现前瞻性基础研究、引领性原创成果重大突破,全面提升创新能力,全面推进创新型国家和世界科技强国建设,为加快建设社会主义现代化强国、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供强大支撑。
2. Basic principles. (二)基本原则。
Following the scientific pattern and adhering to classification guidance: The characteristics of scientific research including flash inspiration, casual manners, and uncertain paths shall be respected, the environment and culture favorable to innovation shall be created, and scientists shall be encouraged to give free rein to their imagination, propose bold hypotheses, and conscientiously seek confirmation. The organic combination of free exploration with objective orientation shall be promoted, the basic research in the free exploration category shall focus on unknown scientific issues, and new scientific heights shall be scaled bravely; and the basic research in the objective orientation category shall be closely combined with the need for economic and social development, and the forward-looking arrangements in strategic fields shall be strengthened. 遵循科学规律,坚持分类指导。尊重科学研究灵感瞬间性、方式随意性、路径不确定性的特点,营造有利于创新的环境和文化,鼓励科学家自由畅想、大胆假设、认真求证。推动自由探索和目标导向有机结合,自由探索类基础研究聚焦探索未知的科学问题,勇攀科学高峰;目标导向类基础研究紧密结合经济社会发展需求,加强战略领域前瞻部署。
Highlighting original innovation and promoting consolidated development: The improvement of the capability of original innovation shall be placed in a more prominent position, the confidence in innovation shall be boosted, the most cutting-edge scientific issues shall be challenged bravely, more original theories shall be produced, and more original discoveries shall be made. The integration of science and education, military and civilian integration, and profound integration of enterprises, universities and scientific research institutes shall be enhanced, demand orientation shall be adhered to, and the transition from basic research to applied research and to industrialization and their consolidation shall be promoted, so as to promote the effective connection between the innovative factors in different industries and fields. 突出原始创新,促进融通发展。把提升原始创新能力摆在更加突出位置,坚定创新自信,勇于挑战最前沿的科学问题,提出更多原创理论,作出更多原创发现。强化科教融合、军民融合和产学研深度融合,坚持需求牵引,促进基础研究、应用研究与产业化对接融通,推动不同行业和领域创新要素有效对接。
Innovating on systems and mechanisms and heightening vitality for innovation: People-oriented approaches shall be highlighted, the reform of the management of scientific research projects and funds shall be furthered, and a relaxing scientific research environment shall be created, so as to allow scientific researchers to be devoted to basic research for a long time. The classification assessment mechanism shall be improved to motivate and trigger the creativity of scientists, scientific research institutes, universities, enterprises and other parties. The administrative manners of the government shall be innovated on, and enterprises shall be directed to intensify basic research to improve their market competitiveness. 创新体制机制,增强创新活力。突出以人为导向,深化科研项目和经费管理改革,营造宽松科研环境,使科研人员潜心、长期从事基础研究。完善分类评价机制,调动科学家、科研院所、高校、企业等方面的积极性创造性。创新政府管理方式,引导企业加强基础研究,提升市场竞争力。
Augmenting collaborative innovation and expanding opening up and cooperation: Subject to the new requirements of big science, big data, and the Internet era, collaboration, cooperation, crowd sourcing, crowd funding, and other new manners of scientific research activities shall be vigorously explored to solve difficult scientific issues and share innovative achievements. Adhering to a global prospective, innovating on the talent cultivation mechanism, and introducing talents from all sources: Voluntary integration into the global innovation network shall be undertaken, the opening up and cooperation in the capability of innovation shall be strengthened, and a new international cooperation platform shall be built, so as to jointly tackle the significant scientific challenges drawing global attention. 加强协同创新,扩大开放合作。适应大科学、大数据、互联网时代新要求,积极探索科研活动协同合作、众包众筹等新方式,破解科学难题、共享创新成果。坚持全球视野,创新人才培养机制,多方引才引智。主动融入全球创新网络,加强创新能力开放合作,打造国际合作新平台,共同应对全球关注的重大科学挑战。
Augmenting stable support and optimizing the structure of investment: The stable support of the central treasury for basic research shall be augmented, a diversified investment mechanism for basic research shall be developed, and local governments, enterprises and social forces shall be directed to invest more in basic research. An investment mechanism featuring a match between stable support and competitive support shall be established, and the comprehensive development of scientific research, talent cultivation and base building shall be promoted. 强化稳定支持,优化投入结构。加大中央财政对基础研究的稳定支持力度,构建基础研究多元化投入机制,引导鼓励地方、企业和社会力量增加基础研究投入。建立稳定支持和竞争性支持相协调的投入机制,推动科学研究、人才培养与基地建设全面发展。
3. Development goals. (三)发展目标。
By 2020, the overall level and international influence of China's basic research will have been significantly raised or improved, world top rankings will have been secured in several important fields, a group of significant original scientific achievements will have been made in the important directions of cutting-edge sciences, a group of forward-looking and significant scientific issues meeting national strategic demand will have been solved, and the capability of source supply supporting and leading innovation-driven development will have been conspicuously heightened, so as to provide powerful support for building a moderately prosperous society in all aspects and an innovation-oriented country. 到2020年,我国基础科学研究整体水平和国际影响力显著提升,在若干重要领域跻身世界先进行列,在科学前沿重要方向取得一批重大原创性科学成果,解决一批面向国家战略需求的前瞻性重大科学问题,支撑引领创新驱动发展的源头供给能力显著增强,为全面建成小康社会、进入创新型国家行列提供有力支撑。
By 2035, the overall level and international influence of China's basic research will have soared, a leading position in the global development of more significant fields will have been secured, and a group of original scientific achievements having an important impact on global scientific and technological development and the progress in human civilization will have been made, so as to lay a solid foundation for achieving socialist modernization and China becoming a top innovation-oriented country. 到2035年,我国基础科学研究整体水平和国际影响力大幅跃升,在更多重要领域引领全球发展,产出一批对世界科技发展和人类文明进步有重要影响的原创性科学成果,为基本实现社会主义现代化、跻身创新型国家前列奠定坚实基础。
By the 2050s, China will have been built into a major scientific center and innovative height in the world, and a group of master scientists making significant original scientific achievements and at internationally top level will have sprung up, so as to provide powerful scientific support for building a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, powerful, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful and a scientific and technological superpower. 到本世纪中叶,把我国建设成为世界主要科学中心和创新高地,涌现出一批重大原创性科学成果和国际顶尖水平的科学大师,为建成富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国和世界科技强国提供强大的科学支撑。
II. Improving the distribution of basic research   二、完善基础研究布局
4. Enhancing the systematic arrangements for basic research. Attention to education shall be adhered to, basic research shall be strengthened utterly, and more priority shall be given to mathematics, physics, and other critical basic sciences. The distribution of sciences shall be improved, the balanced and coordinated development of basic science and applied science shall be promoted, and interdisciplinary research shall be encouraged, so as to promote the overlapping and integration of natural sciences, humanistic and social sciences, and other different sciences. Cutting-edge basic research shall be augmented, exploration shall be undertaken centering on cosmic evolution, structure of materials, origin of life, and brain and cognition, among others, and pioneering arrangements for quantum science, brain science, synthetic biology, space science, deep sea science, and other critical scientific problems shall be strengthened. The applied basic research shall be intensified, centering on the significant demand of economic and social development and national security, critical common technology, cutting-edge leading technology, modern engineering technology, and game-changing technology innovation shall be highlighted, and a group of significant scientific issues in agriculture, materials, energy, network information, manufacturing and engineering, and other fields and industries shall be resolved with concentrated resources. Centering on the urgent need for improving livelihood and promoting sustainable development, the basic research in resource environment, population health, new urbanization, public security, and other fields shall be further augmented. With a focus on the basic science fields in which revolutionary technology may appear in the future, significant original research and cutting-edge and overlapping research shall be enhanced. (四)强化基础研究系统部署。坚持从教育抓起,潜心加强基础科学研究,对数学、物理等重点基础学科给予更多倾斜。完善学科布局,推动基础学科与应用学科均衡协调发展,鼓励开展跨学科研究,促进自然科学、人文社会科学等不同学科之间的交叉融合。加强基础前沿科学研究,围绕宇宙演化、物质结构、生命起源、脑与认知等开展探索,加强对量子科学、脑科学、合成生物学、空间科学、深海科学等重大科学问题的超前部署。加强应用基础研究,围绕经济社会发展和国家安全的重大需求,突出关键共性技术、前沿引领技术、现代工程技术、颠覆性技术创新,在农业、材料、能源、网络信息、制造与工程等领域和行业集中力量攻克一批重大科学问题。围绕改善民生和促进可持续发展的迫切需求,进一步加强资源环境、人口健康、新型城镇化、公共安全等领域基础科学研究。聚焦未来可能产生变革性技术的基础科学领域,强化重大原创性研究和前沿交叉研究。
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