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Notice of the Supreme People's Court on Issuing the Guiding Opinions on Strengthening and Standardizing the Analysis and Reasoning in Adjudicative Instruments [Effective]
最高人民法院印发《关于加强和规范裁判文书释法说理的指导意见》的通知 [现行有效]
Notice of the Supreme People's Court on Issuing the Guiding Opinions on Strengthening and Standardizing the Analysis and Reasoning in Adjudicative Instruments 


(No. 10 [2018] of the Supreme People's Court) (法发〔2018〕10号)

The higher people's courts of all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government; the Military Court of the People's Liberation Army; and the Production and Construction Corps Branch of the Higher People's Court of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous: 各省、自治区、直辖市高级人民法院,解放军军事法院,新疆维吾尔自治区高级人民法院生产建设兵团分院:
The Guiding Opinions on Strengthening and Standardizing the Analysis and Reasoning in Adjudicative Instruments are hereby issued to you for your compliance and implementation. 现将《最高人民法院关于加强和规范裁判文书释法说理的指导意见》印发给你们,请遵照执行。
Supreme People's Court 最高人民法院
June 1, 2018 2018年6月1日
Guiding Opinions of the Supreme People's Court on Strengthening and Standardizing the Analysis and Reasoning in Adjudicative Instruments 最高人民法院关于加强和规范裁判文书释法说理的指导意见
For the purposes of further strengthening and standardizing the analysis and reasoning in adjudicative instruments prepared by people's courts, raising the level of analysis and reasoning, and improving the quality of adjudicative instruments, based on the actual trials, the following guiding opinions are hereby offered. 为进一步加强和规范人民法院裁判文书释法说理工作,提高释法说理水平和裁判文书质量,结合审判工作实际,提出如下指导意见。
I. The purpose of the analysis and reasoning in adjudicative instruments is, by elucidating the process of making an adjudicative conclusion and the justifications therefor, to improve the acceptability of adjudications and achieve the organic unity of legal effect and social effect; and its main value is to enhance equity and transparency of adjudicative conduct, regulate the exercise of adjudicative power, improve judicial credibility and judicial authority, capitalize on the role of adjudication in settling disputes and guiding values, advocate core socialist values, strive to enable the people to feel equity and justice in every judicial case, practically safeguard the lawful rights and interests of litigants, and promote social harmony and stability.   一、裁判文书释法说理的目的是通过阐明裁判结论的形成过程和正当性理由,提高裁判的可接受性,实现法律效果和社会效果的有机统一;其主要价值体现在增强裁判行为公正度、透明度,规范审判权行使,提升司法公信力和司法权威,发挥裁判的定分止争和价值引领作用,弘扬社会主义核心价值观,努力让人民群众在每一个司法案件中感受到公平正义,切实维护诉讼当事人合法权益,促进社会和谐稳定。
II. The analysis and reasoning in adjudicative instruments shall elucidate logic, explain the facts of a case established by the adjudication and the basis and reasons therefor, and demonstrate the objectivity, equity, and accuracy of the establishment of the facts of the case; explain legal principles and state the law on which the adjudication is based and the reasons for the application of the law; specify the common sense, reflect the coordination of the law, reason, and common sense and comply with the mainstream social values; and pay attention to readability, use standard language and accurate expressions, apply clear logic, and rationally exploit reasoning skills, so as to enhance the effect of reasoning.   二、裁判文书释法说理,要阐明事理,说明裁判所认定的案件事实及其根据和理由,展示案件事实认定的客观性、公正性和准确性;要释明法理,说明裁判所依据的法律规范以及适用法律规范的理由;要讲明情理,体现法理情相协调,符合社会主流价值观;要讲究文理,语言规范,表达准确,逻辑清晰,合理运用说理技巧,增强说理效果。
III. The analysis and reasoning in adjudicative instruments shall be with correction stance, legal content, and due procedure and comply with the spirit and requirements of the core socialist values; reason centering on the examination and judgment of evidence, establishment of facts, and application of law, reflect the reasoning process, and achieve clear logic; reason in light of claims and disputes, taking into account the situation of court trial, and have a definite object in view; and reason in moderate length according to the social impact of a case, trial procedure, stages of legal proceedings, and other conditions, reason briefly for simple cases and concisely for complicated cases, and strive to serve the purpose precisely.   三、裁判文书释法说理,要立场正确、内容合法、程序正当,符合社会主义核心价值观的精神和要求;要围绕证据审查判断、事实认定、法律适用进行说理,反映推理过程,做到层次分明;要针对诉讼主张和诉讼争点、结合庭审情况进行说理,做到有的放矢;要根据案件社会影响、审判程序、诉讼阶段等不同情况进行繁简适度的说理,简案略说,繁案精说,力求恰到好处。
IV. The determination of evidence in the adjudicative instruments shall take into account the abduction of evidence and cross-examination by all parties to legal proceedings, the investigation and verification of evidence by the court, and other information, comply with the rules of evidence, apply logical reasoning and rules of thumb, use presumption, judicial notice, and other methods when necessary, conduct comprehensive, objective, and equitable examination and judgment with a focus on the relevance, legality, and authenticity of evidence, and elucidate the reasons for the satisfaction and admission of evidence.   四、裁判文书中对证据的认定,应当结合诉讼各方举证质证以及法庭调查核实证据等情况,根据证据规则,运用逻辑推理和经验法则,必要时使用推定和司法认知等方法,围绕证据的关联性、合法性和真实性进行全面、客观、公正的审查判断,阐明证据采纳和采信的理由。
V. Where a criminal defendant and his defender file an application for the exclusion of illegal evidence, the adjudicative instruments shall state whether the investigation of the legality of evidence collection is made, whether the evidence is excluded, and the reasons. If a civil or administrative case involves the distribution of burden of proof or a dispute over proof criteria, adjudicative instruments shall state the reasons.   五、刑事被告人及其辩护人提出排除非法证据申请的,裁判文书应当说明是否对证据收集的合法性进行调查、证据是否排除及其理由。民事、行政案件涉及举证责任分配或者证明标准争议的,裁判文书应当说明理由。
VI. Adjudicative instruments shall make an analysis and reasoning based on adduction of evidence, cross-examination, argument in court, court's investigation and verification of evidence, and other information and focus on analysis and reasoning in respect of the facts established by adjudication or disputed facts. When the facts are established on the basis of indirect evidence, the reasoning shall center on whether there is a corroborative relationship between indirect evidence and whether a complete proof system can be formed, among others. When the facts are established by presumption, the reasons for the initiation of presumption, the facts and reasons for rebuttal shall be stated, and the process of adjudication shall be explained.   六、裁判文书应当结合庭审举证、质证、法庭辩论以及法庭调查核实证据等情况,重点针对裁判认定的事实或者事实争点进行释法说理。依据间接证据认定事实时,应当围绕间接证据之间是否存在印证关系、是否能够形成完整的证明体系等进行说理。采用推定方法认定事实时,应当说明推定启动的原因、反驳的事实和理由,阐释裁断的形成过程。
VII. Where no party to legal proceedings has disputes over the application of law, and it is unnecessary to elucidate the legal meaning, the adjudicative instruments shall focus the analysis and reasoning on the content and standard of adjudication. Otherwise, the judge shall respond to the focus of the legal disputes item by item and explain the reasons. Where the application of law is in the case of concurrence or conflict of law, the adjudicative instruments shall state the reasons for the election. For a civil case, in the absence of determinate rules as the direct basis for adjudication, the judge shall first seek the most similar rules for adjudication; and if there are no similar rules, the judge may adjudicate based on custom, legal principles, and legislative purposes, among others, and sufficiently justify and reason out the adjudicative basis by reasonable use of legal methods. When a judge adjudicates on a case by exercising his/her discretion, he/she shall adhere to the principles of lawfulness, reasonableness, equity, and prudence, fully justify the basis for the exercise of discretion, and elucidate the relevant factors considered for the discretion.   七、诉讼各方对案件法律适用无争议且法律含义不需要阐明的,裁判文书应当集中围绕裁判内容和尺度进行释法说理。诉讼各方对案件法律适用存有争议或者法律含义需要阐明的,法官应当逐项回应法律争议焦点并说明理由。法律适用存在法律规范竞合或者冲突的,裁判文书应当说明选择的理由。民事案件没有明确的法律规定作为裁判直接依据的,法官应当首先寻找最相类似的法律规定作出裁判;如果没有最相类似的法律规定,法官可以依据习惯、法律原则、立法目的等作出裁判,并合理运用法律方法对裁判依据进行充分论证和说理。法官行使自由裁量权处理案件时,应当坚持合法、合理、公正和审慎的原则,充分论证运用自由裁量权的依据,并阐明自由裁量所考虑的相关因素。
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