May 31, 2010
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Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Improving the Systems and Mechanisms for Market-based Allocation of Factors of Production [Effective]
中共中央、国务院关于构建更加完善的要素市场化配置体制机制的意见 [现行有效]
Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Improving the Systems and Mechanisms for Market-based Allocation of Factors of Production 


(March 30, 2020) (2020年3月30日)

Improving market-based allocation of production factors is an intrinsic requirement of building an integrated, open, competitive and orderly market system, and it is also an important task for remaining committed to and enhancing the basic socialist economic system and accelerating the improvement of the socialist market economic system. For the purposes of deepening the reform of market-based allocation of production factors, facilitating the free and orderly flow of factors, improving efficiency in the allocation of factors, further stimulating the creativity of all social sectors and the vitality of the market, and promoting reforms in the quality, efficiency, and momentum of economic development, the opinions on improving the system and mechanism for market-based allocation of factors of production are hereby offered as follows. 完善要素市场化配置是建设统一开放、竞争有序市场体系的内在要求,是坚持和完善社会主义基本经济制度、加快完善社会主义市场经济体制的重要内容。为深化要素市场化配置改革,促进要素自主有序流动,提高要素配置效率,进一步激发全社会创造力和市场活力,推动经济发展质量变革、效率变革、动力变革,现就构建更加完善的要素市场化配置体制机制提出如下意见。
I. General Requirements   一、总体要求
1. Guiding ideology: With Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era as guidance, efforts shall be made to comprehensively implement the spirit of the 19th CPC National Congress and the Second, Third, and Fourth Plenary Sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee, uphold the underlying principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability, continue to take supply-side structural reform as the main task, follow the new development philosophy, and persist in deepening market-oriented reforms and advancing high-standard opening up. There shall also be efforts to remove barriers in systems and mechanism that impede the free flow of production factors, expand the scope of market-based allocation of factors, improve the market system for factors of production, promote market rules for production factors, and ensure market-oriented pricing for factors, free and orderly flow of factors, and efficient and fair allocation of factors, so as to lay a solid foundation for the building of a modernized economic system. (一)指导思想。以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中、四中全会精神,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,坚持以供给侧结构性改革为主线,坚持新发展理念,坚持深化市场化改革、扩大高水平开放,破除阻碍要素自由流动的体制机制障碍,扩大要素市场化配置范围,健全要素市场体系,推进要素市场制度建设,实现要素价格市场决定、流动自主有序、配置高效公平,为建设高标准市场体系、推动高质量发展、建设现代化经济体系打下坚实制度基础。
2. Basic principles: First, market-based allocation and orderly flow: In order to maximize the decisive role of the market in the allocation of resources, channels for the flow of production factors shall be improved, equal access of different market players to production factors shall be safeguarded, and the allocation of factors shall be based on market rules, market prices and market competition to realize maximum profits and efficiency. Second, improving systems and innovating supervision: The role of government in improving the market operation mechanism of production factors shall be enhanced, the regulation and supervision by government shall be strengthened, the combination of decentralization and appropriate control shall be supported, the capability of supervision and service delivery shall be increased, and various factors of production shall be directed to concentrate on advanced productive forces. Third, problem-oriented approaches and tailor-made policies: The systems and mechanisms for market-based allocation of production factors shall be refined according to the attributes of these factors, different levels of marketization and the needs of economic and social development, so as to solve specific problems such as limited scope of market-based allocation of factors and obstacles in systems and mechanisms for the flow of factors. Fourth, pursuing gradual progress while ensuring stability: Efforts shall be made to keep the allocation of factors secure and under proper control in accordance with actual facts and objective rules, cultivate and develop new forms of production factors, gradually increase the quality of factors, and steadily advance the reform in the market-based allocation of factors of production according to local conditions. (二)基本原则。一是市场决定,有序流动。充分发挥市场配置资源的决定性作用,畅通要素流动渠道,保障不同市场主体平等获取生产要素,推动要素配置依据市场规则、市场价格、市场竞争实现效益最大化和效率最优化。二是健全制度,创新监管。更好发挥政府作用,健全要素市场运行机制,完善政府调节与监管,做到放活与管好有机结合,提升监管和服务能力,引导各类要素协同向先进生产力集聚。三是问题导向,分类施策。针对市场决定要素配置范围有限、要素流动存在体制机制障碍等问题,根据不同要素属性、市场化程度差异和经济社会发展需要,分类完善要素市场化配置体制机制。四是稳中求进,循序渐进。坚持安全可控,从实际出发,尊重客观规律,培育发展新型要素形态,逐步提高要素质量,因地制宜稳步推进要素市场化配置改革。
II. Advancing the Market-based Allocation of Land Factor   二、推进土地要素市场化配置
3. Establishing a unified construction land market for urban and rural areas: The Regulation on the Implementation of the Land Administration Law shall be revised and improved at a faster pace, along with the relevant supporting systems. The guiding opinions on the marketization of rural collective land designated for business-related construction shall be developed. The reform on the rural land requisition system shall be advanced in an all-round manner, and the paid use of state-owned land shall be expanded. A fair and reasonable land increment income distribution system for the marketization of rural collective land designated for business-related shall be established. Relevant systems and regulations on land requisition for public use shall be formulated. (三)建立健全城乡统一的建设用地市场。加快修改完善土地管理法实施条例,完善相关配套制度,制定出台农村集体经营性建设用地入市指导意见。全面推开农村土地征收制度改革,扩大国有土地有偿使用范围。建立公平合理的集体经营性建设用地入市增值收益分配制度。建立公共利益征地的相关制度规定。
4. Deepening the reform of allowing the market to allocate land designated for industrial purposes: The market supply systems of land for industrial purposes such as long-term leasing, leasing first and transfer later, flexible-term leasing, and acquisition by capital contribution or payment of capital stock shall be improved. Provided that the requirements for territorial spatial planning are fulfilled and the purposes of land are properly controlled, the land use policies for industrial purposes shall be adjusted and enhanced, new ways of land use shall be introduced, reasonable shifts between different land use purposes shall be promoted, and explorations shall be made on increasing the supply of land for mixed industrial purposes. (四)深化产业用地市场化配置改革。健全长期租赁、先租后让、弹性年期供应、作价出资(入股)等工业用地市场供应体系。在符合国土空间规划和用途管制要求前提下,调整完善产业用地政策,创新使用方式,推动不同产业用地类型合理转换,探索增加混合产业用地供给。
5. Encouraging effective use of existing land designated for construction: Market forces shall be fully utilized to effectively manage existing land and land in low-efficiency use, and research shall be conducted on improving the tax system for promoting effective use of land designated for construction. Efforts shall be made to encourage effective use of the state-owned enterprises' existing land for construction in various forms. The pilot reform of the system for rural land designated for housing shall be deepened, further steps shall be taken to push forward the consolidation of land designated for construction, and the policies of linking newly-added farmland quotas with the amount of land used for construction shall be improved, so as to provide land guarantee for rural revitalization and integrated rural-urban development. (五)鼓励盘活存量建设用地。充分运用市场机制盘活存量土地和低效用地,研究完善促进盘活存量建设用地的税费制度。以多种方式推进国有企业存量用地盘活利用。深化农村宅基地制度改革试点,深入推进建设用地整理,完善城乡建设用地增减挂钩政策,为乡村振兴和城乡融合发展提供土地要素保障。
6. Improving the land administration system: The administration of the plans for land use shall be strengthened, and a system of controlling annual aggregate land for construction shall be implemented, with an aim to improve flexibility in land administration. More reasonable quotas shall be set in the plans of land use, and the use of quotas for construction land in urban and rural areas shall be mostly managed by the provincial governments. A plan of three-year rolling supply of construction land in urban and rural areas shall be established and improved, provided that the preparation of territorial spatial planning and the registration of integration between house ownership and land-using right in rural areas are completed. A national mechanism for cross-region trading of construction land quotas and supplementary quotas for arable land shall be established. The statistical monitoring for the supply and use of land shall be strengthened. Unified survey, planning, consolidation and registration of land in urban and rural areas shall be implemented. Efforts shall be made to develop the real estate registration law. (六)完善土地管理体制。完善土地利用计划管理,实施年度建设用地总量调控制度,增强土地管理灵活性,推动土地计划指标更加合理化,城乡建设用地指标使用应更多由省级政府负责。在国土空间规划编制、农村房地一体不动产登记基本完成的前提下,建立健全城乡建设用地供应三年滚动计划。探索建立全国性的建设用地、补充耕地指标跨区域交易机制。加强土地供应利用统计监测。实施城乡土地统一调查、统一规划、统一整治、统一登记。推动制定不动产登记法。
III. Guiding the Reasonable, Smooth and Orderly Flow of Labor Factor   三、引导劳动力要素合理畅通有序流动
7. Deepening the reform of the household registration system: Megacities shall be encouraged to adjust and improve the points-based household registration policy, and explorations shall be made into supporting the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and other city clusters in taking the lead in intra-city mutual recognition of the accumulative number of years for household registration. The restrictions on residence registration in cities other than a few megacities shall be relaxed, and a system of granting household registration based on habitual residence shall be piloted. A mechanism of allowing permanent urban residents to enjoy basic public services such as education, employment, business startups, and healthcare shall be established, so as to promote the allocation of public benefits according to the number of permanent urban residents. (七)深化户籍制度改革。推动超大、特大城市调整完善积分落户政策,探索推动在长三角、珠三角等城市群率先实现户籍准入年限同城化累计互认。放开放宽除个别超大城市外的城市落户限制,试行以经常居住地登记户口制度。建立城镇教育、就业创业、医疗卫生等基本公共服务与常住人口挂钩机制,推动公共资源按常住人口规模配置。
8. Providing channels for smooth social mobility of labor force and talented personnel: The unified and standardized human resource market system shall be improved, and faster steps shall be taken to establish policies and systems that can coordinate the flow of labor force and talented people as well as exchange and cooperation mechanisms. An environment with equal access to employment shall be created, discrimination in employment due to identity or gender shall be corrected according to the law, and the labor force in urban and rural areas shall enjoy equal rights to employment. More channels shall be opened up to the personnel of enterprises and social organizations to allow them to find jobs in the Party and government agencies, state-owned enterprises and public institutions. The mechanism for state-owned enterprises and public institutions to publicly select and appoint personnel shall be optimized, and public recruitment in state-owned enterprises based on managerial level and business scale shall be further advanced. Employment aid shall be strengthened, and those in difficulty shall be given priority and special support. The administration services of personnel archives shall be enhanced, and information technology-based personnel archives shall be improved at a faster pace. (八)畅通劳动力和人才社会性流动渠道。健全统一规范的人力资源市场体系,加快建立协调衔接的劳动力、人才流动政策体系和交流合作机制。营造公平就业环境,依法纠正身份、性别等就业歧视现象,保障城乡劳动者享有平等就业权利。进一步畅通企业、社会组织人员进入党政机关、国有企事业单位渠道。优化国有企事业单位面向社会选人用人机制,深入推行国有企业分级分类公开招聘。加强就业援助,实施优先扶持和重点帮助。完善人事档案管理服务,加快提升人事档案信息化水平。
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