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Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China (97 Revision) [Revised]
中华人民共和国刑法(1997修订) [已被修订]
【法宝引证码】
 
  


 

*注:本法已被八个修正案及全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于修改部分法律的决定(发布日期:2009年8月27日 实施日期:2009年8月27日)修正、修改,请结合“本法变迁史”查看。

Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China
(Adopted by the Second Session of the Fifth National People's Congress on July 1, 1979 and amended by the Fifth Session of the Eighth National People's Congress on March 14, 1997)





 

中华人民共和国主席令
(第八十三号)


中华人民共和国刑法》已由中华人民共和国第八届全国人民代表大会第五次会议于1997年3月14日修订,现将修订后的《中华人民共和国刑法》公布,自1997年10月1日起施行。
中华人民共和国主席江泽民
1997年3月14日
中华人民共和国刑法
(1979年7月1日第五届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过
1997年3月14日第八届全国人民代表大会第五次会议修订)

Table of Contents:
 目录
Part I General Provisions
 第一编 总则
Chapter I Tasks, Basic Principles, and Scope of Application of the Criminal Law
 第一章 刑法的任务、基本原则和适用范围
Chapter II Crimes
 第二章 犯罪
Section 1. Crime and Criminal Responsibility
 第一节 犯罪和刑事责任
Section 2. Preparation for a Crime, Criminal Attempt, and Discontinuation of a Crime
 第二节 犯罪的预备、未遂和中止
Section 3. Joint Crimes
 第三节 共同犯罪
Section 4. Unit Crimes
 第四节 单位犯罪
Chapter III Punishments
 第三章 刑罚
Section 1. Types of Punishments
 第一节 刑罚的种类
Section 2. Control
 第二节 管制
Section 3. Criminal Detention
 第三节 拘役
Section 4. Fixed-Term Imprisonment and Life Imprisonment
 第四节 有期徒刑、无期徒刑
Section 5. The Death Penalty
 第五节 死刑
Section 6. Fines
 第六节 罚金
Section 7. Deprivation of Political Rights
 第七节 剥夺政治权利
Section 8. Confiscation of Property
 第八节 没收财产
Chapter IV The Concrete Application Of Punishments
 第四章 刑罚的具体运用
Section 1. Sentencing
 第一节 量刑
Section 2. Recidivists
 第二节 累犯
Section 3. Voluntary Surrender and Meritorious Service
 第三节 自首和立功
Section 4. Combined Punishment for More Than One Crime
 第四节 数罪并罚
Section 5. Suspension of Sentence
 第五节 缓刑
Section 6. Reduction of Sentence
 第六节 减刑
Section 7. Parole
 第七节 假释
Section 8. Limitation
 第八节 时效
Chapter V Other Provisions
 第五章 其他规定
PART II Special Provisions
 第二编 分则
Chapter I Crimes of Endangering National Security
 第一章 危害国家安全罪
Chapter II Crimes of Endangering Public Security
 第二章 危害公共安全罪
Chapter III Crimes of Undermining the Order of Socialist Market Economy
 第三章 破坏社会主义市场经济秩序罪
Section 1. Crimes of Manufacturing and Selling Fake and Shoddy Goods
 第一节 生产、销售伪劣商品罪
Section 2. Crimes of Smuggling
 第二节 走私罪
Section 3. Crimes of Disrupting the Order of Company and Enterprise Administration
 第三节 妨害对公司、企业的管理秩序罪
Section 4. Crimes of Undermining the Order of Financial Management
 第四节 破坏金融管理秩序罪
Section 5. Crimes of Financial Fraud
 第五节 金融诈骗罪
Section 6. Crimes of Endangering Collection and Management of Taxes
 第六节 危害税收征管罪
Section 7. Crimes of Infringing Upon Intellectual Propert Rights
 第七节 侵犯知识产权罪
Section 8. Crimes of Disrupting Market Order
 第八节 扰乱市场秩序罪
Chapter IV Crimes of Infringing Upon the Rights of the Person and the Democratic Rights of Citizens
 第四章 侵犯公民人身权利、民主权利罪
Chapter V The Crime of Encroaching on Property
 第五章 侵犯财产罪
Chapter VI Crimes of Disrupting the Order of Social Administration
 第六章 妨害社会管理秩序罪
Section 1. Crimes of Disrupting Public Order
 第一节 扰乱公共秩序罪
Section 2. Crimes of Disrupting Justice
 第二节 妨害司法罪
Section 3. Crimes of Disrupting Administration of the Territory (Border)
 第三节 妨害国(边)境管理罪
Section 4. Crimes of Disrupting Administration of Cultural Relics
 第四节 妨害文物管理罪
Section 5. Crimes of Endangering Public Health
 第五节 危害公共卫生罪
Section 6. Crimes of Undermining Protection of Environmental Resources
 第六节 破坏环境资源保护罪
Section 7. Crimes of Smuggling, Trafficking, Transporting, and Manufacturing Drugs.
 第七节 走私、贩卖、运输、制造毒品罪
Section 8. Crimes of Organizing, Forcing, Inducing, Housing, and Introducing Prostitutes
 第八节 组织、强迫、引诱、容留、介绍卖淫罪
Section 9. Crimes of Manufacturing, Selling, and Spreading Obscene Publications
 第九节 制作、贩卖、传播淫秽物品罪
Chapter VII Crimes of Endangering the Interests of National Defense
 第七章 危害国防利益罪
Chapter VIII Graft and Bribery
 第八章 贪污贿赂罪
Chapter IX Crimes of Dereliction of Duty
 第九章 渎职罪
Chapter X Crimes of Violation of Duty by Military Personnel

 第十章 军人违反职责罪
Supplementary Articles
 附则

Part I General Provisions
 

第一编 总则

Chapter I Tasks, Basic Principles, and Scope of Application of the Criminal Law
 

第一章 刑法的任务、基本原则和适用范围


Article 1. This law is formulated in accordance with the Constitution and in light of the concrete experience of China launching a struggle against crime and the realities in the country, with a view to punishing crime and protecting the people.
   第一条 【立法目的】为了惩罚犯罪,保护人民,根据宪法,结合我国同犯罪作斗争的具体经验及实际情况,制定本法。
Article 2. The tasks of the PRC Criminal Law are to use punishment struggle against all criminal acts to defend national security, the political power of the people's democratic dictatorship, and the socialist system; to protect state-owned property and property collectively owned by the laboring masses; to protect citizens' privately owned property; to protect citizens' right of the person, democratic rights, and other rights; to maintain social and economic order; and to safeguard the smooth progress of the cause of socialist construction.
   第二条 【任务】中华人民共和国刑法的任务,是用刑罚同一切犯罪行为作斗争,以保卫国家安全,保卫人民民主专政的政权和社会主义制度,保护国有财产和劳动群众集体所有的财产,保护公民私人所有的财产,保护公民的人身权利、民主权利和其他权利,维护社会秩序、经济秩序,保障社会主义建设事业的顺利进行。
Article 3. Any act deemed by explicit stipulations of law as a crime is to be convicted and given punishment by law and any act that no explicit stipulations of law deems a crime is not to be convicted or given punishment.
   第三条 【罪刑法定】法律明文规定为犯罪行为的,依照法律定罪处刑;法律没有明文规定为犯罪行为的,不得定罪处刑。
Article 4. Every one is equal before the law in committing crime. No one is permitted to have privileges to transgress the law.
   第四条 【法律面前人人平等】对任何人犯罪,在适用法律上一律平等。不允许任何人有超越法律的特权。
Article 5. The severity of punishments must be commensurate with the crime committed by an offender and the criminal responsibility he bears.
   第五条 【罪责刑相适应】刑罚的轻重,应当与犯罪分子所犯罪行和承担的刑事责任相适应。
Article 6. This law is applicable to all who commit crimes within the territory of the PRC except as specially stipulated by law.
This law is also applicable to all who commit crimes aboard a ship or aircraft of the PRC.
When either the act or consequence of a crime takes place within PRC territory, a crime is deemed to have been committed within PRC territory.
   第六条 【属地管辖权】凡在中华人民共和国领域内犯罪的,除法律有特别规定的以外,都适用本法。
凡在中华人民共和国船舶或者航空器内犯罪的,也适用本法。
犯罪的行为或者结果有一项发生在中华人民共和国领域内的,就认为是在中华人民共和国领域内犯罪。
Article 7. This law is applicable to PRC citizens who commit the crimes specified in this law outside the territory of the PRC; but those who commit the crimes, provided that this law stipulates a minimum sentence of less than a three-year fixed-term imprisonment for such crimes, may not be dealt with.
This law is applicable to PRC state personnel and military personnel who commit the crimes specified in this law outside PRC territory.
   第七条 【属人管辖权】中华人民共和国公民在中华人民共和国领域外犯本法规定之罪的,适用本法,但是按本法规定的最高刑为三年以下有期徒刑的,可以不予追究。
中华人民共和国国家工作人员和军人在中华人民共和国领域外犯本法规定之罪的,适用本法。
Article 8. This law may be applicable to foreigners, who outside PRC territory, commit crimes against the PRC state or against its citizens, provided that this law stipulates a minimum sentence of not less than a three-year fixed term of imprisonment for such crimes; but an exception is to be made if a crime is not punishable according the law of the place where it was committed.
   第八条 【保护管辖权】外国人在中华人民共和国领域外对中华人民共和国国家或者公民犯罪,而按本法规定的最低刑为三年以上有期徒刑的,可以适用本法,但是按照犯罪地的法律不受处罚的除外。
Article 9. This law is applicable to the crimes specified in international treaties to which the PRC is a signatory state or with which it is a member and the PRC exercises criminal jurisdiction over such crimes within its treaty obligations.
   第九条 【普遍管辖权】对于中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约所规定的罪行,中华人民共和国在所承担条约义务的范围内行使刑事管辖权的,适用本法。
Article 10. Any person who commits a crime outside PRC territory and according to this law bear criminal responsibility may still be dealt with according to this law even if he has been tried in a foreign country; however, a person who has already received criminal punishment in a foreign country may be exempted from punishment or given a mitigated punishment.
   第十条 【对外国刑事判决的消极承认】凡在中华人民共和国领域外犯罪,依照本法应当负刑事责任的,虽然经过外国审判,仍然可以依照本法追究,但是在外国已经受过刑罚处罚的,可以免除或者减轻处罚。
Article 11. The problem of criminal responsibility of foreigners who enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunity is to be resolved through diplomatic channels.
   第十一条 【外交代表刑事管辖豁免】享有外交特权和豁免权的外国人的刑事责任,通过外交途径解决。
Article 12. If an act committed after the founding of the PRC and before the implementation of this law was not deemed a crime under the laws at that time, the laws at that time are to be applicable. If the act was deemed a crime under the laws at that time, and if under the provisions of Chapter IV, Section 8 of the general provisions of this law it should be prosecuted, criminal responsibility is to be investigated according to the laws at that time. However, if this law does not deem it a crime or imposes a lesser punishment, this law is to be applicable.
The effective judgments that were made according to the laws at that time before the implementation of this law will continue to be in force.
   第十二条 【溯及力】中华人民共和国成立以后本法施行以前的行为,如果当时的法律不认为是犯罪的,适用当时的法律;如果当时的法律认为是犯罪的,依照本法总则第四章第八节的规定应当追诉的,按照当时的法律追究刑事责任,但是如果本法不认为是犯罪或者处刑较轻的,适用本法。
本法施行以前,依照当时的法律已经作出的生效判决,继续有效。

Chapter II Crimes
 

第二章 犯罪

Section 1. Crimes and Criminal Responsibility
 

第一节 犯罪和刑事责任


Article 13. All acts that endanger the sovereignty, territorial integrity, and security of the state; split the state; subvert the political power of the people's democratic dictatorship and overthrow the socialist system; undermine social and economic order; violate property owned by the state or property collectively owned by the laboring masses; violate citizens' privately owned property; infringe upon citizens' rights of the person, democratic rights. and other rights; and other acts that endanger society, are crimes if according to law they should be criminally punished. However, if the circumstances are clearly minor and the harm is not great, they are not to be deemed crimes.
   第十三条 【犯罪概念】一切危害国家主权、领土完整和安全,分裂国家、颠覆人民民主专政的政权和推翻社会主义制度,破坏社会秩序和经济秩序,侵犯国有财产或者劳动群众集体所有的财产,侵犯公民私人所有的财产,侵犯公民的人身权利、民主权利和其他权利,以及其他危害社会的行为,依照法律应当受刑罚处罚的,都是犯罪,但是情节显著轻微危害不大的,不认为是犯罪。
Article 14. An intentional crime is a crime constituted as a result of clear knowledge that one's own act will cause socially dangerous consequences, and of hope for or indifference to the occurrence of those consequences.
Criminal responsibility shall be borne for intentional crimes.
   第十四条 【故意犯罪】明知自己的行为会发生危害社会的结果,并且希望或者放任这种结果发生,因而构成犯罪的,是故意犯罪。
故意犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
Article 15. A negligent crime occurs when one should foresee that one's act may cause socially dangerous consequences but fails to do so because of carelessness or, having foreseen the consequences, readily assumes he can
prevent them, with the result that these consequences occur.
Criminal responsibility is to be borne for negligent crimes only when the law so stipulates.
   第十五条 【过失犯罪】应当预见自己的行为可能发生危害社会的结果,因为疏忽大意而没有预见,或者已经预见而轻信能够避免,以致发生这种结果的,是过失犯罪。
过失犯罪,法律有规定的才负刑事责任。
Article 16. Although an act objectively creates harmful consequences, if it does not result from intent or negligence but rather stems from irresistible or unforeseeable causes, it is not a crime.
   第十六条 【不可抗力和意外事件】行为在客观上虽然造成了损害结果,但是不是出于故意或者过失,而是由于不能抗拒或者不能预见的原因所引起的,不是犯罪。
Article 17. A person who has reached the age of sixteen who commits a crime shall bear criminal responsibility.
A person who has reached the age of fourteen but not the age of sixteen who commits the crimes of intentionally killing another or intentionally injuring another, even causing serious injury or death, and the crimes of rape, robbery, drug trafficking, arson, explosion, and poisoning shall bear criminal responsibility.
A person who has reached the age of fourteen but not the age of eighteen who commits a crime shall be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment.
When a person is not criminally punished because he has not reached the age of sixteen, the head of his family or guardian is to be ordered to subject him to discipline. When necessary, he may also be given shelter and rehabilitation by the government.
   第十七条 【刑事责任年龄】已满十六周岁的人犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
已满十四周岁不满十六周岁的人,犯故意杀人、故意伤害致人重伤或者死亡、强奸、抢劫、贩卖毒品、放火、爆炸、投毒罪的,应当负刑事责任。
已满十四周岁不满十八周岁的人犯罪,应当从轻或者减轻处罚。
因不满十六周岁不予刑事处罚的,责令他的家长或者监护人加以管教;在必要的时候,也可以由政府收容教养。
Article 18. A mentally ill person who causes dangerous consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or unable to control his own conduct is not to bear criminal responsibility after being established through accreditation of legal procedures; but his family or guardian shall be ordered to subject him to strict surveillance and arrange for his medical treatment. When necessary, he will be given compulsory medical treatment by the government.
A person whose mental illness is of an intermittent nature shall bear criminal responsibility if he commits a crime during a period of mental normality.
A mentally ill person who commits a crime at a time when he has not yet completely lost his ability to recognize or control his own conduct shall bear criminal responsibility but he may be given a lesser or a mitigated punishment.
An intoxicated person who commits a crime shall bear criminal responsibility.
   第十八条 【特殊人员的刑事责任能力】精神病人在不能辨认或者不能控制自己行为的时候造成危害结果,经法定程序鉴定确认的,不负刑事责任,但是应当责令他的家属或者监护人严加看管和医疗;在必要的时候,由政府强制医疗。
间歇性的精神病人在精神正常的时候犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
尚未完全丧失辨认或者控制自己行为能力的精神病人犯罪的,应当负刑事责任,但是可以从轻或者减轻处罚。
醉酒的人犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
Article 19. A deaf-mute or a blind person who commits a crime may be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.
   第十九条 【又聋又哑的人或盲人犯罪的刑事责任】又聋又哑的人或者盲人犯罪,可以从轻、减轻或者免除处罚。
Article 20. Criminal responsibility is not to be borne for an act of legitimate defense that is under taken to stop present unlawful infringement of the state's and public interest or the rights of the person, property or other rights of the actor or of other people and that causes harm to the unlawful infringer.
Criminal responsibility shall be borne where legitimate defense noticeably exceeds the necessary limits and causes great harm. However, consideration shall be given to imposing a mitigated punishment or to granting exemption from punishment.
Criminal responsibility is not to be borne for a defensive act undertaken against ongoing physical assault, murder, robbery, rape, kidnap, and other violent crimes that seriously endanger personal safety that causes injury or death to the unlawful infringer since such an act is not an excessive defense.
   第二十条 【正当防卫】为了使国家、公共利益、本人或者他人的人身、财产和其他权利免受正在进行的不法侵害,而采取的制止不法侵害的行为,对不法侵害人造成损害的,属于正当防卫,不负刑事责任。
正当防卫明显超过必要限度造成重大损害的,应当负刑事责任,但是应当减轻或者免除处罚。
对正在进行行凶、杀人、抢劫、强奸、绑架以及其他严重危及人身安全的暴力犯罪,采取防卫行为,造成不法侵害人伤亡的,不属于防卫过当,不负刑事责任。
Article 21. Criminal responsibility is not to be borne for damage resulting from an act of urgent danger prevention that must be undertaken in order to avert the occurrence of present danger to the state or public interest or the rights of the person, property rights, or other rights of the actor or of other people.
Criminal responsibility shall be borne where urgent danger prevention exceeds the necessary limits and causes undue harm. However, consideration shall be given according to the circumstances to imposing a mitigated punishment or to granting exemption from punishment.
The provisions of the first paragraph with respect to preventing danger to oneself do not apply to a person who bears specific responsibility in his post or profession.
   第二十一条 【紧急避险】为了使国家、公共利益、本人或者他人的人身、财产和其他权利免受正在发生的危险,不得已采取的紧急避险行为,造成损害的,不负刑事责任。
紧急避险超过必要限度造成不应有的损害的,应当负刑事责任,但是应当减轻或者免除处罚。
第一款中关于避免本人危险的规定,不适用于职务上、业务上负有特定责任的人。

Section 2. Preparation for a Crime, Criminal Attempt and Discontinuation of a Crime
 

第二节 犯罪的预备、未遂和中止


Article 22. Preparation for a crime is preparation of the instruments or creation of the conditions for the commission of a crime.
One who prepares for a crime may, in comparison with one who consummates the crime, be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.
   第二十二条 【犯罪预备】为了犯罪,准备工具、制造条件的,是犯罪预备。
对于预备犯,可以比照既遂犯从轻、减轻处罚或者免除处罚。
Article 23. Criminal attempt occurs when a crime has already begun to be carried out but is not consummated because of factors independent of the will of the criminal element.
One who attempts to commit a crime may, in comparison with one who consummates the crime, be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment.
   第二十三条 【犯罪未遂】已经着手实行犯罪,由于犯罪分子意志以外的原因而未得逞的,是犯罪未遂。
对于未遂犯,可以比照既遂犯从轻或者减轻处罚。
Article 24. Discontinuation of a crime occurs when, during the process of committing a crime, the actor voluntarily discontinues the crime or voluntarily and effectively prevents the consequences of the crime from occurring.
One who discontinues a crime shall be exempted from punishment when there is no harm done or be given a mitigated punishment when there is harm done.
   第二十四条 【犯罪中止】在犯罪过程中,自动放弃犯罪或者自动有效地防止犯罪结果发生的,是犯罪中止。
对于中止犯,没有造成损害的,应当免除处罚;造成损害的,应当减轻处罚。

Section 3. Joint Crimes
 

第三节 共同犯罪


Article 25. A joint crime is an intentional crime committed by two or more persons jointly.
A negligent crime committed by two or more persons jointly is not to be punished as a joint crime; those who should bear criminal responsibility are to be punished separately according to the crimes they have committed.
   第二十五条 【共同犯罪概念】共同犯罪是指二人以上共同故意犯罪。
二人以上共同过失犯罪,不以共同犯罪论处;应当负刑事责任的,按照他们所犯的罪分别处罚。
Article 26. A principal offender is one who organizes and leads a criminal group in conducting criminal activities or plays a principal role in a joint crime.
A crime syndicate is a more or less permanent crime organization composed of three or more persons for the purpose of jointly committing crimes.
The head who organizes or leads a crime syndicate shall bear criminal responsibility for all the crimes committed by the syndicate.
A principal offender other that the one stipulated in the third paragraph shall bear criminal responsibility for all the crimes he participated in, organized, or directed.
   第二十六条 【主犯】组织、领导犯罪集团进行犯罪活动的或者在共同犯罪中起主要作用的,是主犯。
三人以上为共同实施犯罪而组成的较为固定的犯罪组织,是犯罪集团。
对组织、领导犯罪集团的首要分子,按照集团所犯的全部罪行处罚。
对于第三款规定以外的主犯,应当按照其所参与的或者组织、指挥的全部犯罪处罚。
Article 27. An accomplice is one who plays a secondary or supplementary role in a joint crime.
An accomplice shall, in comparison with a principal offender, be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.
   第二十七条 【从犯】在共同犯罪中起次要或者辅助作用的,是从犯。
对于从犯,应当从轻、减轻处罚或者免除处罚。
Article 28. One who is coerced to participate in a crime shall, according to the circumstances of his crime, be given a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.
   第二十八条 【胁从犯】对于被胁迫参加犯罪的,应当按照他的犯罪情节减轻处罚或者免除处罚。
Article 29. One who instigates others to commit a crime shall be punished according to the role he plays in the joint crime. One who instigates a person under the age of eighteen to commit a crime shall be given a heavier punishment.
If the instigated person does not commit the instigated crime, the instigator may be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment.
   第二十九条 【教唆犯】教唆他人犯罪的,应当按照他在共同犯罪中所起的作用处罚。教唆不满十八周岁的人犯罪的,应当从重处罚。
如果被教唆的人没有犯被教唆的罪,对于教唆犯,可以从轻或者减轻处罚。

Section 4. Crimes Committed by a Unit
 

第四节 单位犯罪


Article 30. A company, enterprise, institution, organization, or group which commits an act endangering society that is considered a crime under the law shall bear criminal responsibility.
   第三十条 【单位负刑事责任的范围】公司、企业、事业单位、机关、团体实施的危害社会的行为,法律规定为单位犯罪的,应当负刑事责任。
Article 31. A unit responsible for a criminal act shall be fined. The person in charge and other personnel who are directly responsible shall also bear criminal responsibility. Where there are other stipulations in the Special Provisions of this Law or other laws, those stipulations shall apply.
   第三十一条 【单位犯罪的处罚原则】单位犯罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员判处刑罚。本法分则和其他法律另有规定的,依照规定。

Chapter III Punishments
 

第三章 刑罚

Section 1. Types of Punishments
 

第一节 刑罚的种类


Article 32. Punishments are divided into principal punishments and supplementary punishments.
   第三十二条 【主刑和附加刑】刑罚分为主刑和附加刑。
Article 33. The types of principal punishments are:
   第三十三条 【主刑种类】主刑的种类如下:
(1) control;
 (一)管制;
(2) Criminal detention;
 (二)拘役;
(3) fixed-term imprisonment;
 (三)有期徒刑;
(4) life imprisonment; and
 (四)无期徒刑;
(5) The death penalty.
 (五)死刑。
Article 34. The types of supplementary punishments are:
   第三十四条 【附加刑种类】附加刑的种类如下:
(1) Fines;
 (一)罚金;
(2) Deprivation of political rights; and
 (二)剥夺政治权利;
(3) Confiscation of property.
Supplementary punishments may also be applied independently.
 (三)没收财产。
附加刑也可以独立适用。
Article 35. Deportation may be applied in an independent or supplementary manner to a foreigner who commits a crime.
   第三十五条 【驱逐出境】对于犯罪的外国人,可以独立适用或者附加适用驱逐出境。
Article 36. Where the victim has suffered economic loss as a result of a criminal act, the criminal element, in addition to receiving criminal sanctions according to law, shall in accordance with the circumstances be sentenced to make compensation for the economic loss.
Where the criminal element bears responsibility for civil compensation and is also imposed a fine, if his property is not enough to pay the compensation and fine in full or if he has also been sentenced to confiscation of property, he shall first pay civil compensation to the victim.
   第三十六条 【赔偿经济损失与民事优先原则】由于犯罪行为而使被害人遭受经济损失的,对犯罪分子除依法给予刑事处罚外,并应根据情况判处赔偿经济损失。
承担民事赔偿责任的犯罪分子,同时被判处罚金,其财产不足以全部支付的,或者被判处没收财产的,应当先承担对被害人的民事赔偿责任。
Article 37. Where the circumstances of a person's crime are minor and do not require sentencing for punishment, an exemption from criminal sanctions may be granted him, but he may, according to the different circumstances of each case, be reprimanded or ordered to make a statement of repentance or formal apology or make compensation for losses, or be subjected to administrative sanctions by the competent department.
   第三十七条 【非刑罚性处置措施】对于犯罪情节轻微不需要判处刑罚的,可以免予刑事处罚,但是可以根据案件的不同情况,予以训诫或者责令具结悔过、赔礼道歉、赔偿损失,或者由主管部门予以行政处罚或者行政处分。

Section 2. Control
 

第二节 管制


Article 38. The term of control is not less than three months and not more than two years.
The judgment of control for a criminal element is executed by a public security organ.
   第三十八条 【管制的期限与执行机关】管制的期限,为三个月以上二年以下。
被判处管制的犯罪分子,由公安机关执行。
Article 39. A criminal element who is sentenced to control must abide by the following rules during the term in which his control is being carried out:
   第三十九条 【被管制犯罪的义务与权利】被判处管制的犯罪分子,在执行期间,应当遵守下列规定:
(1) abide by laws and administrative regulations, submit himself to supervision;
 (一)遵守法律、行政法规,服从监督;
(2) shall not exercise the rights to freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession, and of demonstration without the approval of the organ executing the control;
 (二)未经执行机关批准,不得行使言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威自由的权利;
(3) report on his own activities pursuant to the rules of the organ executing the control;
 (三)按照执行机关规定报告自己的活动情况;
(4) abide by the rules of the organ executing the control for meeting visitors;
 (四)遵守执行机关关于会客的规定;
(5) report and obtain approval from the organ executing the control for a change in residence or departure from the city or county.
A criminal element who is sentenced to control shall, while engaged in labor, receive equal pay for equal work.
 (五)离开所居住的市、县或者迁居,应当报经执行机关批准。
对于被判处管制的犯罪分子,在劳动中应当同工同酬。
Article 40. Upon the expiration of the term of the control, the organ executing the control shall announce the termination of control to the criminal element sentenced to control and to the masses concerned.
   第四十条 【管制期满解除】被判处管制的犯罪分子,管制期满,执行机关应即向本人和其所在单位或者居住地的群众宣布解除管制。
Article 41. The term of control is counted as commencing on the date the judgment begins to be executed; where custody has been employed before the judgment begins to be executed, the term is to be shortened by two days for each day spent in custody.
   第四十一条 【管制刑期的计算和折抵】管制的刑期,从判决执行之日起计算;判决执行以前先行羁押的,羁押一日折抵刑期二日。

Section 3. Criminal Detention
 

第三节 拘役


Article 42. The term of criminal detention is not less a month and not more than six months.
   第四十二条 【拘役的期限】拘役的期限,为一个月以上六个月以下。
Article 43. A criminal element sentenced to criminal detention is to have his sentence executed by the public security organ in the vicinity.
During the period of execution, a criminal element sentenced to criminal detention may go home for one or two days each month; consideration may be given according to the circumstances to granting compensation to those who participate in labor.
   第四十三条 【拘役的执行】被判处拘役的犯罪分子,由公安机关就近执行。
在执行期间,被判处拘役的犯罪分子每月可以回家一天至两天;参加劳动的,可以酌量发给报酬。
Article 44. The term of criminal detention is counted as commencing on the date the judgment begins to be executed; where custody has been employed before the judgment, the term is to be shortened by one day for each day spent in custody.
   第四十四条 【拘役刑期的计算和折抵】拘役的刑期,从判决执行之日起计算;判决执行以前先行羁押的,羁押一日折抵刑期一日。

Section 4. Fixed-Term Imprisonment And Life Imprisonment
 

第四节 有期徒刑、无期徒刑


Article 45. Except as otherwise provided in Articles 50 and 69 of this Law, the term of fixed-term imprisonment is not less than six months and not more than fifteen years.
   第四十五条 【有期徒刑的期限】有期徒刑的期限,除本法第五十条、第六十九条规定外,为六个月以上十五年以下。
Article 46. A criminal element sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment is to have his sentence executed in prison or in another organ executing the sentence; anyone with the ability to labor shall take
part in labor, receive education, and undergo reform.
   第四十六条 【有期徒刑与无期徒刑的执行】被判处有期徒刑、无期徒刑的犯罪分子,在监狱或者其他执行场所执行;凡有劳动能力的,都应当参加劳动,接受教育和改造。
Article 47. The term of fixed-term imprisonment is counted as commencing on the date the judgment begins to be executed; where custody has been employed before the judgment begins to be executed, the term is to be shortened by one day for each day spent in custody.
   第四十七条 【有期徒刑刑期的计算与折抵】有期徒刑的刑期,从判决执行之日起计算;判决执行以前先行羁押的,羁押一日折抵刑期一日。

Section 5. The Death Penalty
 

第五节 死刑


Article 48. The death penalty is only to be applied to criminal elements who commit the most heinous crimes. In the case of a criminal element who should be sentenced to death, if immediate execution is not essential, a two-year suspension of execution may be announced at the same time the sentence of death is imposed.
Except for judgments made by the Supreme People's Court according to law,all sentences of death shall be submitted to the Supreme People's Court for approval. Sentences of death with suspension of execution may be decided or approved by a high people's court.
   第四十八条 【死刑、死缓的适用对象及核准程序】死刑只适用于罪行极其严重的犯罪分子。对于应当判处死刑的犯罪分子,如果不是必须立即执行的,可以判处死刑同时宣告缓期二年执行。
死刑除依法由最高人民法院判决的以外,都应当报请最高人民法院核准。死刑缓期执行的,可以由高级人民法院判决或者核准。
Article 49. The death penalty is not to be applied to persons who have not reached the age of eighteen at the time the crime is committed or to women who are pregnant at the time of adjudication.
   第四十九条 【死刑适用对象的限制】犯罪的时候不满十八周岁的人和审判的时候怀孕的妇女,不适用死刑。
Article 50. If a person sentenced to death with a suspension of execution dose not intentionally commit a crime during the period of suspension, he is to be given a reduction of sentence to life imprisonment upon the expiration of the two-year period; if he demonstrates meritorious service,he is to be given a reduction of sentence to not less than fifteen years and not more than twenty years of fixed-term imprisonment upon the expiration of the two-year period; if there is verified evidence that he has intentionally committed a crime, the death penalty is be executed upon the approval of the Supreme People's Court.
   第五十条 【死缓变更】判处死刑缓期执行的,在死刑缓期执行期间,如果没有故意犯罪,二年期满以后,减为无期徒刑;如果确有重大立功表现,二年期满以后,减为十五年以上二十年以下有期徒刑;如果故意犯罪,查证属实的,由最高人民法院核准,执行死刑。
Article 51. The term for suspending execution of a sentence of death is counted as commencing on the date the judgment becomes final. The term of a sentence that is reduced from the death penalty with suspension of execution to fixed-term imprisonment is counted as commencing on the date the suspension of execution expires.
   第五十一条 【死缓期间及减为有期徒刑的刑期计算】死刑缓期执行的期间,从判决确定之日起计算。死刑缓期执行减为有期徒刑的刑期,从死刑缓期执行期满之日起计算。

Section 6. Fines
 

第六节 罚金


Article 52. In imposing a fine, the amount of the fine shall be determined according to the circumstances of the crime.
   第五十二条 【罚金数额的裁量】判处罚金,应当根据犯罪情节决定罚金数额。
Article 53. A fine is to be paid in a lump sum or in installments within the period specified in the judgment.
Upon the expiration of the period, one who has not paid is to be compelled to pay. Where the person sentenced is unable to pay the fine in full, the people's court may collect whenever he is found in possession of executable property.
If a person truly has difficulties in paying because he has suffered irresistible calamity, consideration may be given according to the circumstances to granting him a reduction or exemption.
   第五十三条 【罚金的缴纳】罚金在判决指定的期限内一次或者分期缴纳。期满不缴纳的,强制缴纳。对于不能全部缴纳罚金的,人民法院在任何时候发现被执行人有可以执行的财产,应当随时追缴。如果由于遭遇不能抗拒的灾祸缴纳确实有困难的,可以酌情减少或者免除。

Section 7. Deprivation of Political Rights
 

第七节 剥夺政治权利


Article 54. Deprivation of political rights is deprivation of the following rights:
   第五十四条 【剥夺政治权利的含义】剥夺政治权利是剥夺下列权利:
(1) The right to elect and the right to be elected;
 (一)选举权和被选举权;
(2) the right to freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession, and of demonstration;
 (二)言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威自由的权利;
(3) the right to hold a position in state organs; and
 (三)担任国家机关职务的权利;
(4) the right to hold a leading position in a state-owned company, enterprise, or institution or people's organization.
 (四)担任国有公司、企业、事业单位和人民团体领导职务的权利。
Article 55. The term of deprivation of political rights is not less than one year and not more than five years, except as otherwise stipulated in Article 57 of this Law.
In situations where a person is sentenced to control and to deprivation of political rights as a supplementary punishment, the term of deprivation of political rights is to be the same as the term of control, and the punishments are to be executed at the same time.
   第五十五条 【剥夺政治权利的期限】剥夺政治权利的期限,除本法第五十七条规定外,为一年以上五年以下。
判处管制附加剥夺政治权利的,剥夺政治权利的期限与管制的期限相等,同时执行。
Article 56. A criminal element endangering state security shall be sentenced to deprivation of political rights as a supplementary punishment;a criminal element guilty of murder, rape, arson, explosion, spreading poison, or robbery who seriously undermines social order may also be
sentenced to deprivation of political rights as a supplementary punishment.
Where deprivation of political rights is applied independently,stipulations in the Special Provisions of this Law shall be followed.
   第五十六条 【剥夺政治权利的附加、独立适用】对于危害国家安全的犯罪分子应当附加剥夺政治权利;对于故意杀人、强奸、放火、爆炸、投毒、抢劫等严重破坏社会秩序的犯罪分子,可以附加剥夺政治权利。
独立适用剥夺政治权利的,依照本法分则的规定。
Article 57. A criminal element who is sentenced to death or to life imprisonment shall be deprived of political rights for life.
When the death penalty with a suspension of execution is reduced to fixed-term imprisonment, or life imprisonment is reduced to fixed-term imprisonment, the term of the supplementary punishment of deprivation of political rights shall be changed to not less than three years and not more
than ten years.
   第五十七条 【对死刑、无期徒刑罪犯剥夺政治权利的适用】对于被判处死刑、无期徒刑的犯罪分子,应当剥夺政治权利终身。
在死刑缓期执行减为有期徒刑或者无期徒刑减为有期徒刑的时候,应当把附加剥夺政治权利的期限改为三年以上十年以下。
Article 58. The term of the supplementary punishment of deprivation of political rights is counted as commencing on the date that imprisonment or criminal detention ends or on the date that parole begins; the deprivation of political rights is naturally to be effective during the period in which the principal punishment is being executed.
A criminal element who is deprived of political rights shall abide by laws, administrative regulations, and relevant regulations on supervision and administration promulgated by public security departments under the State
Council; submit to supervision; and is forbidden from exercising rights stipulated in Article 54 of this Law.
   第五十八条 【剥夺政治权利的刑期计算、效力与执行】附加剥夺政治权利的刑期,从徒刑、拘役执行完毕之日或者从假释之日起计算;剥夺政治权利的效力当然施用于主刑执行期间。
被剥夺政治权利的犯罪分子,在执行期间,应当遵守法律、行政法规和国务院公安部门有关监督管理的规定,服从监督;不得行使本法第五十四条规定的各项权利。

Section 8. Confiscation of Property
 

第八节 没收财产


Article 59. Confiscation of property is the confiscation of part or all of the property personally owned by the criminal element. Where all of the property personally owned by the criminal element is confiscated, living expenses shall be set aside for the criminal element himself and the dependents he supports.
When a sentence of confiscation of property is imposed, property that belongs to or should belong to family members of the criminal element may not be confiscated.
   第五十九条 【没收财产的范围】没收财产是没收犯罪分子个人所有财产的一部或者全部。没收全部财产的,应当对犯罪分子个人及其扶养的家属保留必需的生活费用。
在判处没收财产的时候,不得没收属于犯罪分子家属所有或者应有的财产。
Article 60. Where it is necessary to use the confiscated property to repay legitimate debts incurred by the criminal element before the property was confiscated, the debts shall be paid at the request of the creditors.
   第六十条 【以没收的财产偿还债务】没收财产以前犯罪分子所负的正当债务,需要以没收的财产偿还的,经债权人请求,应当偿还。

Chapter IV The Concrete Application Of Punishments
 

第四章 刑罚的具体运用

Section 1. Sentencing
 

第一节 量刑


Article 61. When deciding the punishment of a criminal element, the sentence shall be imposed on the basis of the facts of the crime, the nature and circumstances of the crime, and the degree of harm to society, in accordance with the relevant stipulations of this law.
   第六十一条 【量刑的事实根据与法律依据】对于犯罪分子决定刑罚的时候,应当根据犯罪的事实、犯罪的性质、情节和对于社会的危害程度,依照本法的有关规定判处。
Article 62. Where the circumstances of a criminal element are such as to give him a heavier punishment or a lesser punishment under the stipulations of this law, he shall be sentenced to a punishment within the legally prescribed limits of punishment.
   第六十二条 【从重处罚与从轻处罚】犯罪分子具有本法规定的从重处罚、从轻处罚情节的,应当在法定刑的限度以内判处刑罚。
Article 63. Where the circumstances of a criminal element are such as to give him a mitigated punishment under the stipulations of this law, he shall be sentenced to a punishment below the legally prescribed punishment.
Although the circumstances of a criminal element do not warrant giving him a mitigated punishment under the stipulations of this law, he too may be sentenced to a punishment below the legally prescribed punishment based on the special situation of the case and with the approval of the Supreme People's Court.
   第六十三条 【减轻处罚】犯罪分子具有本法规定的减轻处罚情节的,应当在法定刑以下判处刑罚。
犯罪分子虽然不具有本法规定的减轻处罚情节,但是根据案件的特殊情况,经最高人民法院核准,也可以在法定刑以下判处刑罚。
Article 64. All articles of property illegally obtained by the criminal element shall be recovered or he shall be ordered to make restitution or pay compensation for them.
The legitimate property of the victims shall be promptly returned.Contraband and articles of the criminal's own property used for committing the crime shall be confiscated.Articles of confiscated property and fines shall be handed over to the national treasury and shall not be diverted or otherwise disposed of.
   第六十四条 【犯罪物品的处理】犯罪分子违法所得的一切财物,应当予以追缴或者责令退赔;对被害人的合法财产,应当及时返还;违禁品和供犯罪所用的本人财物,应当予以没收。没收的财物和罚金,一律上缴国库,不得挪用和自行处理。

Section 2. Recidivists
 

第二节 累犯


Article 65. A criminal element who has been sentenced to a punishment of not less than fixed-term imprisonment and who, within five years after his punishment has been completely executed or he has received a pardon,commits another crime for which he should be sentenced to a punishment of not less than a fixed-term imprisonment is a recidivist and shall be given a heavier punishment.
However, negligent commission of a crime is an exception.
In situations where a criminal element is granted a parole, the period stipulated in the preceding paragraph is to be counted as commencing on the date of expiration of the parole.
   第六十五条 【一般累犯】被判处有期徒刑以上刑罚的犯罪分子,刑罚执行完毕或者赦免以后,在五年以内再犯应当判处有期徒刑以上刑罚之罪的,是累犯,应当从重处罚,但是过失犯罪除外。
前款规定的期限,对于被假释的犯罪分子,从假释期满之日起计算。
Article 66. Criminal elements endangering state security who, at any time after their punishment has been completely executed or they have received a pardon, commit another crime endangering state security are all to be treated as recidivists.
   第六十六条 【特别累犯】危害国家安全的犯罪分子在刑罚执行完毕或者赦免以后,在任何时候再犯危害国家安全罪的,都以累犯论处。

Section 3. Voluntary Surrender and Meritorious Service
 

第三节 自首和立功


Article 67. The act of voluntarily giving oneself up to the police and giving a true account of one's crime after committing it is an act of voluntary surrender. Criminal elements who voluntarily surrender may be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment. Those among them whose crimes are relatively minor may be exempted from punishment.
Where criminal suspects, defendants, and criminals serving sentences give a true account of their other crimes which are not known to the judicial organ, their actions are regarded as an act of voluntary surrender.
   第六十七条 【自首】犯罪以后自动投案,如实供述自己的罪行的,是自首。对于自首的犯罪分子,可以从轻或者减轻处罚。其中,犯罪较轻的,可以免除处罚。
被采取强制措施的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人和正在服刑的罪犯,如实供述司法机关还未掌握的本人其他罪行的,以自首论。
Article 68. Criminal elements who perform meritorious service by exposing other people's crimes that can be verified or who provide important clues leading the cracking of other cases may be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment. Those who performed major meritorious service may be given a mitigated punishment or may be exempted from punishment.
Those who surrender themselves voluntarily and perform major meritorious service after committing a crime shall be given a mitigated punishment or exempted from punishment.
   第六十八条 【立功】犯罪分子有揭发他人犯罪行为,查证属实的,或者提供重要线索,从而得以侦破其他案件等立功表现的,可以从轻或者减轻处罚;有重大立功表现的,可以减轻或者免除处罚。
犯罪后自首又有重大立功表现的,应当减轻或者免除处罚。

Section 4. Combined Punishment For More Than One Crime
 

第四节 数罪并罚


Article 69. If a person commits more than one crime before judgment has been pronounced, except where he is sentenced to death or life imprisonment, the term of sentence that it is decided to be executed, in consideration of the circumstances, shall be less than the total term for all the crimes but more than the maximum term for any of the crimes; however, the term of control cannot exceed three years, the term of criminal detention cannot exceed one year, and fixed-term imprisonment cannot exceed 20 years.
If among the crimes there are any for which a supplementary punishment is to be imposed, the supplementary punishment must still be executed.
   第六十九条 【判决宣告前一人犯数罪的并罚】判决宣告以前一人犯数罪的,除判处死刑和无期徒刑的以外,应当在总和刑期以下、数刑中最高刑期以上,酌情决定执行的刑期,但是管制最高不能超过三年,拘役最高不能超过一年,有期徒刑最高不能超过二十年。
如果数罪中有判处附加刑的,附加刑仍须执行。
Article 70. If, after judgment has been pronounced but before the punishment has been completely executed, it is discovered that, before judgment was pronounced, the sentenced criminal element committed another crime for which he has not been sentenced, a judgment shall be rendered for the newly-discovered crime, and the punishment to be executed for the punishments sentenced in the two, former and latter, judgments decided according to the stipulations of Article 69 of this law. The term that has already been executed shall be counted in the term decided by the new judgment.
   第七十条 【判决宣告后发现漏罪的并罚】判决宣告以后,刑罚执行完毕以前,发现被判刑的犯罪分子在判决宣告以前还有其他罪没有判决的,应当对新发现的罪作出判决,把前后两个判决所判处的刑罚,依照本法第六十九条的规定,决定执行的刑罚。已经执行的刑期,应当计算在新判决决定的刑期以内。
Article 71. If after judgment has been pronounced but before the punishment has been completely executed the sentenced criminal element again commits a crime, a judgment shall be rendered for the newly-committed crime, and the punishment to be executed for the punishment that has not been executed for the former crime and the punishment imposed for the latter crime decided according to the stipulations of Article 69 of this law.
   第七十一条 【判决宣告后又犯新罪的并罚】判决宣告以后,刑罚执行完毕以前,被判刑的犯罪分子又犯罪的,应当对新犯的罪作出判决,把前罪没有执行的刑罚和后罪所判处的刑罚,依照本法第六十九条的规定,决定执行的刑罚。

Section 5. Suspension of Sentence
 

第五节 缓刑


Article 72. A suspension of sentence may be pronounced for a criminal element who has been sentenced to criminal detention or to fixed-term imprisonment for not more than three years, according to the circumstances of his crime and his demonstration of repentance, and where applying a suspended sentence will not in fact result in further harm to society.
If a criminal element for whom a suspension of sentence has been pronounced has been sentenced to a supplementary punishment, the supplementary punishment must still be executed.
   第七十二条 【适用条件】对于被判处拘役、三年以下有期徒刑的犯罪分子,根据犯罪分子的犯罪情节和悔罪表现,适用缓刑确实不致再危害社会的,可以宣告缓刑。
被宣告缓刑的犯罪分子,如果被判处附加刑,附加刑仍须执行。
Article 73. The probation period for suspension of criminal detention is to be not less than the term originally decided and not more than one year, but it may not be less than two months. The probation period for suspension of fixed-term imprisonment is to be not less than the term originally decided and not more than five years, but it may not be less than one year.
The probation period for suspension is to be counted as commencing on the date the judgment becomes final.

   第七十三条 【考验期限】拘役的缓刑考验期限为原判刑期以上一年以下,但是不能少于二个月。
有期徒刑的缓刑考验期限为原判刑期以上五年以下,但是不能少于一年。
缓刑考验期限,从判决确定之日起计算。
Article 74. Suspension of sentence is not to be applied to recidivists.
   第七十四条 【累犯不适用缓刑】对于累犯,不适用缓刑。
Article 75. A criminal element for whom a suspension of sentence has been pronounced shall observe the following stipulations:
   第七十五条 【缓刑犯应遵守的规定】被宣告缓刑的犯罪分子,应当遵守下列规定:
(1) observing the law and administrative statutes and accepting
supervision;
 (一)遵守法律、行政法规,服从监督;
(2) reporting his activities in accordance with the stipulation of the
observing organ;
 (二)按照考察机关的规定报告自己的活动情况;
(3) following the observing organ's stipulation on meeting visitors;
 (三)遵守考察机关关于会客的规定;
(4) reporting and applying to the observing organ for approval before leaving or moving from the city or county of residence.
 (四)离开所居住的市、县或者迁居,应当报经考察机关批准。
Article 76. A criminal element for whom a suspension of sentence has been pronounced is to be observed by the public security organ during the probation period for suspension, with his unit or the basic level organization taking coordinated action. Upon the expiration of the probation period for suspension, public pronouncement that the punishment originally decided is not to be executed shall be made, provided there are no circumstances as stipulated in Article 77 of this law.
   第七十六条 【缓刑的考验及其积极后果】被宣告缓刑的犯罪分子,在缓刑考验期限内,由公安机关考察,所在单位或者基层组织予以配合,如果没有本法第七十七条规定的情形,缓刑考验期满,原判的刑罚就不再执行,并公开予以宣告。
Article 77. If a criminal element for whom a suspension of sentence has been pronounced commits new crimes during the probation period for suspension or is discovered that, before judgment was pronounced, the sentenced criminal element committed another crime for which he has not been sentenced, the suspension is to be revoked and the punishment to be executed for the punishments imposed for the former and latter crimes is to be decided according to the stipulations of Article 69 of this law. If, during the probation period for suspension, a criminal element for whom a suspension of sentence has been pronounced violates relevant provisions governing the supervision and control of suspension of sentence provided for in the law, administrative statutes, or regulations of public security departments of the State Council, the suspension is to be revoked and the punishments originally imposed shall be executed.

   第七十七条 【缓刑的撤销及其处理】被宣告缓刑的犯罪分子,在缓刑考验期限内犯新罪或者发现判决宣告以前还有其他罪没有判决的,应当撤销缓刑,对新犯的罪或者新发现的罪作出判决,把前罪和后罪所判处的刑罚,依照本法第六十九条的规定,决定执行的刑罚。
被宣告缓刑的犯罪分子,在缓刑考验期限内,违反法律、行政法规或者国务院公安部门有关缓刑的监督管理规定,情节严重的,应当撤销缓刑,执行原判刑罚。

Section 6. Reduction of Sentence
 

第六节 减刑


Article 78. A criminal element who is sentenced to control, criminal detention, fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment may have his sentence reduced if, during the period his punishment is being executed, he earnestly observes prison regulations, accepts reform through education, truly repents, or performs meritorious service.
The sentence shall be reduced if any of the following meritorious services are performed:
   第七十八条 【适用条件与限度】被判处管制、拘役、有期徒刑、无期徒刑的犯罪分子,在执行期间,如果认真遵守监规,接受教育改造,确有悔改表现的,或者有立功表现的,可以减刑;有下列重大立功表现之一的,应当减刑:
(1) preventing someone from engaging in major criminal activities;
 (一)阻止他人重大犯罪活动的;
(2) informing on major criminal activities in or outside the prison that can be verified;
 (二)检举监狱内外重大犯罪活动,经查证属实的;
(3) making inventions or major technological renovations;
 (三)有发明创造或者重大技术革新的;
(4) risking his life to save others in day-to-day production activities and life;
 (四)在日常生产、生活中舍己救人的;
(5) performing outstanding service in combating natural disaster or preventing major accidents;
 (五)在抗御自然灾害或者排除重大事故中,有突出表现的;
(6) making other major contributions to the state or society.
For those sentenced to control, criminal detention, or fixed-term imprisonment, the term of the punishment actually to be executed may not, after reductions of sentence, be less than half of the term originally decided; for those sentenced to life imprisonment it may not be less than 10 years.
 (六)对国家和社会有其他重大贡献的。
减刑以后实际执行的刑期,判处管制、拘役、有期徒刑的,不能少于原判刑期的二分之一;判处无期徒刑的,不能少于十年。
Article 79. To receive reductions of sentence for criminal elements, the organ executing the sentence shall submit letters of sentence reduction proposal to the people's court at or above the intermediate level. The people's court shall form a collegial panel to examine the proposals and to issue sentence reduction orders for those who demonstrate true repentance and performed meritorious service.
   第七十九条 【程序】对于犯罪分子的减刑,由执行机关向中级以上人民法院提出减刑建议书。人民法院应当组成合议庭进行审理,对确有悔改或者立功事实的,裁定予以减刑。非经法定程序不得减刑。
Article 80. The term of fixed-term imprisonment that is reduced from life imprisonment is counted as commencing on the date of the order reducing the sentence; no sentence reduction shall be made without due legal process.
   第八十条 【无期徒刑减刑的刑期计算】无期徒刑减为有期徒刑的刑期,从裁定减刑之日起计算。

Section 7. Parole
 

第七节 假释


Article 81. A criminal element sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of which not less than half has been executed, or a criminal element sentenced to life imprisonment of which not less than 10 years has actually been executed, may be granted parole if he earnestly observes prison regulations, undergoes reform through education, demonstrates true repentance, and will not cause further harm to society after being paroled.
If special circumstances exist, with the approval of the Supreme People's Court, the above restrictions relating to the term executed need not be imposed.
Criminal elements who are recidivists or who are sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of more than 10 years or to life imprisonment for murder, bombing, robbery, rape, kidnap, or other violent crimes shall not be granted parole.
   第八十一条 【适用条件】被判处有期徒刑的犯罪分子,执行原判刑期二分之一以上,被判处无期徒刑的犯罪分子,实际执行十年以上,如果认真遵守监规,接受教育改造,确有悔改表现,假释后不致再危害社会的,可以假释。如果有特殊情况,经最高人民法院核准,可以不受上述执行刑期的限制。
对累犯以及因杀人、爆炸、抢劫、强奸、绑架等暴力性犯罪被判处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑的犯罪分子,不得假释。
Article 82. The granting of parole to criminal elements shall be carried out in accordance with the procedures stipulated in Article 79 of this law; no parole shall be granted without due legal process.
   第八十二条 【程序】对于犯罪分子的假释,依照本法第七十九条规定的程序进行。非经法定程序不得假释。
Article 83. The probation period for parole in the case of fixed-term imprisonment is the term that has not been completed; the probation period for parole in the case of life imprisonment is 10 years.
The probation period for parole is counted as commencing on the date of parole.
   第八十三条 【考验期限】有期徒刑的假释考验期限,为没有执行完毕的刑期;无期徒刑的假释考验期限为十年。
假释考验期限,从假释之日起计算。
Article 84. Criminal elements granted parole shall observe the following stipulations:
   第八十四条 【假释犯应遵守的规定】被宣告假释的犯罪分子,应当遵守下列规定:
(1) observing the law and administrative statutes and accepting supervision;
 (一)遵守法律、行政法规,服从监督;
(2) reporting his activities in accordance with the stipulation of the supervising organ;
 (二)按照监督机关的规定报告自己的活动情况;
(3) observing the supervising organ's stipulation on meeting visitors;
 (三)遵守监督机关关于会客的规定;
(4) reporting and applying to the observing organ for approval before leaving or moving from the city or county of residence.
 (四)离开所居住的市、县或者迁居,应当报经监督机关批准。
Article 85. During the probation period for parole, a criminal element who is granted parole is to be supervised by the public security organs, and upon completion of the parole, if there are no circumstances as stipulated in Article 86 of this law, the punishment to which he was originally sentenced is to be considered as having been completely executed, and a public pronouncement to the effect shall be made accordingly.
   第八十五条 【假释考验及其积极后果】被假释的犯罪分子,在假释考验期限内,由公安机关予以监督,如果没有本法第八十六条规定的情形,假释考验期满,就认为原判刑罚已经执行完毕,并公开予以宣告。
Article 86. If, during the probation period for parole, a criminal element commits any further crime, the parole is to be revoked and the punishment is to be executed for the punishment that has not been executed for the former crime and the punishment imposed for the latter crime decided according to the stipulations of Article 71 of this law.

If a criminal who is granted parole is discovered to have committed, before the judgment is pronounced, other crimes for which no punishment is imposed, the parole shall be revoked and a combined punishment for several crimes shall be given according to the provisions of Article 70 of this Law.
If, during the probation period for parole, a criminal element violates relevant provisions governing the supervision and control of suspension of sentence provided for in the law, administrative statutes, or regulations of public security departments of the State Council but the violation does not constitutes a new crime, the parole shall be revoked in accordance with the legal procedures and the parolee shall be returned to prison to complete the unfinished prison term.

   第八十六条 【假释的撤销及其处理】被假释的犯罪分子,在假释考验期限内犯新罪,应当撤销假释,依照本法第七十一条的规定实行数罪并罚。
在假释考验期限内,发现被假释的犯罪分子在判决宣告以前还有其他罪没有判决的,应当撤销假释,依照本法第七十条的规定实行数罪并罚。
被假释的犯罪分子,在假释考验期限内,有违反法律、行政法规或者国务院公安部门有关假释的监督管理规定的行为,尚未构成新的犯罪的,应当依照法定程序撤销假释,收监执行未执行完毕的刑罚。

Section 8. Limitation
 

第八节 时效


Article 87. Crimes are not to be prosecuted where the following periods have elapsed:
   第八十七条 【追诉时效期限】犯罪经过下列期限不再追诉:
(1) in cases where the maximum legally-prescribed punishment is fixed-term imprisonment of less than five years, where five years have elapsed;
 (一)法定最高刑为不满五年有期徒刑的,经过五年;
(2) in cases where the maximum legally-prescribed punishment is fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years and less than ten years, where ten years have elapsed.
 (二)法定最高刑为五年以上不满十年有期徒刑的,经过十年;
(3) in cases where the maximum fixed-term imprisonment is not less than ten years, where fifteen years have elapsed.
 (三)法定最高刑为十年以上有期徒刑的,经过十五年;
(4) in cases where the maximum legally-prescribed punishment is life-imprisonment or death, where twenty Years have elapsed. If it is considered that a crime must be prosecuted after twenty years, the matter must be submitted to the Supreme People's Procuratorate for approval.
 (四)法定最高刑为无期徒刑、死刑的,经过二十年。如果二十年以后认为必须追诉的,须报请最高人民检察院核准。
Article 88. No limitation on the period for prosecution is to be imposed in cases where, after the people's procuratorates, public security organs, or state security organs have filed to investigate or after the people' s courts have decided to hear the cases, the criminal element escapes from investigation or adjudication.
No limitation on the period for prosecution is to be imposed in cases where, after the victims filed charges within the period for prosecution, the people' s court, people's procuratorates, or public security organs refused to file for investigation as they should.
   第八十八条 【追诉期限的延长】在人民检察院、公安机关、国家安全机关立案侦查或者在人民法院受理案件以后,逃避侦查或者审判的,不受追诉期限的限制。
被害人在追诉期限内提出控告,人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关应当立案而不予立案的,不受追诉期限的限制。
Article 89. The period for prosecution is counted as commencing on the date of the crime; if the criminal act is of a continuous or continuing nature, it is counted as commencing on the date the criminal act is completed.
If any further crime is committed during the period for prosecution, the period for prosecution of the former crime is counted as commencing on the date of the latter crime.
   第八十九条 【追诉期限的计算与中断】追诉期限从犯罪之日起计算;犯罪行为有连续或者继续状态的,从犯罪行为终了之日起计算。
在追诉期限以内又犯罪的,前罪追诉的期限从犯后罪之日起计算。

Chapter V Other Provisions
 

第五章 其他规定


Article 90. In situations where the autonomous areas inhabited by ethnic groups cannot completely apply the stipulations of this law, the people's congresses of the autonomous regions or of the provinces may formulate alternative or supplementary provisions based upon the political, economic, and cultural characteristics of the local ethnic groups and the basic principles of the stipulations of this law, and these provisions shall go into effect after they have been submitted to and approved by the National People's Congress Standing Committee.
   第九十条 【民族自治地方刑法适用的变通】民族自治地方不能全部适用本法规定的,可以由自治区或者省的人民代表大会根据当地民族的政治、经济、文化的特点和本法规定的基本原则,制定变通或者补充的规定,报请全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准施行。
Article 91. The term "public property" in this law refers to the following property:
   第九十一条 【公共财产的范围】本法所称公共财产,是指下列财产:
(1) property owned by the state;
 (一)国有财产;
(2) property owned collectively by the laboring masses;
 (二)劳动群众集体所有的财产;
(3) public donations to be used for aiding the poor and other public services, or property of special funds.
Private property that is being managed, used or transported by state organs, state-owned corporations, enterprises, collective enterprises, and people's organizations is to be treated as public property.
 (三)用于扶贫和其他公益事业的社会捐助或者专项基金的财产。
在国家机关、国有公司、企业、集体企业和人民团体管理、使用或者运输中的私人财产,以公共财产论。
Article 92. The term "citizens' private property" in this law refers to the following property:
   第九十二条 【公民私人所有财产的范围】本法所称公民私人所有的财产,是指下列财产:
(1) citizens' lawful income, savings, houses and other means of livelihood;
 (一)公民的合法收入、储蓄、房屋和其他生活资料;
(2) means of production that are under individual or family ownership according to law;
 (二)依法归个人、家庭所有的生产资料;
(3) lawful property of independent businesses and private enterprises;
 (三)个体户和私营企业的合法财产;
(4) shares, stocks, securities and other property that are under individual ownership according to law.
 (四)依法归个人所有的股份、股票、债券和其他财产。
Article 93. The term "state personnel" in this law refers to all personnel of state organs.
Personnel engaged in public service in state-owned corporations, enterprises, institutions, and people's organizations; and personnel which state organs, state-owned corporations, enterprises, and institutions assign to engage in public service in nonstate-owned corporations, enterprises, institutions, and social organizations; as well as other working personnel engaged in public service according to the law, are to be treated as state personnel.
   第九十三条 【国家工作人员的范围】本法所称国家工作人员,是指国家机关中从事公务的人员。
国有公司、企业、事业单位、人民团体中从事公务的人员和国家机关、国有公司、企业、事业单位委派到非国有公司、企业、事业单位、社会团体从事公务的人员,以及其他依照法律从事公务的人员,以国家工作人员论。
Article 94. The term "judicial personnel" in this law refers to personnel engaged in the functions of investigating, prosecuting, adjudicating, supervising and controlling offenders.
   第九十四条 【司法工作人员的范围】本法所称司法工作人员,是指有侦查、检察、审判、监管职责的工作人员。
Article 95. The term "serious injury" in this law refers to any one of the following injuries:
   第九十五条 【重伤】本法所称重伤,是指有下列情形之一的伤害:
(1) injuries resulting in loss of the use of a person's limbs or disfigurement;
 (一)使人肢体残废或者毁人容貌的;
(2) injuries resulting in loss of the use of a person's hearing, sight, or functions of any other organ; or
 (二)使人丧失听觉、视觉或者其他器官机能的;
(3) other injuries that cause grave harm to a person's physical health.
 (三)其他对于人身健康有重大伤害的。
Article 96. The phrase "violating state stipulations" in this law refers to violation of laws and decisions formulated by the National People's Congress or the National People's Congress Standing Committee; and administrative measures prescribed in administrative ordinance and regulations formulated by the State Council; as well as decisions and decrees the State Council promulgated.
   第九十六条 【违反国家规定之含义】本法所称违反国家规定,是指违反全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会制定的法律和决定,国务院制定的行政法规、规定的行政措施、发布的决定和命令。
Article 97. The term "ringleader" in this law refers to a criminal element who plays the role of organizing, planning or directing a criminal group or a crowd assembled to commit a crime.
   第九十七条 【首要分子的范围】本法所称首要分子,是指在犯罪集团或者聚众犯罪中起组织、策划、指挥作用的犯罪分子。
Article 98. The phrase "To be handled only upon complaint" in this law refers to handling a case only when the victim files a complaint. If the victim is unable to file a complaint because of coercion or intimidation, a people's procuratorate and the victim's close relatives may also file the complaint.
   第九十八条 【告诉才处理的含义】本法所称告诉才处理,是指被害人告诉才处理。如果被害人因受强制、威吓无法告诉的,人民检察院和被害人的近亲属也可以告诉。
Article 99. Such phrases as "not less than," "not more than" and "within" in this law all include the given figure.
   第九十九条 【以上、以下、以内之界定】本法所称以上、以下、以内,包括本数。
Article 100. When people join the military, or seek employment, those who received criminal punishments according to law shall factually report to the relevant units the punishments they had received and may not conceal them.
   第一百条 【前科报告制度】依法受过刑事处罚的人,在入伍、就业的时候,应当如实向有关单位报告自己曾受过刑事处罚,不得隐瞒。
Article 101. The General Provisions of this law are applicable to other laws and decrees with stipulations for criminal punishments, but other laws having special stipulations are exceptions.
   第一百零一条 【总则的效力】本法总则适用于其他有刑罚规定的法律,但是其他法律有特别规定的除外。

Part II Special Provisions
 

第二编 分则

Chapter I Crimes of Endangering National Security
 

第一章 危害国家安全罪


Article 102. Whoever colludes with foreign states in plotting to harm the motherland's sovereignty, territorial integrity and security is to be sentenced to life imprisonment or not less than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment.
Whoever commits the crimes in the preceding paragraph in collusion with institutions, organization, or individuals outside the country shall be punished according to the stipulations in the preceding paragraph.
   第一百零二条 【背叛国家罪】勾结外国,危害中华人民共和国的主权、领土完整和安全的,处无期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑。
与境外机构、组织、个人相勾结,犯前款罪的,依照前款的规定处罚。
Article 103. Whoever organizes, plots, or acts to split the country or undermine national unification, the ringleader, or the one whose crime is grave, is to be sentenced to life imprisonment or not less than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment; other active participants are to be sentenced to not less than three but not more than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment; and other participants are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, criminal detention, control, or deprivation of political rights.
Whoever instigates to split the country and undermine national unification is to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment, criminal detention, control, or deprivation of political rights; ringleaders or those whose crimes are grave are to be sentenced to not less than five years of fixed-term imprisonment.
   第一百零三条 【分裂国家罪、煽动分裂国家罪】组织、策划、实施分裂国家、破坏国家统一的,对首要分子或者罪行重大的,处无期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑;对积极参加的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;对其他参加的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利。
煽动分裂国家、破坏国家统一的,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利;首要分子或者罪行重大的,处五年以上有期徒刑。
Article 104. Whoever organizes, plots, or carries out armed rebellion, or armed riots, the ringleaders, or those who crimes are grave, are to be sentenced to life imprisonment, or not less than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment; the active participants are to be sentenced from not less than three to not more than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment; and other participants are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, criminal detention, control, or deprivation of political rights.
Whoever instigates, coerces, lures, and bribes state personnel, members of the armed forces, people's police or people's militia to carry out armed rebellion or armed riot are to be heavily punished according to the stipulations in the preceding paragraph.
   第一百零四条 【武装叛乱、暴乱罪】组织、策划、实施武装叛乱或者武装暴乱的,对首要分子或者罪行重大的,处无期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑;对积极参加的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;对其他参加的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利。
策动、胁迫、勾引、收买国家机关工作人员、武装部队人员、人民警察、民兵进行武装叛乱或者武装暴乱的,依照前款的规定从重处罚。
Article 105. Whoever organizes, plots, or acts to subvert the political power of the state and overthrow the socialist system, the ringleaders or those whose crimes are grave are to be sentenced to life imprisonment, or not less than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment; active participants are to be sentenced from not less than three years to not more than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment; other participants are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, criminal detention, control, or deprivation of political rights.
Whoever instigates the subversion of the political power of the state and overthrow the socialist system through spreading rumors, slandering, or other ways are to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment, criminal detention, control, or deprivation of political rights; the ringleaders and those whose crimes are grave are to be sentenced to not less than five years of fixed-term imprisonment.
   第一百零五条 【颠覆国家政权罪、煽动颠覆国家政权罪】组织、策划、实施颠覆国家政权、推翻社会主义制度的,对首要分子或者罪行重大的,处无期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑;对积极参加的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;对其他参加的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利。
以造谣、诽谤或者其他方式煽动颠覆国家政权、推翻社会主义制度的,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利;首要分子或者罪行重大的,处五年以上有期徒刑。
Article 106. Whoever colludes with institutions, organizations, or individuals outside the country and commits crimes stipulated in Articles 103, 104, and 105 of this chapter are to be heavily punished according to the stipulations in the articles.
   第一百零六条 【与境外勾结的处罚规定】与境外机构、组织、个人相勾结,实施本章第一百零三条、第一百零四条、第一百零五条规定之罪的,依照各该条的规定从重处罚。
Article 107. When institutions, organizations, or individuals inside or outside the country provide financial support for organizations or individuals in the country to commit the crimes stipulated in Articles 102, 103, 104, and 105, their direct persons in charge are to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment, criminal detention, control, or deprivation of political rights; and if the case is serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than five years of fixed-term imprisonment.
   第一百零七条 【资助危害国家安全犯罪活动罪】境内外机构、组织或者个人资助境内组织或者个人实施本章第一百零二条、第一百零三条、第一百零四条、第一百零五条规定之罪的,对直接责任人员,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利;情节严重的,处五年以上有期徒刑。
Article 108. Whoever defects to the enemy and turns traitor is to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment; when the circumstances are serious or when it is a case of leading a group of armed personnel, people's police, or militia to defect to the enemy and turn traitor, the sentence is to be not less than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment.
   第一百零八条 【投敌叛变罪】投敌叛变的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情节严重或者带领武装部队人员、人民警察、民兵投敌叛变的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑。
Article 109. If a state organ personnel, during the time of performing his public functions, leave his post without authorization and defects from the country; or if the defection takes place when he is already outside the country, thereby endangering the PRC's national security, he is to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment, criminal detention, control, or deprivation of political rights; when the circumstances are serious, he is to be sentenced to not less than five years and not more than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment.
When a state personnel handling state secrets commits the crime in the preceding paragraph, he is to be heavily punished according to the stipulations in the preceding paragraph.
   第一百零九条 【叛逃罪】国家机关工作人员在履行公务期间,擅离岗位,叛逃境外或者在境外叛逃,危害中华人民共和国国家安全的,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利;情节严重的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑。
掌握国家秘密的国家工作人员犯前款罪的,依照前款的规定从重处罚。
Article 110. Whoever commits any of the following acts of espionage and endangers national security is to be sentenced to not less than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment; when the circumstances are relatively minor, the sentence is to be not less than three years and not more than ten years of fixed-termed imprisonment:
   第一百一十条 【间谍罪】有下列间谍行为之一,危害国家安全的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑;情节较轻的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑:
(1) Joining an espionage organization or accepting a mission assigned by it or its agent; or
 (一)参加间谍组织或者接受间谍组织及其代理人的任务的;
(2) Pointing out bombing or shelling targets to the enemy.
 (二)为敌人指示轰击目标的。
Article 111. Whoever steals, secretly gathers, purchases, or illegally provides state secrets or intelligence for an organization, institution, or personnel outside the country is to be sentenced from not less than five years to not more than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment; when circumstances are particularly serious, he is to be sentenced to not less than 10 years of fixed- term imprisonment, or life sentence; and when circumstances are relatively minor, he is to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment, criminal detention, control, or deprivation of political rights.
   第一百一十一条 【为境外窃取、刺探、收买、非法提供国家秘密、情报罪】为境外的机构、组织、人员窃取、刺探、收买、非法提供国家秘密或者情报的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情节特别严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑;情节较轻的,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利。
Article 112. Whoever supplies arms and ammunition or other military materials to an enemy during war time is to be sentence to not less than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment; and when the circumstances are relatively minor, he will be sentenced a fixed-term imprisonment from not less than three years to not more than 10 years.
   第一百一十二条 【资敌罪】战时供给敌人武器装备、军用物资资敌的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑;情节较轻的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑。
Article 113. When one commits the aforementioned crimes in this chapter that endanger national security -- except those stipulated in the second clause of Article 103, and Articles 105, 107 and 109 -- and has incurred particularly serious harms to the country and the people, and the circumstances are particularly vile, he may be sentenced to death. Whoever commits the crimes in this chapter may also be punished by having his property confiscated.

   第一百一十三条 【危害国家安全罪适用死刑、没收财产的规定】本章上述危害国家安全罪行中,除第一百零三条第二款、第一百零五条、第一百零七条、第一百零九条外,对国家和人民危害特别严重、情节特别恶劣的,可以判处死刑。
犯本章之罪的,可以并处没收财产。

Chapter II Crimes of Endangering Public Security
 

第二章 危害公共安全罪


Article 114. Whoever endangers public security by setting fires,breaching dikes, causing explosions, administering poison; or employing other dangerous means to sabotage factories, mines, oilfields, seaports, rivers, water sources, warehouses, dwellings, forests, farms, threshing grounds, ranches, important pipelines, public buildings, and other public and private property is to be sentenced to not less than three years but not more than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment in cases where serious consequences have not been caused.
   第一百一十四条 【放火罪、决水罪、爆炸罪、投毒罪、以危险方法危害公共安全罪之一】放火、决水、爆炸、投毒或者以其他危险方法破坏工厂、矿场、油田、港口、河流、水源、仓库、住宅、森林、农场、谷场、牧场、重要管道、公共建筑物或者其他公私财产,危害公共安全,尚未造成严重后果的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑。
Article 115. Whoever sets fire, breaches dikes, causes explosions, and spreads poison; employs other dangerous means that lead to serious injuries or death; or causes public or private property major losses is to be sentenced to not less than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment, life imprisonment, or death.
Whoever commits the crimes in the preceding paragraph negligently is to be sentenced to not less than three years to not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment; or not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, or criminal detention, when circumstances are relatively minor.
   第一百一十五条 【放火罪、决水罪、爆炸罪、投毒罪、以危险方法危害公共安全罪之二】放火、决水、爆炸、投毒或者以其他危险方法致人重伤、死亡或者使公私财产遭受重大损失的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑。
过失犯前款罪的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑;情节较轻的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役。
Article 116. Whoever sabotages trains, motor vehicles, streetcars, ships, or airplanes in a manner sufficient to threaten the overturning or destruction of these trains, motor vehicles, streetcars, ships, or airplanes is to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment, in cases when serious consequences have not been caused.
   第一百一十六条 【破坏交通工具罪】破坏火车、汽车、电车、船只、航空器,足以使火车、汽车、电车、船只、航空器发生倾覆、毁坏危险,尚未造成严重后果的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑。
Article 117. Whoever sabotages railroads, bridges, tunnels, highways, airports, waterways, lighthouses or signs, or conducts other destructive activities in a manner sufficient to threaten the overturning or destruction of trains, motor vehicles, streets, ships or airplanes, is to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment in cases where serious consequences have not been caused.
   第一百一十七条 【破坏交通设施罪】破坏轨道、桥梁、隧道、公路、机场、航道、灯塔、标志或者进行其他破坏活动,足以使火车、汽车、电车、船只、航空器发生倾覆、毁坏危险,尚未造成严重后果的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑。
Article 118. Whoever endangers public security by sabotaging electric power, gas or other combustible or explosive equipment is to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than ten yeas of fixed-term imprisonment in cases where serious consequences have not been caused.
   第一百一十八条 【破坏电力设备罪、破坏易燃易爆设备罪】破坏电力、燃气或者其他易燃易爆设备,危害公共安全,尚未造成严重后果的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑。
Article 119. Whoever causes serious consequences by sabotaging means of transportation, transportation equipment, electric power or gas equipment, or combustible or explosive equipment is to be sentenced to not less than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment, life imprisonment, or death.
Whoever commits the crime in the preceding paragraph negligently is to be sentenced to not less than three years but not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment; or not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, or criminal detention if circumstances are relatively minor.
   第一百一十九条 【破坏交通工具罪、破坏交通设施罪、破坏电力设备罪、破坏易燃易爆设备罪】破坏交通工具、交通设施、电力设备、燃气设备、易燃易爆设备,造成严重后果的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑。
过失犯前款罪的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑;情节较轻的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役。
Article 120. Whoever organizes, leads, and actively participates in a terrorist organization is to be sentenced to not less than three years but not more than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment; other participants are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, criminal detention, or control.
Whoever commits the crime in the preceding paragraph and also commits murder, explosion, or kidnapping is to be punished according to the regulations for punishing multiple crimes.
   第一百二十条 【组织、领导、参加恐怖组织罪】组织、领导和积极参加恐怖活动组织的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;其他参加的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制。
犯前款罪并实施杀人、爆炸、绑架等犯罪的,依照数罪并罚的规定处罚。
Article 121. Whoever hijacks an airplane through violence, coercion, or other means is to be sentenced to not less than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment; or death if the hijacking causes serious injuries, death, or serious destruction of the airplane.
   第一百二十一条 【劫持航空器罪】以暴力、胁迫或者其他方法劫持航空器的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑;致人重伤、死亡或者使航空器遭受严重破坏的,处死刑。
Article 122. Whoever hijacks a ship or motor vehicle through violence, coercion, or other means is to be sentenced to not less than five years but not more than 10 years of fixed-termed imprisonment; or not less than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment, of life imprisonment, if the hijacking causes serious consequences.
   第一百二十二条 【劫持船只、汽车罪】以暴力、胁迫或者其他方法劫持船只、汽车的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑;造成严重后果的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑。
Article 123. Whoever uses violence on personnel on an in-flight airplane and endangers flying safety is to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-termed imprisonment or criminal detention in case no serious consequences have been caused; or not less than five years of fixed-term imprisonment if serious consequences have been caused.
   第一百二十三条 【暴力危及飞行安全罪】对飞行中的航空器上的人员使用暴力,危及飞行安全,尚未造成严重后果的,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;造成严重后果的,处五年以上有期徒刑。
Article 124. Whoever sabotages radio and television broadcasting facilities, public telecommunications facilities, and endangers public safety is to be sentenced to not less than three years but not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment; or not less than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment if serious consequences have been caused.
Whoever commits the crime in the preceding paragraph negligently is to be sentenced to not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment; or not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention in case the circumstances are relatively minor.
   第一百二十四条 【破坏广播电视设施、公用电信设施罪】破坏广播电视设施、公用电信设施,危害公共安全的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑;造成严重后果的,处七年以上有期徒刑。
过失犯前款罪的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑;情节较轻的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役。
Article 125. Whoever illegally manufactures, trades, transports, mails, or stocks up guns, ammunition, or explosives is to be sentenced to not less than three years but not more than 10 years of fixed-termed imprisonment; or not less than 10 years of imprisonment, life imprisonment, or death if the consequences are serious.
Whoever illegally trades or transports nuclear materials is to be punished according to stipulations in the preceding paragraph. If a unit commits the crime in the preceding two paragraphs, the unit will be fined, and its direct person in charge and other persons in charge are to be punished according to the regulations in the first paragraph.

   第一百二十五条 【非法制造、买卖、运输、邮寄、储存枪支、弹药、爆炸物罪、非法买卖、运输核材料罪】非法制造、买卖、运输、邮寄、储存枪支、弹药、爆炸物的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情节严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑。
非法买卖、运输核材料的,依照前款的规定处罚。
单位犯前两款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照第一款的规定处罚。
Article 126. Any enterprises which are legally designated or determined to manufacture or sell guns, violate the regulations governing gun management by performing one of the following acts, the units are to be fined and personnel who are in charge and directly responsible together with other personnel who are directly responsible are to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment; when the consequences are serious, to not less than five years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment ; when the consequences are particularly serious, to not less than 10 years of fixed- term imprisonment or life imprisonment:
   第一百二十六条 【违规制造、销售枪支罪】依法被指定、确定的枪支制造企业、销售企业,违反枪支管理规定,有下列行为之一的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,处五年以下有期徒刑;情节严重的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情节特别严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑:
(1) for the purpose of illegal sale, manufacture or allocation guns whose numbers exceed quotas or whose varieties do not meet the regulations;
 (一)以非法销售为目的,超过限额或者不按照规定的品种制造、配售枪支的;
(2) for the purpose of illegal sale, manufacture guns without a number, or with an overlapped number, or with a fake number;
 (二)以非法销售为目的,制造无号、重号、假号的枪支的;
(3) illegally sell guns or sell guns manufactured for export inside the territory .
 (三)非法销售枪支或者在境内销售为出口制造的枪支的。
Article 127. Whoever steals, seizes guns, ammunition, and explosive articles is to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment; when the circumstances are serious, to not less than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment, life imprisonment, or death penalty.
Whoever steals guns, ammunition, explosive articles, or steals, seizes guns, ammunition, explosive articles from the state's organs, military and police personnel, people's militia is to be sentenced to not less than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment, life imprisonment, or death penalty.
   第一百二十七条 【盗窃、抢夺、抢劫枪支、弹药、爆炸物罪】盗窃、抢夺枪支、弹药、爆炸物的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情节严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑。
抢劫枪支、弹药、爆炸物或者盗窃、抢夺国家机关、军警人员、民兵的枪支、弹药、爆炸物的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑。
Article 128. Whoever violates the regulations governing gun management by owning or unlawfully possessing, guns and ammunition is to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, criminal detention, or control; when the circumstances are serious, to not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.
Any personnel who are provided with official-use guns who illegally lease or lend the guns are to be punished in accordance with the previous paragraph.
Any personnel who are provided with official-use guns who illegally lease or lend the guns, thereby causing serious consequences are to be punished in accordance with the first paragraph.
Any units committing such crimes as stated in the second and third paragraph, are to be fined and personnel who are in charge and directly responsible are to be punished in accordance with the regulation of the first paragraph.
   第一百二十八条 【非法持有、私藏枪支、弹药罪、非法出租、出借枪支罪】违反枪支管理规定,非法持有、私藏枪支、弹药的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制;情节严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
依法配备公务用枪的人员,非法出租、出借枪支的,依照前款的规定处罚。
依法配置枪支的人员,非法出租、出借枪支,造成严重后果的,依照第一款的规定处罚。
单位犯第二款、第三款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照第一款的规定处罚。
Article 129. Any personnel who are provided with official-use guns who lose the guns without reporting the loss in a timely fashion, thereby causing serious consequences are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention.
   第一百二十九条 【丢失枪支不报罪】依法配备公务用枪的人员,丢失枪支不及时报告,造成严重后果的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役。
Article 130. Whoever illegally carries guns, ammunition, controlled knives and tools, articles of an explosive, combustible, radioactive, poisonous or corrosive nature into a public place or public transportation vehicle, thereby endangering public safety, is to be sentenced, when the circumstances are serious, to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, detention, or control when the circumstances are serious.
   第一百三十条 【非法携带枪支、弹药、管制刀具、危险物品危及公共安全罪】非法携带枪支、弹药、管制刀具或者爆炸性、易燃性、放射性、毒害性、腐蚀性物品,进入公共场所或者公共交通工具,危及公共安全,情节严重的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制。
Article 131. Any aviation personnel who violate the rules and regulations thereby causing major air accidents and serious consequences are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or detention; when causing the crash of an airplane or the death of personnel are to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.
   第一百三十一条 【重大飞行事故罪】航空人员违反规章制度,致使发生重大飞行事故,造成严重后果的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;造成飞机坠毁或者人员死亡的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Article 132. Any railway staff and workers who violate the rules and regulations thereby giving rise to accidents affecting the safety of railway operation are to be sentenced to not less than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention; when the consequences are particularly serious, to not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.
   第一百三十二条 【铁路运营安全事故罪】铁路职工违反规章制度,致使发生铁路运营安全事故,造成严重后果的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;造成特别严重后果的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Article 133. Whoever violates traffic and transportation laws and regulations thereby giving rise to major accidents involving severe injuries, deaths, or great losses of public and private properties are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment; when fleeing the scene after an traffic and transportation accident or under other particularly odious circumstances, to not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment; when running away causes a person's death, to not less than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.
   第一百三十三条 【交通肇事罪】违反交通运输管理法规,因而发生重大事故,致人重伤、死亡或者使公私财产遭受重大损失的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;交通运输肇事后逃逸或者有其他特别恶劣情节的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑;因逃逸致人死亡的,处七年以上有期徒刑。
Article 134. The staff and workers of factories, mines, forestry centers, construction enterprises or other enterprises and institutions who do not submit to management and violate the rules and regulations or force workers to work in a risky way in violation of the rules, thereby giving rise to major accidents involving injury or death and causing other serious consequences, are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention; when the circumstances are particularly odious, to not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.
   第一百三十四条 【重大责任事故罪】工厂、矿山、林场、建筑企业或者其他企业、事业单位的职工,由于不服管理、违反规章制度,或者强令工人违章冒险作业,因而发生重大伤亡事故或者造成其他严重后果的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;情节特别恶劣的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Article 135. Any factories, mines, forestry centers, construction enterprises or other enterprises and institutions that have labor safety facilities failing to conform with the state's regulations and do not take measures to prevent hidden dangers after a request was made by relevant departments or the units' staff and workers, thereby giving rise to major accidents involving injury or death or other serious consequences, personnel who are directly responsible are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention; when the circumstances are particularly odious, the sentence is to be not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.
   第一百三十五条 【重大劳动安全事故罪】工厂、矿山、林场、建筑企业或者其他企业、事业单位的劳动安全设施不符合国家规定,经有关部门或者单位职工提出后,对事故隐患仍不采取措施,因而发生重大伤亡事故或者造成其他严重后果的,对直接责任人员,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;情节特别恶劣的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Article 136. Whoever violates the regulations on the control of articles of an explosive; combustible, radioactive, poisonous or corrosive nature, thereby giving rise to a major accident in the course of production, storage, transportation or use and causing serious consequences, is to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention; when the consequences are particularly serious, the sentence is to be not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.
   第一百三十六条 【危险物品肇事罪】违反爆炸性、易燃性、放射性、毒害性、腐蚀性物品的管理规定,在生产、储存、运输、使用中发生重大事故,造成严重后果的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;后果特别严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Article 137. When construction, design, working, and engineering supervision units violate the state's regulations by reducing the quality standard of the projects, thereby giving rise to a major safety accident, those who are directly responsible are to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention, in addition to fine; when the consequences are particularly serious, the sentence is to be not less than five years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment, in addition to fine.
   第一百三十七条 【工程重大安全事故罪】建设单位、设计单位、施工单位、工程监理单位违反国家规定,降低工程质量标准,造成重大安全事故的,对直接责任人员,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处罚金;后果特别严重的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。
Article 138. When school buildings or educational and teaching facilities are obviously known to be dangerous but measures are not taken or reports are not made in a timely fashion, thereby giving rise to a major accident, those who are directly responsible are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention; when the consequences are particularly serious, the sentence is to be not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.
   第一百三十八条 【教育设施重大安全事故罪】明知校舍或者教育教学设施有危险,而不采取措施或者不及时报告,致使发生重大伤亡事故的,对直接责任人员,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;后果特别严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Article 139. When rules of fire prevention and control are violated and the notification, given by a supervision organ of fire prevention and control, to take corrective measures are refused, thereby giving rise to severe consequences, those who are directly responsible are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention; when the consequences are particularly serious, the sentence is to be not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.
   第一百三十九条 【消防责任事故罪】违反消防管理法规,经消防监督机构通知采取改正措施而拒绝执行,造成严重后果的,对直接责任人员,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;后果特别严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。

Chapter III Crimes of Undermining the Order of Socialist Market Economy
 

第三章 破坏社会主义市场经济秩序罪

Section 1. Crimes of Manufacturing and Selling Fake and Shoddy Goods
 

第一节 生产、销售伪劣商品罪


Article 140. Any producer or seller who mixes up or adulterates products, passes fake imitations for genuine, sells seconds at best quality price, or passes unqualified products as qualified ones, with a sale amount of not less than 50,000 yuan and not more than 200,000 yuan, is to be sentenced to not more than two years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention and may in addition or exclusively be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when the sale amount is not less than 200,000 yuan and not more than 500,000 yuan, is to be sentenced to not less than two years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when the sale amount is not less than 500,000 yuan and not more than 2 million yuan, is to be sentenced to not less than seven years and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200
percent of the sale amount; when the sale amount is not less than two million yuan, is to be sentenced to 15 years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount or confiscation of property.
   第一百四十条 【生产、销售伪劣产品罪】生产者、销售者在产品中掺杂、掺假,以假充真,以次充好或者以不合格产品冒充合格产品,销售金额五万元以上不满二十万元的,处二年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;销售金额二十万元以上不满五十万元的,处二年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;销售金额五十万元以上不满二百万元的,处七年以上有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;销售金额二百万元以上的,处十五年有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金或者没收财产。
Article 141. Whoever produces or sells fake medicines which are sufficiently able to seriously endanger human health is to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention and may in addition or exclusively be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when causing serious harm to human health, is to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when causing death or particular harm to human health, is to be sentenced to not less than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment, life imprisonment, or death penalty and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount or confiscation of property.
The fake medicines referred to in this article mean those fake medicines as well as those medicines and non- medicines that fall into such a category as to be dealt with as fake medicines in accordance with the regulations of the "Law of the PRC Governing the Management of Pharmaceutical Products."
   第一百四十一条 【生产、销售假药罪】生产、销售假药,足以严重危害人体健康的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;对人体健康造成严重危害的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;致人死亡或者对人体健康造成特别严重危害的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金或者没收财产。
本条所称假药,是指依照《中华人民共和国药品管理法》的规定属于假药和按假药处理的药品、非药品。
Article 142. Whoever produces, sells inferior medicines, thereby causing severe harm to human health is to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when the consequences are particularly serious, the sentence is to be not less than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount or confiscation of property.
The inferior medicines referred to in this article mean those inferior pharmaceutical products that fall into the category of inferior medicines in accordance with the regulations of the "Law of the PRC Governing the Management of Pharmaceutical Products."
   第一百四十二条 【生产、销售劣药罪】生产、销售劣药,对人体健康造成严重危害的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;后果特别严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金或者没收财产。
本条所称劣药,是指依照《中华人民共和国药品管理法》的规定属于劣药的药品。
Article 143. Whoever produces, sells foods that do not conform with hygienic standards which sufficiently gives rise to food poisoning accidents or other severe food- originated diseases is to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition or exclusively be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when causing serious harm to human health, the sentence is to be not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when the circumstances are particularly serious, to be not less than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount or confiscation of property.
   第一百四十三条 【生产、销售不符合卫生标准的食品罪】生产、销售不符合卫生标准的食品,足以造成严重食物中毒事故或者其他严重食源性疾患的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;对人体健康造成严重危害的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;后果特别严重的,处七年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金或者没收财产。
Article 144. Whoever produces, sells foods that are mixed with poisonous or harmful non-food materials or knowingly sells such things is to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention and may in addition or exclusively be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when causing serious food poisoning accidents or other serious food-originated diseases and giving rise to serious harm to human health, the sentence is to be not less than five years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when causing death or particularly harm to human health, is to be punished in accordance with article 141 of the law.
   第一百四十四条 【生产、销售有毒、有害食品罪】在生产、销售的食品中掺入有毒、有害的非食品原料的,或者销售明知掺有有毒、有害的非食品原料的食品的,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;造成严重食物中毒事故或者其他严重食源性疾患,对人体健康造成严重危害的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;致人死亡或者对人体健康造成特别严重危害的,依照本法第一百四十一条的规定处罚。
Article 145. Whoever produces medical apparatus and instruments, and clinic-use sanitary materials which do not conform with the standards of the state and the trade aiming at protecting human health or knowingly sells such things, thereby giving rise to serious harm to human health is to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when the consequences are particularly serious, the sentence is to be not less than five years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when the circumstances are particularly odious, the sentence is to be not less than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount or confiscation of property.
   第一百四十五条 【生产、销售不符合标准的卫生器材罪】生产不符合保障人体健康的国家标准、行业标准的医疗器械、医用卫生材料,或者销售明知是不符合保障人体健康的国家标准、行业标准的医疗器械、医用卫生材料,对人体健康造成严重危害的,处五年以下有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;后果特别严重的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金,其中情节特别恶劣的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金或者没收财产。
Article 146. Whoever produces electrical appliances, pressure containers, explosive and combustible products that do not conform with the standards of the state and the trade aiming to protect the human safety and property or other products that do not conform with such standards or knowingly sells the above-mentioned products thereby giving rise to serious consequences is to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when the consequences are particularly serious, the sentence is to be not less than five years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale.
   第一百四十六条 【生产、销售不符合安全标准的产品罪】生产不符合保障人身、财产安全的国家标准、行业标准的电器、压力容器、易燃易爆产品或者其他不符合保障人身、财产安全的国家标准、行业标准的产品,或者销售明知是以上不符合保障人身、财产安全的国家标准、行业标准的产品,造成严重后果的,处五年以下有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;后果特别严重的,处五年以上有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金。
Article 147. Whoever produces fake insecticides, fake animal-use medicines, fake chemical fertilizers or knowingly sells insecticides, animal-use medicines, chemical fertilizers and seeds which are fake or are no longer effective or any producer or seller who passes unqualified insecticides, animal-use medicines, chemical fertilizers and seeds as qualified ones, thereby giving rise to relatively large losses in production is to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention and may in addition or exclusively be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when causing grave losses in production, is to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when causing particularly grave losses in production, is to be sentenced to not less than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment or confiscation of property.
   第一百四十七条 【生产、销售伪劣农药、兽药、化肥、种子罪】生产假农药、假兽药、假化肥,销售明知是假的或者失去使用效能的农药、兽药、化肥、种子,或者生产者、销售者以不合格的农药、兽药、化肥、种子冒充合格的农药、兽药、化肥、种子,使生产遭受较大损失的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;使生产遭受重大损失的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;使生产遭受特别重大损失的,处七年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金或者没收财产。
Article 148. Production of cosmetics that fails to meet hygienic standards or knowingly selling such cosmetics that cause serious consequences shall be punished with imprisonment or criminal detention of less than three years, and a fine of over 50 percent but less than 100 percent of the sales amount.
   第一百四十八条 【生产、销售不符合卫生标准的化妆品罪】生产不符合卫生标准的化妆品,或者销售明知是不符合卫生标准的化妆品,造成严重后果的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金。
Article 149. The production and selling of products prescribed under Articles 141 to 148 of this Section that does not constitute an offense under these articles but with sales amount exceeding 50,000 yuan, shall be convicted and punished according to provisions under Article 140 of this Section.
The production and selling of products prescribed under Articles 141 and 148 of this Section that constitutes an offense under these articles and Article 140, shall be convicted and punished under provisions carrying a heavier penalty.
   第一百四十九条 【对生产、销售伪劣商品行为的法条适用原则】生产、销售本节第一百四十一条至第一百四十八条所列产品,不构成各该条规定的犯罪,但是销售金额在五万元以上的,依照本节第一百四十条的规定定罪处罚。
生产、销售本节第一百四十一条至第一百四十八条所列产品,构成各该条规定的犯罪,同时又构成本节第一百四十条规定之罪的,依照处罚较重的规定定罪处罚。
Article 150. Units violating provisions between Articles 140 and 148 of this Section shall be punished with a fine, with personnel directly in charge and other directly responsible personnel being punished according to provisions under the respective articles.
   第一百五十条 【单位犯本节规定之罪的处罚规定】单位犯本节第一百四十条至第一百四十八条规定之罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照各该条的规定处罚。

Section 2. Smuggling Offenses
 

第二节 走私罪


Article 151. Smuggling arms, ammunitions, nuclear materials, or counterfeit currency notes shall be sentenced to imprisonment of over seven years, with a fine or forfeiture of property; for the less serious offenses to imprisonment of more than three years but less than seven years, and
with fine. Smuggling out of the country prohibited cultural relics, gold, silver, and other precious metals and rare animals and their products shall be sentenced to imprisonment of over five years with fine; for less serious offenses to imprisonment of less than five years with fine.
Smuggling out of the country prohibited rare plants and their products shall be sentenced to imprisonment of less than five years with fine; or a fine alone; for serious cases, to imprisonment of over five years with fine.
Offenses of an extraordinarily serious nature under Paragraphs 1 and 2 should be punished with life imprisonment or death, with forfeiture of property.
Units violating provisions under this article shall be fined, with personnel directly in charge and other directly responsible personnel being punished under the respective paragraphs of this article.
   第一百五十一条 【走私武器、弹药罪、走私核材料罪、走私假币罪;走私文物罪、走私贵重金属罪、走私珍贵动物罪、走私珍贵动物制品罪;走私珍稀植物、珍稀植物制品罪】走私武器、弹药、核材料或者伪造的货币的,处七年以上有期徒刑,并处罚金或者没收财产;情节较轻的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。
走私国家禁止出口的文物、黄金、白银和其他贵重金属或者国家禁止进出口的珍贵动物及其制品的,处五年以上有期徒刑,并处罚金;情节较轻的,处五年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。
走私国家禁止进出口的珍稀植物及其制品的,处五年以下有期徒刑,并处或者单处罚金;情节严重的,处五年以上有期徒刑,并处罚金。
犯第一款、第二款罪,情节特别严重的,处无期徒刑或者死刑,并处没收财产。
单位犯本条规定之罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照本条各款的规定处罚。
Article 152. Smuggling obscene movies, video tapes, audio tapes, pictures, books and journals, and other obscene articles for profit or dissemination shall be punished with imprisonment of more than three years but less than ten years with fine; for offenses of a serious nature to over ten years of imprisonment or life imprisonment, with fine or forfeiture of property; for offenses of a less serious nature to imprisonment or criminal detention or restraint of less than three years, and with fine. Units committing offenses under the preceding paragraph shall be punished with a fine, with personnel directly in charge and other directly responsible personnel being punished under provisions of the preceding paragraph.

   第一百五十二条 【走私淫秽物品罪】以牟利或者传播为目的,走私淫秽的影片、录像带、录音带、图片、书刊或者其他淫秽物品的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金;情节严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处罚金或者没收财产;情节较轻的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,并处罚金。
单位犯前款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照前款的规定处罚。
Article 153. Smuggling goods and articles not mentioned in Articles 151, 152, and 347, as mentioned in Article 153, shall be respectively punished according to the following provisions, depending on seriousness of the offense:
   第一百五十三条 【走私普通货物、物品罪】走私本法第一百五十一条、第一百五十二条、第三百四十七条规定以外的货物、物品的,根据情节轻重,分别依照下列规定处罚:
(1) smuggling goods and articles carrying a tax of over 500,000 yuan shall be punished with imprisonment of over 10 years or life imprisonment, with a fine of over 100 percent but less than 500 percent of the evaded taxes, or forfeiture of property. Offenses of an extraordinary serious nature shall be punished according to provisions under Paragraph 4 of Article 151 of this law.
 (一)走私货物、物品偷逃应缴税额在五十万元以上的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处偷逃应缴税额一倍以上五倍以下罚金或者没收财产;情节特别严重的,依照本法第一百五十一条第四款的规定处罚。
(2) smuggling goods and articles carrying a tax over 150,000 yuan but less than 500,000 yuan shall be punished with imprisonment of over three years but less than 10 years, with a fine of over 100 percent but less than 500 percent of the evaded taxes. Offenses of an extraordinarily serious nature shall be punished with imprisonment of over 10 years or life imprisonment, with a fine of over 100 percent but less than 500 percent of the evaded taxes, or forfeiture of property.
 (二)走私货物、物品偷逃应缴税额在十五万元以上不满五十万元的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处偷逃应缴税额一倍以上五倍以下罚金;情节特别严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处偷逃应缴税额一倍以上五倍以下罚金或者没收财产。
(3) smuggling goods and articles carrying a tax over 50,000 yuan and less than 150,000 yuan shall be punished with imprisonment or criminal detention of less than three years, with a fine of over 100 percent and less than 500 percent of the evaded taxes.
Units committing offenses under the preceding paragraph shall be punished with a fine, with personnel directly in charge and other directly responsible personnel being sentenced to imprisonment or criminal detention of less than three years; and, for cases of a serious nature, to imprisonment of over three years and less than 10 years; and -- for cases of an extraordinary serious nature -- to imprisonment of over 10 years.
For smuggling cases not being detected for several occasions, fines should be based on an accumulation of all evaded taxes of such goods and articles.
 (三)走私货物、物品偷逃应缴税额在五万元以上不满十五万元的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处偷逃应缴税额一倍以上五倍以下罚金。
单位犯前款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;情节严重的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情节特别严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑。
对多次走私未经处理的,按照累计走私货物、物品的偷逃应缴税额处罚。
Article 154. The following smuggling cases that constitute an offense under provisions of this section shall be convicted and sentenced according to provisions under Article 153 of this law:
   第一百五十四条 【特殊形式的走私普通货物、物品罪】下列走私行为,根据本节规定构成犯罪的,依照本法第一百五十三条的规定定罪处罚:
(1) without the approval of the Customs and before settling defaulted taxes, sale for profit in China of bonded goods approved for import for the purposes of processing, assembly, and compensated trade, including raw and processed materials, parts, finished products, and equipment; and
 (一)未经海关许可并且未补缴应缴税额,擅自将批准进口的来料加工、来件装配、补偿贸易的原材料、零件、制成品、设备等保税货物,在境内销售牟利的;
(2) without the approval of the Customs and before settling defaulted taxes, sale for profits in China of goods and articles with reduced import duties or tax exemption.
 (二)未经海关许可并且未补缴应缴税额,擅自将特定减税、免税进口的货物、物品,在境内销售牟利的。
Article 155. The following acts shall be regarded as smuggling offenses and punished according to the relevant provisions under this Section:
   第一百五十五条 【间接走私行为以相应走私犯罪论处的规定、走私固体废物罪】下列行为,以走私罪论处,依照本节的有关规定处罚:
(1) those who illegally and directly buy from smugglers goods whose import has been banned by the state, or buy directly from smugglers other smuggled goods and articles in relatively large quantities;
 (一)直接向走私人非法收购国家禁止进口物品的,或者直接向走私人非法收购走私进口的其他货物、物品,数额较大的;
(2) those who transport, buy, or sell, in inland seas or territorial waters, goods whose import has been banned by the state; or transport, buy, or sell goods whose import has been restricted by the state, in relatively large quantity and without legal documentation; and
 (二)在内海、领海运输、收购、贩卖国家禁止进出口物品的,或者运输、收购、贩卖国家限制进出口货物、物品,数额较大,没有合法证明的;
(3) those who ship solid wastes into the country without being detected by the Customs.
 (三)逃避海关监管将境外固体废物运输进境的。
Article 156. Whoever colludes with smugglers by supplying them with loans, funds, accounts, invoices, proofs, or such conveniences as transportation, safe- keeping, and mailing services, shall be regarded and punished as smuggling accomplices.
   第一百五十六条 【走私共犯】与走私罪犯通谋,为其提供贷款、资金、帐号、发票、证明,或者为其提供运输、保管、邮寄或者其他方便的,以走私罪的共犯论处。
Article 157. Whoever provides armed escort to smugglers shall be seriously punished according to provisions under the first and fourth paragraphs of Article 151 of this law.
Whoever resorts to violence and threatening measures while resisting Customs detection shall be punished for smuggling and obstructing state organ personnel from enforcing their lawful duties provided under Article 277 of this law, and shall be punished for all offenses committed.
   第一百五十七条 【武装掩护走私、抗拒缉私的处罚规定】武装掩护走私的,依照本法第一百五十一条第一款、第四款的规定从重处罚。
以暴力、威胁方法抗拒缉私的,以走私罪和本法第二百七十七条规定的阻碍国家机关工作人员依法执行职务罪,依照数罪并罚的规定处罚。

Section 3. Offenses Against Company and Enterprise Management Order
 

第三节 妨害对公司、企业的管理秩序罪


Article 158. Using forged certifications to apply for company registration or using other fraudulent means to falsely declare registered capital with intent to deceive company registration departments, where the registered capital so falsely declared is large in figures with serious consequences or of a severe nature, shall be punished by imprisonment or criminal detention of less than three years, with a fine or a separately imposed fine of over 1 percent but less than 5 percent of the falsely declared registered capital.
Units committing offenses under the preceding paragraph shall be punished with a fine, with personnel directly in charge and other directly responsible personnel being punished with imprisonment or criminal detention of less than three years.
   第一百五十八条 【虚报注册资本罪】申请公司登记使用虚假证明文件或者采取其他欺诈手段虚报注册资本,欺骗公司登记主管部门,取得公司登记,虚报注册资本数额巨大、后果严重或者有其他严重情节的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处虚报注册资本金额百分之一以上百分之五以下罚金。
单位犯前款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役。
Article 159. Company promoters, shareholders who, in violation of provisions under the Company law, fail to pay up with currency notes, provide actual property, or transfer property rights; or falsely claim to have paid up the capital; or withdraw their capital upon registration of company, where the amount involved is large with serious consequences or of a serious nature, shall be punished with imprisonment or criminal detention of less than five years, with a fine or a separately imposed fine of over 2 percent but less than 10 percent of the amount of capital so falsely claimed to have been paid up or so withdrawn.
......
   第一百五十九条 【虚假出资、抽逃出资罪】公司发起人、股东违反公司法的规定未交付货币、实物或者未转移财产权,虚假出资,或者在公司成立后又抽逃其出资,数额巨大、后果严重或者有其他严重情节的,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处虚假出资金额或者抽逃出资金额百分之二以上百分之十以下罚金。
......



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