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Tort Law of the People's Republic of China [Expired]
中华人民共和国侵权责任法 [失效]
【法宝引证码】
 
  
  
Decree of the President of the People's Republic of China
(No. 21)
The Tort Law of the People's Republic of China, which was adopted at the 12th session of the Standing Committee of the Eleventh National People's Congress on December 26, 2009, is hereby promulgated and shall come into force on July 1, 2010.
President of the People's Republic of China: Hu Jintao
December 26, 2009
Tort Law of the People's Republic of China
(Adopted at the 12th session of the Standing Committee of the Eleventh National People's Congress on December 26, 2009)
 

中华人民共和国主席令
(第二十一号)


《中华人民共和国侵权责任法》已由中华人民共和国第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十二次会议于2009年12月26日通过,现予公布,自2010年7月1日起施行。
中华人民共和国主席  胡锦涛
2009年12月26日
中华人民共和国侵权责任法
(2009年12月26日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十二次会议通过)
Table of Contents
 目录
Chapter I General Provisions
 第一章 一般规定
Chapter II Constituting Liability and Methods of Assuming Liability
 第二章 责任构成和责任方式
Chapter III Circumstances to Waive Liability and Mitigate Liability
 第三章 不承担责任和减轻责任的情形
Chapter IV Special Provisions on Tortfeasors
 第四章 关于责任主体的特殊规定
Chapter V Product Liability
 第五章 产品责任
Chapter VI Liability for Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident
 第六章 机动车交通事故责任
Chapter VII Liability for Medical Malpractice
 第七章 医疗损害责任
Chapter VIII Liability for Environmental Pollution
 第八章 环境污染责任
Chapter IX Liability for Ultrahazardous Activity
 第九章 高度危险责任
Chapter X Liability for Harm Caused by Domestic Animal
 第十章 饲养动物损害责任
Chapter XI Liability for Harm Caused by Object
 第十一章 物件损害责任
Chapter XII Supplementary Provision
 第十二章 附则
Chapter I General Provisions
 

第一章 一般规定


Article 1 In order to protect the legitimate rights and interests of parties in civil law relationships, clarify the tort liability, prevent and punish tortious conduct, and promote the social harmony and stability, this Law is formulated.
   第一条 为保护民事主体的合法权益,明确侵权责任,预防并制裁侵权行为,促进社会和谐稳定,制定本法。
Article 2 Those who infringe upon civil rights and interests shall be subject to the tort liability according to this Law.
“Civil rights and interests” used in this Law shall include the right to life, the right to health, the right to name, the right to reputation, the right to honor, right to self image, right of privacy, marital autonomy, guardianship, ownership, usufruct, security interest, copyright, patent right, exclusive right to use a trademark, right to discovery, equities, right of succession, and other personal and property rights and interests.
   第二条 侵害民事权益,应当依照本法承担侵权责任。
本法所称民事权益,包括生命权、健康权、姓名权、名誉权、荣誉权、肖像权、隐私权、婚姻自主权、监护权、所有权、用益物权、担保物权、著作权、专利权、商标专用权、发现权、股权、继承权等人身、财产权益。
Article 3 The victim of a tort shall be entitled to require the tortfeasor to assume the tort liability.
   第三条 被侵权人有权请求侵权人承担侵权责任。
Article 4 Where a tortfeasor shall assume administrative liability or criminal liability for the same conduct, it shall not prejudice the tort liability that the tortfeasor shall legally assume.
Where the assets of a tortfeasor are not adequate for payments for the tort liability and administrative liability or criminal liability for the same conduct, the tortfeasor shall first assume the tort liability.
   第四条 侵权人因同一行为应当承担行政责任或者刑事责任的,不影响依法承担侵权责任。
因同一行为应当承担侵权责任和行政责任、刑事责任,侵权人的财产不足以支付的,先承担侵权责任。
Article 5 Where any other law provides otherwise for any tort liability in particular, such special provisions shall prevail.
   第五条 其他法律对侵权责任另有特别规定的,依照其规定。
Chapter II Constituting Liability and Methods of Assuming Liability
 

第二章 责任构成和责任方式


Article 6 One who is at fault for infringement upon a civil right or interest of another person shall be subject to the tort liability.
One who is at fault as construed according to legal provisions and cannot prove otherwise shall be subject to the tort liability.
   第六条 行为人因过错侵害他人民事权益,应当承担侵权责任。
根据法律规定推定行为人有过错,行为人不能证明自己没有过错的,应当承担侵权责任。
Article 7 One who shall assume the tort liability for infringing upon a civil right or interest of another person, whether at fault or not, as provided for by law, shall be subject to such legal provisions.
   第七条 行为人损害他人民事权益,不论行为人有无过错,法律规定应当承担侵权责任的,依照其规定。
Article 8 Where two or more persons jointly commit a tort, causing harm to another person, they shall be liable jointly and severally.
   第八条 二人以上共同实施侵权行为,造成他人损害的,应当承担连带责任。
Article 9 One who abets or assists another person in committing a tort shall be liable jointly and severally with the tortfeasor.
One who abets or assists a person who does not have civil conduct capacity or only has limited civil conduct capacity in committing a tort shall assume the tort liability; the guardian of such a person without civil conduct capacity or with limited civil conduct capacity shall assume the relevant liability if failing to fulfill his guardian duties.
   第九条 教唆、帮助他人实施侵权行为的,应当与行为人承担连带责任。
教唆、帮助无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人实施侵权行为的,应当承担侵权责任;该无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人的监护人未尽到监护责任的,应当承担相应的责任。
Article 10 Where two or more persons engage in a conduct that endangers the personal or property safety of another person, if only the conduct of one or several of them causes harm to another person and the specific tortfeasor can be determined, the tortfeasor shall be liable; or if the specific tortfeasor cannot be determined, all of them shall be liable jointly and severally.
   第十条 二人以上实施危及他人人身、财产安全的行为,其中一人或者数人的行为造成他人损害,能够确定具体侵权人的,由侵权人承担责任;不能确定具体侵权人的,行为人承担连带责任。
Article 11 Where two or more persons commit torts respectively, causing the same harm, and each tort is sufficient to cause the entire harm, the tortfeasors shall be liable jointly and severally.
   第十一条 二人以上分别实施侵权行为造成同一损害,每个人的侵权行为都足以造成全部损害的,行为人承担连带责任。
Article 12 Where two or more persons commit torts respectively, causing the same harm, if the seriousness of liability of each tortfeasor can be determined, the tortfeasors shall assume corresponding liabilities respectively; or if the seriousness of liability of each tortfeasor is hard to be determined, the tortfeasors shall evenly assume the compensatory liability.
   第十二条 二人以上分别实施侵权行为造成同一损害,能够确定责任大小的,各自承担相应的责任;难以确定责任大小的,平均承担赔偿责任。
Article 13 Where the joint and several liability shall be assumed by the tortfeasors according to law, the victim of torts shall be entitled to require some or all of the tortfeasors to assume the liability.
   第十三条 法律规定承担连带责任的,被侵权人有权请求部分或者全部连带责任人承担责任。
Article 14 The compensation amounts corresponding to the tortfeasors who are jointly and severally liable shall be determined according to the seriousness of each tortfeasor; and if the seriousness of each tortfeasor cannot be determined, the tortfeasors shall evenly assume the compensatory liability.
A tortfeasor who has paid an amount of compensation exceeding his contribution shall be entitled to be reimbursed by the other tortfeasors who are jointly and severally liable.
   第十四条 连带责任人根据各自责任大小确定相应的赔偿数额;难以确定责任大小的,平均承担赔偿责任。
支付超出自己赔偿数额的连带责任人,有权向其他连带责任人追偿。
Article 15 The methods of assuming tort liabilities shall include:
   第十五条 承担侵权责任的方式主要有:
1. cessation of infringement;
 (一)停止侵害;
2. removal of obstruction;
 (二)排除妨碍;
3. elimination of danger;
 (三)消除危险;
4. return of property;
 (四)返还财产;
5. restoration to the original status;
 (五)恢复原状;
6. compensation for losses;
 (六)赔偿损失;
7. apology; and
 (七)赔礼道歉;
8. elimination of consequences and restoration of reputation.
The above methods of assuming the tort liability may be adopted individually or jointly.
 (八)消除影响、恢复名誉。
以上承担侵权责任的方式,可以单独适用,也可以合并适用。
Article 16 Where a tort causes any personal injury to another person, the tortfeasor shall compensate the victim for the reasonable costs and expenses for treatment and rehabilitation, such as medical treatment expenses, nursing fees and travel expenses, as well as the lost wages. If the victim suffers any disability, the tortfeasor shall also pay the costs of disability assistance equipment for the living of the victim and the disability indemnity. If it causes the death of the victim, the tortfeasor shall also pay the funeral service fees and the death compensation.
   第十六条 侵害他人造成人身损害的,应当赔偿医疗费、护理费、交通费等为治疗和康复支出的合理费用,以及因误工减少的收入。造成残疾的,还应当赔偿残疾生活辅助具费和残疾赔偿金。造成死亡的,还应当赔偿丧葬费和死亡赔偿金。
Article 17 Where the same tort causes the deaths of several persons, a uniform amount of death compensation may be determined.
   第十七条 因同一侵权行为造成多人死亡的,可以以相同数额确定死亡赔偿金。
Article 18 Where a tort causes the death to the victim, the close relative of the victim shall be entitled to require the tortfeasor to assume the tort liability. Where the victim of a tort, which is an entity, is split or merged, the entity succeeding to the rights of the victim shall be entitled to require the tortfeasor to assume the tort liability.
Where a tort causes the death to the victim, those who have paid the medical treatment expenses, funeral service fees and other reasonable costs and expenses for the victim shall be entitled to require the tortfeasor to compensate them for such costs and expenses, except that the tortfeasor has already paid such costs and expenses.
   第十八条 被侵权人死亡的,其近亲属有权请求侵权人承担侵权责任。被侵权人为单位,该单位分立、合并的,承继权利的单位有权请求侵权人承担侵权责任。
被侵权人死亡的,支付被侵权人医疗费、丧葬费等合理费用的人有权请求侵权人赔偿费用,但侵权人已支付该费用的除外。
Article 19 Where a tort causes any harm to the property of another person, the amount of loss to the property shall be calculated as per the market price at the time of occurrence of the loss or calculated otherwise.
   第十九条 侵害他人财产的,财产损失按照损失发生时的市场价格或者其他方式计算。
Article 20 Where any harm caused by a tort to a personal right or interest of another person gives rise to any loss to the property of the victim of the tort, the tortfeasor shall make compensation as per the loss sustained by the victim as the result of the tort. If the loss sustained by the victim is hard to be determined and the tortfeasor obtains any benefit from the tort, the tortfeasor shall make compensation as per the benefit obtained by it. If the benefit obtained by the tortfeasor from the tort is hard to be determined, the victim and the tortfeasor disagree to the amount of compensation after consultation, and an action is brought to a people's court, the people's court shall determine the amount of compensation based on the actual situations.
   第二十条 侵害他人人身权益造成财产损失的,按照被侵权人因此受到的损失赔偿;被侵权人的损失难以确定,侵权人因此获得利益的,按照其获得的利益赔偿;侵权人因此获得的利益难以确定,被侵权人和侵权人就赔偿数额协商不一致,向人民法院提起诉讼的,由人民法院根据实际情况确定赔偿数额。
Article 21 Where a tort endangers the personal or property safety of another person, the victim of the tort may require the tortfeasor to assume the tort liabilities including but not limited to cession of infringement, removal of obstruction and elimination of danger.
   第二十一条 侵权行为危及他人人身、财产安全的,被侵权人可以请求侵权人承担停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除危险等侵权责任。
Article 22 Where any harm caused by a tort to a personal right or interest of another person inflicts a serious mental distress on the victim of the tort, the victim of the tort may require compensation for the infliction of mental distress.
   第二十二条 侵害他人人身权益,造成他人严重精神损害的,被侵权人可以请求精神损害赔偿。
Article 23 Where one sustains any harm as the result of preventing or stopping the infringement upon the civil right or interest of another person, the tortfeasor shall be liable for the harm. If the tortfeasor flees or is unable to assume the liability and the victim of the tort requires compensation, the beneficiary shall properly make compensation.
   第二十三条 因防止、制止他人民事权益被侵害而使自己受到损害的,由侵权人承担责任。侵权人逃逸或者无力承担责任,被侵权人请求补偿的,受益人应当给予适当补偿。
Article 24 Where neither the victim nor the actor is at fault for the occurrence of a damage, both of them may share the damage based on the actual situations.
   第二十四条 受害人和行为人对损害的发生都没有过错的,可以根据实际情况,由双方分担损失。
Article 25 After the occurrence of any harm, the parties may consult each other about the methods to pay for compensations. If the consultation fails, the compensations shall be paid in a lump sum. If it is hard to make the payment in a lump sum, the payment may be made in installments but a corresponding security shall be provided.
   第二十五条 损害发生后,当事人可以协商赔偿费用的支付方式。协商不一致的,赔偿费用应当一次性支付;一次性支付确有困难的,可以分期支付,但应当提供相应的担保。
Chapter III Circumstances to Waive Liability and Mitigate Liability
 

第三章 不承担责任和减轻责任的情形


Article 26 Where the victim of a tort is also at fault as to the occurrence of harm, the liability of the tortfeasor may be mitigated.
   第二十六条 被侵权人对损害的发生也有过错的,可以减轻侵权人的责任。
Article 27 The actor shall not be liable for any harm that is caused intentionally by the victim.
   第二十七条 损害是因受害人故意造成的,行为人不承担责任。
Article 28 Where any harm is caused by a third party, the third party shall assume the tort liability.
   第二十八条 损害是因第三人造成的,第三人应当承担侵权责任。
Article 29 Where any harm to another person is caused by a force majeure, the tortfeasor shall not be liable, except as otherwise provided for by law.
   第二十九条 因不可抗力造成他人损害的,不承担责任。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 30 Where any harm is caused by self-defense, the person exercising self-defense shall not be liable. If the self-defense exceeds the necessary limit, causing any undue harm, the person exercising self-defense shall assume proper liability.
......
   第三十条 因正当防卫造成损害的,不承担责任。正当防卫超过必要的限度,造成不应有的损害的,正当防卫人应当承担适当的责任。
......



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