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Judicial Reform in China
中国的司法改革
【法宝引证码】
 
  

Judicial Reform in China
(October 2012Information Office of the State Council)

 

中国的司法改革
(2012年10月 国务院新闻办公室)

Contents
 目录
Preface
 前 言
I. Judicial System and Reform Process
 一、司法制度和改革进程
II. Maintaining Social Fairness and Justice
 二、维护社会公平正义
III. Strengthening Human Rights Protection
 三、加强人权保障
IV. Enhancing Judicial Capabilities
 四、提高司法能力
V. Judicial Power Serving the People
 五、践行司法为民
Conclusion
 结束语
Preface
The judicial system is a major component of the political system, while judicial impartiality is a significant guarantee of social justice.
Since the founding of New China in 1949, and especially since the reform and opening-up policies were introduced some three decades ago, China, proceeding from its national conditions, carrying on the achievements of Chinese traditional legal culture and learning from other civilizations regarding their rule of law, has been building and improving its socialist judicial system with Chinese characteristics, safeguarding social justice and making significant contributions to the rule of law of the mankind.
China's judicial system is generally consistent with its basic national conditions at the primary stage of socialism, its state system of people's democratic dictatorship, and its government system of the National People's Congress. With the further development of China's reform and opening up, particularly due to the development of the socialist market economy, the comprehensive implementation of the fundamental principle of rule of law, and the increasing demands of the public for justice, China's judicial system urgently needs to be reformed, improved and developed.
In recent years, China has been promoting the reform of the judicial system and its work mechanism vigorously, steadily and pragmatically. Aiming to safeguard judicial justice and focusing on optimizing the allocation of judicial functions and power, enhancing protection of human rights, improving judicial capacity, and practicing the principle of “judicature for the people,” China has been striving to improve its judicial system with Chinese characteristics, expand judicial democracy, promote judicial openness and ensure judicial impartiality. This provides a solid judicial guarantee for China's economic development, social harmony and national stability.
  前言
司法制度是政治制度的重要组成部分,司法公正是社会公正的重要保障。
新中国成立特别是改革开放以来,中国坚持从国情出发,在承继中国传统法律文化优秀成果、借鉴人类法治文明的基础上,探索建立并不断完善中国特色社会主义司法制度,维护了社会公正,为人类法治文明作出了重要贡献。
中国的司法制度总体上与社会主义初级阶段的基本国情相适应,符合人民民主专政的国体和人民代表大会制度的政体。同时,随着改革开放的不断深入特别是社会主义市场经济的发展、依法治国基本方略的全面落实和民众司法需求的日益增长,中国司法制度迫切需要改革、完善和发展。
近些年来,中国积极、稳妥、务实地推进司法体制和工作机制改革,以维护司法公正为目标,以优化司法职权配置、加强人权保障、提高司法能力、践行司法为民为重点,进一步完善中国特色社会主义司法制度,扩大司法民主,推行司法公开,保证司法公正,为中国经济发展和社会和谐稳定提供了有力的司法保障。
I. Judicial System and Reform Process
The founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 ushered in a new era for the building of China's judicial system. The Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, which functioned as a provisional Constitution, and the Organic Law of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, both promulgated in September 1949, laid the cornerstone for legal construction in New China. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China promulgated in 1954, the Organic Law of the People's Courts of the People's Republic of China, the Organic Law of the People's Procuratorates of the People's Republic of China among other laws and regulations, defined the organic system and basic functions of the people's courts and procuratorates, established the systems of collegiate panels, defense, public trial, people's jurors, legal supervision, civil mediation, putting into place the basic framework of China's judicial system.
Toward the end of 1950s, especially during the ten-year tumultuous “cultural revolution” (1966-1976), China's judicial system suffered severe damage. Since the reform and opening-up policies were introduced in 1978, China, after summing up its historical experience, established the fundamental policy of promoting socialist democracy and improving socialist legal construction, restored and rebuilt the judicial system, and formulated and amended a range of fundamental laws. In the 1990s, China established the fundamental principle of governing the country in accordance with the law, and quickened the step to build China into a socialist country under the rule of law. During the process of promoting social progress, democracy and the rule of law, China's judicial system is continuously improving and developing.
  一、司法制度和改革进程
1949年中华人民共和国建立,开启了中国司法制度建设的新纪元。1949年9月颁布的具有临时宪法性质的《中国人民政治协商会议共同纲领》和《中华人民共和国中央人民政府组织法》,奠定了新中国的法制基石。1954年制定的《中华人民共和国宪法》和《中华人民共和国人民法院组织法》、《中华人民共和国人民检察院组织法》等法律、法令,规定了人民法院、人民检察院的组织体系和基本职能,确立了合议制度、辩护制度、公开审判制度、人民陪审员制度、法律监督制度、人民调解制度,形成了中国司法制度的基本体系。
20世纪50年代后期以后,特别是“文化大革命”(1966-1976年)十年动乱期间,中国司法制度一度遭到严重破坏。1978年实行改革开放后,中国总结历史经验教训,确立了发展社会主义民主、健全社会主义法制的基本方针,恢复重建了司法制度,制定和修订了一系列基本法律。20世纪90年代,中国确立了依法治国的基本方略,加快建设社会主义法治国家。伴随着社会进步和民主法治建设进程,中国司法制度不断得到完善和发展。
1. Basic Characteristics of China's Judicial System
China is a socialist country with a people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants. The people's congress system is the organic form of its state power. China's state system and system of government decide that its judicial power comes from the people, belongs to the people and serves the people. The people's courts and the people's procuratorates are created by the people's congresses at various levels, to which they are responsible and by which they are supervised.
The people's court is the basic judicial organ in China. The state has set up the Supreme People's Court, local people's courts at different levels and special people's courts such as military courts. They adjudicate civil, criminal and administrative cases in accordance with the law, and carry out law enforcement activities including the execution of civil and administrative cases and state compensation. The Supreme People's Court supervises the judicial work of all local people's courts and special people's courts. The people's court at a higher level supervises the judicial work of the people's court at the next lower level. In litigious activities, China adopts the systems of public trial, collegiate panels, challenge, people's jurors, defense, and judgment of the second instance as final, among others.
The people's procuratorate is the procuratorial organ in China. The state has set up the Supreme People's Procuratorate, local people's procuratorates at different levels and special people's procuratorates such as military procuratorates. The Supreme People's Procuratorate directs the work of local people's procuratorates at different levels and special people's procuratorates. A people's procuratorate at a higher level directs the work of a people's procuratorate at the next level below it. The people's procuratorate exercises legal supervision over criminal, civil and administrative litigations in accordance with the law.
The people's court and the people's procuratorate exercise their adjudicative power and procuratorial power independently and impartially in accordance with the law. Their exercise of power is subject to the supervision of the National People's Congress, the Chinese People' s Political Consultative Conference and the general public.
The people's courts, the people's procuratorates and the organs of public security handle criminal cases according to their respective functions, and collaborate with and check each other, so as to ensure the accurate and efficient implementation of law. The organs of public security take charge of the investigation, detention, arrest and pretrial in criminal cases; the people's procuratorates conduct procuratorial work, approve proposals for arrest, investigate cases directly accepted by them, and initiate public prosecution; and the people's courts are responsible for conducting trials.
  (一)中国司法制度的基本特点
中国是工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政的社会主义国家。人民代表大会制度是中国的政权组织形式。中国的国体和政体决定了司法权来自人民、属于人民、服务人民。人民法院、人民检察院由各级人民代表大会产生,对它负责,受它监督。
人民法院是国家的审判机关。国家设立最高人民法院、地方各级人民法院和军事法院等专门人民法院,依法审理民事、刑事、行政诉讼案件,开展民事、行政执行和国家赔偿等执法活动。最高人民法院监督地方各级人民法院和专门人民法院的审判工作,上级人民法院监督下级人民法院的审判工作。在诉讼活动中,实行审判公开、合议、回避、人民陪审员、辩护、两审终审等制度。
人民检察院是国家的法律监督机关。国家设立最高人民检察院、地方各级人民检察院和军事检察院等专门人民检察院。最高人民检察院领导地方各级人民检察院和专门人民检察院的工作,上级人民检察院领导下级人民检察院的工作。人民检察院依法对刑事、民事、行政诉讼实行法律监督。
人民法院、人民检察院依法独立公正行使审判权和检察权,行使权力情况接受人大监督,并自觉接受人民政协的民主监督和社会的监督。
人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关办理刑事案件,实行分工负责,互相配合,互相制约,以保证准确有效地执行法律。对刑事案件的侦查、拘留、执行逮捕、预审,由公安机关负责;检察、批准逮捕、检察机关直接受理的案件的侦查、提起公诉,由人民检察院负责;审判由人民法院负责。
2. Objectives, Principles and Process of China's Judicial Reform
Since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policies, China has witnessed rapid economic and social development, and the public's awareness of the importance of the rule of law has been remarkably enhanced. Due to the profound changes in the judicial environment, judicial work in China is facing new situations and problems. The defects and rigidity in China's current judicial system and its work mechanism are becoming increasingly prominent, and they need to be improved gradually through reform.
The fundamental objectives of China's judicial reform are to ensure that the people's courts and people's procuratorates exercise adjudicative power and procuratorial power fairly and independently; to establish an impartial, efficient and authoritative socialist judicial system; and to provide solid and reliable judicial guarantee for safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of the people, social equity and justice, and lasting national stability.
China carries out judicial reform based on its national conditions. It draws on the sound practices of other countries but does not blindly copy them; it keeps pace with the times but does not advance rashly and blindly. It sticks to the line of relying on the people, strives to meet their expectations, tackles problems of particular concern to the people, and subjects itself to their supervision and examination, so as to ensure the reform is for the people, relies on the people and benefits the people. It pushes forward the reform in accordance with the law, abiding by the Constitution and other laws and regulations, while those measures that contravene the laws in force should only be implemented after the laws are revised. It adheres to the principle of overall planning and coordination, comprehensive designing, and proceeding in an orderly and gradual way.
As early as in the 1980s, China started reforms in court trials and ensuring professionalism in judicature, focusing on enhancing the function of court trials, expanding the openness of trials, improving attorney defense functions, and training professional judges and procurators.
In 2004, China launched large-scale judicial reforms based on overall planning, deployment and implementation. Starting with issues that caused complaints from the public and the key links that hamper judicial justice, according to the demands of promoting judicial impartiality and strict enforcement of the law, and proceeding from the regular pattern and characteristics of judicial practice, China improved the structure of its judicial organs, division of judicial functions and system of judicial management, to establish a judicial system featuring clearly defined power and responsibilities, mutual collaboration and restraint, and highly efficient operation. Thereby, China's judicial reform entered a phase of overall planning and advancing in an orderly way.
Since 2008, China has initiated a new round of judicial reform, and entered a stage of deepening in key areas and overall advancement. The reform proceeds from the demands of the public for justice, with safeguarding the people's common interests as its fundamental task, promoting social harmony as the main principle and strengthening supervision and restraint of power as priority. China aims to tackle problems in the key links that hamper judicial justice and restrain judicial capability, remove existing barriers in the institutional setup and operational mechanism as well as provision of legal guarantee, and put forward the specific tasks for judicial reform in four aspects - optimizing the allocation of judicial functions and power, implementing the policy of balancing leniency and severity, building up the ranks of judicial workers, and ensuring judicial funding. Currently, the tasks of this round of judicial reform have been basically completed, as relevant laws have been amended and improved. As China is making continuous progress in economic and social development, its judicial reform is bound to advance further.
  (二)中国司法改革的目标、原则和进程
改革开放以来,中国经济社会快速发展,社会公众的法治意识显著增强,司法环境发生深刻变化,司法工作遇到许多新情况、新问题,现行司法体制和工作机制中存在的不完善、不适应问题日益凸显,需要在改革中逐步完善和发展。
中国司法改革的根本目标是保障人民法院、人民检察院依法独立公正地行使审判权和检察权,建设公正高效权威的社会主义司法制度,为维护人民群众合法权益、维护社会公平正义、维护国家长治久安提供坚强可靠的司法保障。
中国司法改革始终坚持从国情出发,既博采众长、又不照抄照搬,既与时俱进、又不盲目冒进;坚持群众路线,充分体现人民的意愿,着眼于解决民众不满意的问题,自觉接受人民的监督和检验,真正做到改革为了人民、依靠人民、惠及人民;坚持依法推进,以宪法和法律规定为依据,凡是与现行法律相冲突的,应在修改法律后实施;坚持统筹协调、总体规划、循序渐进、分步推进。
早在20世纪80年代,中国就开始了以强化庭审功能、扩大审判公开、加强律师辩护、建设职业化法官和检察官队伍等为重点内容的审判方式改革和司法职业化改革。
从2004年开始,中国启动了统一规划部署和组织实施的大规模司法改革,从民众反映强烈的突出问题和影响司法公正的关键环节入手,按照公正司法和严格执法的要求,从司法规律和特点出发,完善司法机关的机构设置、职权划分和管理制度,健全权责明确、相互配合、相互制约、高效运行的司法体制。中国司法改革走向整体统筹、有序推进的阶段。
从2008年开始,中国启动了新一轮司法改革,司法改革进入重点深化、系统推进的新阶段。改革从民众司法需求出发,以维护人民共同利益为根本,以促进社会和谐为主线,以加强权力监督制约为重点,抓住影响司法公正、制约司法能力的关键环节,解决体制性、机制性、保障性障碍,从优化司法职权配置、落实宽严相济刑事政策、加强司法队伍建设、加强司法经费保障等四个方面提出具体改革任务。目前,本轮司法改革的任务已基本完成,并体现在修订完善的相关法律中。随着中国经济社会的不断进步与发展,中国司法改革也将进一步深入推进。
II. Maintaining Social Fairness and Justice
Maintaining social fairness and justice is the value to be enforced in China's judicial reform. China aims its judicial reform at strengthening its judicial organs' capability in maintaining social justice by optimizing the structure of the judicial organs and allocation of their functions and power, standardizing judicial acts, improving judicial proceedings, and enhancing judicial democracy and legal supervision.
  二、维护社会公平正义
维护社会公平正义,是司法改革的价值取向。中国从完善司法机构设置和职权配置、规范司法行为、完善诉讼程序、强化司法民主和法律监督方面进行改革,努力提高司法机关维护社会公平正义的能力。
1. Optimizing the Allocation of Judicial Functions and Power
The rationalization and optimization of judicial functions and power has a direct bearing on the materialization of justice. China, starting from removing the institutional barriers that affect judicial impartiality, has enhanced internal checks in judicial organs, clarified the work relationship between the people's courts and the people's procuratorates at different levels, standardized and improved retrial procedures, and established consistent law-enforcement system and judicial authentication management system. These reforms have improved judicial organs' capacity for maintaining fairness, helped to safeguard social equity and justice, and fulfilled the public's new expectations and demands for the judicial system in maintaining justice.
Separation of filing, trial and execution of cases. The people's courts at all levels have established case-filing tribunals, execution bureaus and other departments in addition to the original criminal, civil and administrative adjudication tribunals. Case-filing, trial and execution are handled separately by different offices, which act independently and exercise a mutual-check function to ensure the fair exercise of adjudicative and execution power.
Standardizing the retrial of remanded cases and designated cases. To correct the irregular practices in the procedures regarding retrial of remanded cases and designated cases, the Civil Procedure Law amended in 2012 revised and improved the procedure for the retrial of remanded cases. The new provisions clearly state that after the original people's court makes its ruling in the retrial of a remanded case, if the litigant makes an appeal, the people's court of second instance shall not send the case back for a retrial. The Criminal Procedure Law, amended in 2012, articulates that a criminal case designated for retrial by a lower-level people's court shall be tried by one other than the original court in principle.
Regularizing and improving a unified execution mechanism for civil and administrative cases. Full and effective execution of a judgment or verdict given by the court bears on effective protection of the lawful rights of all parties involved and the expression of judicial authority. In recent years, local people's courts have established a mechanism of execution that works closely with departments in charge of public security, procuratorial work, finance, land resources, construction, business and commerce, as well as exit-entry administration. The people's courts exercise separation of jurisdiction from execution. The higher and intermediate people's courts have established execution command centers for unified management and coordination of execution, and, when necessary, can have their power elevated or allow them to carry out the execution beyond the prescribed region. The reform of the execution system has further strengthened the internal checks on the exercise of execution power, promoted impartial and standardized execution, and effectively protected the legitimate rights of the parties concerned.
Reforming the procedures for examining and approving arrests in power-abuse cases. To prevent arrests by mistake, China has reformed the procedure for examining and approving arrests in power-abuse cases. For power-abuse cases filed with and investigated by a people's procuratorate below the provincial level, the approval for an arrest shall be examined and determined by the people's procuratorate at the next higher level. This reform has strengthened the supervision of a people's procuratorate at a higher level over one at a lower level on law enforcement.
Improving the system of judicial authentication management. Judicial authentication refers to the activity of an authenticator applying scientific technology or specialized knowledge to identify and determine the specialized issues involved in a lawsuit and giving authentication opinions. Before the judicial reform, the judicial authentication system in China had problems as legislation was incomplete, management was not standardized and standards were not consistent. To solve these problems, China's legislative organ promulgated the Decision on the Management of Judicial Authentication in 2005, thereby establishing a uniform management and registration system for judicial authentication. The judicial administrative departments of the State Council take charge of the registration and management of judicial authenticators and judicial authentication institutions in China, while the judicial administrative departments of the people's governments at the provincial level are responsible for the registration upon examination, roster formulation and roster announcement of judicial authenticators and judicial authentication institutions. The people's courts and judicial administrative departments do not have judicial authentication institutions any longer; judicial authentication institutions already set up by investigation organs to meet the needs of their work will not provide judicial authentication services to the public. The state promotes a mechanism that combines administrative management with trade associations' self-disciplinary management, and adopts the system of judicial authenticators' independent practice in accordance with the law, which ensures that judicial authentication is standardized and neutral. By the end of 2011, there were 5,014 judicial authentication institutions and 52,812 judicial authenticators approved and registered in China.
  (一)优化司法职权配置
司法职权配置的合理与优化,直接关系到司法公正的实现。中国从解决影响司法公正的体制性障碍出发,加强司法机关内部机构制约,理顺上下级法院、检察院的审判、检察业务关系,规范完善再审程序,建立统一的执行工作体制和司法鉴定管理体制。这些改革提高了司法机关公正司法的能力,有助于维护社会公平正义,满足民众对司法公正的新期待、新要求。
法院实行立案、审判、执行分立。各级人民法院在原有的刑事审判庭、民事审判庭、行政审判庭的基础上增设立案庭、执行局等机构,立案、审判和执行分别由不同的机构负责,强化内设机构职权行使的相互制约,促进了审判权、执行权的公正行使。
规范发回重审和指定再审。为解决司法实践中发回重审、指令再审程序中存在的不规范问题,2012年修改的民事诉讼法明确规定,原审人民法院对发回重审的案件作出判决后,当事人提起上诉的,第二审人民法院不得再次发回重审。2012年修改的刑事诉讼法规定,指令下级法院再审的刑事案件,原则上由原审法院以外的其他法院审理。
规范完善统一的民事、行政案件执行工作体制。法院生效判决和裁定的充分有效执行,事关当事人合法权益的切实保障和司法权威。近年来,各地法院普遍建立了与公安、检察、金融、国土、建设、工商、出入境管理等部门密切配合的执行联动机制。法院实行执行裁决权与执行实施权分立。高级、中级人民法院建立执行指挥中心,统一管理和协调执行工作,必要时实行提级、跨区执行。执行体制改革进一步加强了执行权运行的内部制约,提高了执行工作的公正和规范化水平,有效保护了当事人合法权益。
改革职务犯罪案件审查逮捕程序。为有效防止错误逮捕,中国对职务犯罪案件审查逮捕程序进行了改革,省级以下人民检察院立案侦查的职务犯罪案件,需要逮捕犯罪嫌疑人的,由上一级人民检察院审查决定。这项改革加强了上级人民检察院对下级人民检察院执法办案工作的监督。
完善司法鉴定管理体制。司法鉴定是在诉讼活动中鉴定人运用科学技术或者专门知识,对诉讼涉及的专门性问题进行鉴别和判断,并提供鉴定意见的活动。改革前,中国的司法鉴定制度存在着立法不完善、管理不规范、标准不统一等现象。为解决这些问题,2005年中国的立法机关颁布实施《关于司法鉴定管理问题的决定》,确立统一的司法鉴定管理体制,实行统一的登记管理制度。国务院司法行政部门主管全国的鉴定人和鉴定机构登记管理工作,省级人民政府司法行政部门负责鉴定人和鉴定机构的审核登记、名册编制和公告。人民法院和司法行政部门不再设立司法鉴定机构;侦查机关根据侦查工作需要设立的鉴定机构,不再面向社会接受委托从事司法鉴定服务。推行行政管理与行业协会自律管理相结合的管理机制,实施司法鉴定人依法独立执业制度,提高了鉴定的规范性和中立性。截至2011年底,中国经审核登记的司法鉴定机构有5014家,司法鉴定人52812名。
2. Standardizing Judicial Acts
Social fairness and justice shall be ensured in the trial of every case and in each judicial act. Due to the country's unbalanced economic and social development, different law-enforcement capabilities of judicial personnel and remnants of local protectionism, there are still problems like non-transparent exercise of judicial discretion and non-standardized judicial acts. In recent years, China's judicial organs have vigorously pushed forward the standardization of penalties, established the case guidance system, and enhanced case management, all of which have promoted standardization of judicial acts.
Standardizing penalties. To regulate acts in giving out a sentence, the Supreme People's Court, by summarizing pilot experiences, has formulated the Guiding Opinions on Sentencing by the People's Courts (Trial Implementation) and Opinions on Several Issues Concerning the Regulation of Sentencing Procedures (Trial Implementation)。 Both documents clarify the sentencing processes, subdivide the range of statutory sentencing and clarify the quantification standards for different circumstances when giving out a sentence. For cases of public prosecution, the people's procuratorate provides suggestions on sentencing in accordance with the law, while the litigant, the defender and the procurator may give opinions on the penalty. Comparatively independent sentencing procedures have been established for court trials, so as to facilitate investigations and debates over the facts and evidence concerning conviction and sentencing in a case. The people's courts should explain the reasons for sentencing in their documents of criminal judgment. These reforms have further standardized sentencing jurisdiction, and maintained transparency and impartiality of sentencing.
Establishing the case guidance system. In 2010, China's judicial organs issued regulations on building a case guidance system, marking the establishment of a case guidance system with Chinese characteristics. Different from the system of case judgment in the common law, China's case guidance system - under the statutory law - uses cases to give directions for the accurate understanding and appropriate application of the provisions of laws. In recent years, judicial organs have made public cases that are typical in the application of laws as guiding cases and references for judicial personnel at all levels to settle similar cases. The case guidance system has improved the standardized exercise of judicial discretion, and enhanced uniformity in the application of the law.
Enhancing case management. The people's courts and people's procuratorates have set up special case management institutions to improve the management of case-handling procedures and quality. By the end of May, 2012, nearly 1,400 people's courts had set up special trial management institutions, and nearly 1,600 people's procuratorates had set up special case management institutions. Public security organs have arranged for full-time/part-time legal personnel at the basic-level law enforcement organs to supervise and examine the process of case handling. Judicial organs have widely established information platforms for case management, which have realized online case handling, supervision and appraisal, and improved the level of standardized case handling.
  (二)规范司法行为
社会公平正义的维护应当落实到每一起案件的办理过程中,体现在每一个司法行为上。由于中国经济社会发展不平衡、司法人员司法能力存在差异、地方保护主义观念尚未根除等原因,司法裁量权的行使不透明、司法行为不规范等现象依然存在。近年来,中国司法机关积极推进量刑规范化改革,建立案例指导制度,加强案件管理,有力促进了司法行为的规范化。
推进量刑规范化改革。为了规范量刑活动,中国最高人民法院在总结试点经验的基础上,制定了《人民法院量刑指导意见(试行)》和《关于规范量刑程序若干问题的意见(试行)》。明确量刑步骤,细分法定刑幅度,明确量刑情节的量化标准。对于公诉案件,人民检察院依法提出量刑建议,当事人和辩护人、诉讼代理人可以提出量刑意见。在法庭审理中,建立相对独立的量刑程序,对与定罪、量刑有关的事实、证据进行调查、辩论。人民法院在刑事裁判文书中说明量刑理由。这些改革进一步规范了量刑裁判权,保障了量刑活动的公开与公正。
建立案例指导制度。2010年,中国的司法机关出台了案例指导制度的相关规定,标志着中国特色的案例指导制度得以确立。与英美法系的判例制度不同,中国的案例指导制度是在以成文法为主的法律体系下,运用案例对法律规定的准确理解和适用进行指导的一种制度。近年来,中国司法机关选择法律适用问题比较典型的案例作为指导性案例予以发布,供各级司法人员处理类似案件时参照。案例指导制度促进了司法自由裁量权的规范行使,加强了法律适用的统一性。
加强对案件办理的管理。人民法院、人民检察院分别成立专门的案件管理机构,加强办案流程管理和质量管理。截至2012年5月,全国共有近1400家法院设立了专门的审判管理机构,近1600家检察院设立了专门的案件管理机构。公安机关在基层执法机构普遍配备专(兼)职法制员,对案件办理情况进行监督和检查。司法机关普遍建立了案件管理信息化平台,实行网上办案、监督和考核,提升了案件办理的规范化水平。
3. Expanding Judicial Openness
In view of multiple social conflicts, large numbers of cases, and newly emerging problems and situations, China's judicial organs, while building up their judicial capacity, are comprehensively promoting judicial openness, so as to ensure that judicial power is exercised openly, fairly and impartially under the supervision of all the people.
Expanding the items and content of judicial openness. People's courts extend judicial openness in court trial to all other processes such as case-filing, execution, hearing, issue of documents, and jurisdiction affairs. The people's procuratorates make fully public case-handling procedures, case review procedures, litigation participators' rights, interests and obligations, and results of legal supervision in accordance with the law. Public security and judicial administration organs make known to the public their main functions and responsibilities, the basis, procedures and results of law enforcement, and discipline in the case of police affairs.
Diversifying the forms and carriers of judicial information disclosure. The form of judicial openness has been changed from separate information release by each judicial department to unified information disclosure through a designated information service platform. The carriers of judicial information disclosure have been extended from the traditional public notice boards, newspapers, periodicals and pamphlets, to websites, blogs, microblogs, instant communication tools, and other newly emerging online media. A press spokesman news briefing mechanism has been established and improved for timely judicial information release.
Enhancing the effectiveness of and guarantee for judicial openness. The reasoning and argumentation of all documents in relation to judgments, procuratorial work and public security affairs will be strengthened. Ordinary people and experts are invited to attend hearings and arguments. Email boxes are opened as a means of communication with the people and hotlines of the same number across the country are created for people to report offences. There are designated days when heads of judicial departments meet with visitors. The state has strengthened the manpower and material guarantees for judicial openness. All these measures have ensured that judicial openness advances in an orderly way and achieves positive results.
  (三)扩大司法公开
面对社会矛盾多发、案件数量大、新情况新问题层出不穷的状况,中国司法机关在加强自身建设的同时,全面推进司法公开,让司法权力在阳光下运行,在社会各界的有效监督下公开、公平、公正地行使。
扩大公开的事项和内容。人民法院将审判公开延伸到立案、庭审、执行、听证、文书、审务等各个方面。人民检察院依法充分公开办案程序、复查案件工作规程、诉讼参与人在各诉讼阶段的权利和义务、法律监督结果。公安机关、司法行政机关将主要职责、执法依据、执法程序、执法结果及警务工作纪律等向社会广泛公开。
丰富公开的形式和载体。司法公开从各部门分散发布,转变为统一的信息服务窗口集中发布。公开载体从传统的公示栏、报刊、宣传册等,拓展到网站、博客、微博客、即时通讯工具等网络新兴媒介。建立健全新闻发言人和新闻发布例会制度,及时发布司法信息。
强化公开的效果和保障。加强裁判和检察、公安业务文书的说理和论证,邀请民众、专家参与公开听证、论证过程,开通民意沟通电子邮箱,设立全国统一的举报电话,建立部门负责人接待日,加强司法公开的人力物力保障,确保了司法公开的有序推进和良好效果。
4. Enhancing Judicial Democracy
The people's courts as the judicial organs and the people's procuratorates as the legal supervisory organs also need to promote democracy to ensure judicial impartiality. China is striving to establish and improve the systems of people's jurors and people's supervisors. This provides a significant guarantee for developing socialist democratic politics, and realizing the people's participation in the administration of state affairs in accordance with the law.
Improving the system of people's jurors. The system of people's jurors is a major way for the public to directly participate in and supervise judicial work. In 2004, China's legislative organ promulgated the Decision on Improving the System of People's Jurors. The state has expanded the sources of people's jurors to all walks of life, and determine the people's jurors for cases by random selection from the rosters. In a collegiate panel, people's jurors have the same power as the judges, except that they cannot serve as chief judges, and exercise the right to vote independently for the findings of fact and the application of law. The people's courts at all levels have held training sessions for people's jurors, mainly focusing on judicial procedure, professional skills and awareness of the rule of law, so as to improve their capability to perform their duties.
......
  (四)加强司法民主
作为审判机关的人民法院和法律监督机关的人民检察院,同样需要发扬民主,确保公正司法。中国积极建立和完善人民陪审员制度和人民监督员制度,为发展社会主义民主政治、实现人民群众依法参与国家事务管理提供了重要保障。
完善人民陪审员制度。人民陪审员制度是社会公众依法直接参与和监督司法的重要方式。2004年中国的立法机关颁布了《关于完善人民陪审员制度的决定》,拓宽人民陪审员的选任来源,从社会各阶层、各领域广泛选任,采用在名册中随机抽取的方式确定参审案件的人民陪审员。人民陪审员除在合议庭中不得担任审判长外,同法官享有同等权力,对事实认定、法律适用独立行使表决权。各级法院还围绕陪审职责开展以审判程序、职业技能、法治理念等为主要内容的培训,提高人民陪审员履职能力。
表1 2006 - 2011年人民陪审员参审案件情况

年度

人民陪审员参审 案件量(件)

人民陪审员参审案件占一审普通程序案件的比例(%)

2006

339965

19. 73

2007

377040

19.31

2008

505412

22. 48

2009

632006

26.51

2010

912177

38. 42

2011

1116428

46. 50


......




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