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China-Africa Economic and Trade Cooperation (2013)
中国与非洲的经贸合作(2013)
【法宝引证码】
 
  

China-Africa Economic and Trade Cooperation (2013)

 

中国与非洲的经贸合作(2013)

(August 2013, Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China) (2013年8月 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室)
Contents 目录
Foreword 前言
I. Promoting Sustainable Development of Trade 一、推动贸易可持续发展
II. Improving the Level of Investment and Financing Cooperation 二、提升投融资合作层次
III. Strengthening Cooperation in Agriculture and Food Security 三、加强农业与粮食安全合作
IV. Supporting African Infrastructure Construction 四、支持非洲基础设施建设
V. Stressing African People's Livelihoods and Capacity Building 五、注重非洲民生与能力发展
VI. Promoting Cooperation under the Multilateral Framework 六、促进多边框架下的合作
Conclusion 结束语
Appendix I 附录1 中非合作论坛第四届部长级会议经贸举措落实情况
Appendix II 附录2 中非合作论坛第五届部长级会议中国政府宣布的未来三年中非重点合作领域
Foreword 前言
Currently, as the international situation undergoes profound and intricate changes, newly emerging and developing economies have become the major force pushing forward the world's economic development. In tune with the changes in the international environment, China and African countries are, within the framework of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), continuing to deepen the new type of China-Africa strategic partnership, vigorously advancing economic and trade cooperation, and actively exploring a common path that reflects both China's and Africa's realities. 当前,国际形势发生深刻复杂变化,新兴和发展中经济体成为推动世界经济发展的重要力量。中国与非洲国家顺应形势变化,在中非合作论坛框架内不断深化中非新型战略伙伴关系,大力推动经贸合作,积极探索符合中非实际的共同发展之路。
China has become Africa's largest trade partner, and Africa is now China's major import source, second largest overseas construction project contract market and fourth largest investment destination. China-Africa economic and trade development has improved people's livelihoods and diversified economic development in African countries, provided strong support for China's socio-economic development, and contributed to promoting South-South cooperation and balanced world economic development. 目前中国已成为非洲最大贸易伙伴国,非洲成为中国重要的进口来源地、第二大海外工程承包市场和第四大投资目的地。中非经贸合作的发展,促进了非洲国家民生的改善和经济的多元化发展,为中国经济社会发展提供了有力支持,也为促进南南合作与世界经济的平衡发展作出了积极贡献。
Through the common efforts of China and Africa, bilateral economic and trade cooperation now enjoys a consolidated foundation and improved mechanisms, with new common interests and growth points in cooperation constantly emerging. In March 2013, China's President Xi Jinping visited Africa and announced a series of new measures to support Africa's development, providing a powerful impetus for the advancement of China-Africa economic and trade relations. 通过中非双方共同努力,中非经贸合作基础更加坚实、机制更加完善,不断涌现新的合作契合点和增长点。特别是2013年3月,中国国家主席习近平访问非洲,宣布一系列支持非洲发展的新举措,为推动中非经贸关系迈上新台阶注入了强大动力。
In 2010, the Chinese government published a white paper on China-Africa economic and trade cooperation. This latest white paper provides a further introduction to the progress of bilateral economic and trade cooperation in recent years. 2010年,中国政府发布了白皮书,介绍了中非经贸合作的有关情况。这里,就近些年来中非经贸合作取得的进展再作一介绍。
I. Promoting Sustainable Development of Trade  一、推动贸易可持续发展
Against the background of sluggish global economic recovery in recent years, China-Africa trade development has maintained comparatively rapid momentum. In 2009, China became Africa's No. 1 trade partner. In the following two years, the scale of China-Africa trade expanded rapidly. In 2012, the total volume of China-Africa trade reached US$198.49 billion, a year-on-year growth of 19.3%. Of this, US$85.319 billion consisted of China's exports to Africa, up 16.7%, and US$113.171 billion was contributed by China's imports from Africa, up 21.4%. Total China-Africa trade volume, China's export volume to Africa and China's import volume from Africa all reached new highs. 近年来,在全球经济复苏乏力的背景下,中非贸易仍然持续了较快发展的态势。2009年,中国成为非洲第一大贸易伙伴国。此后两年多时间里,中非贸易规模迅速扩大。2012年,中国与非洲贸易总额达到1984.9亿美元,同比增长19.3%。其中,中国对非洲出口额853.19亿美元,增长16.7%;自非洲进口额1131.71亿美元,增长21.4%。中非贸易总额、中国对非洲出口总额,以及自非洲进口总额均创历史新高。
Figure 1: China-Africa Trade Volume (2000 - 2012) (Omitted) 图表:图1:2000-2012年中国与非洲贸易情况(略)
Xinhua/Ma Yan, Editor 新华社记者 马研 编制
As the volume of China-Africa trade continues to grow, its proportion to China's and Africa's respective total foreign trade volume has also increased. From 2000 to 2012, the proportion of China-Africa trade volume as a part of China's total foreign trade volume increased from 2.23% to 5.13%: the proportion consisting of China's imports from Africa up from 2.47% to 6.23%, and that of China's exports to Africa from 2.02% to 4.16%. On the African side, the changes are even more remarkable. From 2000 to 2012, the proportion of China-Africa trade volume as a part of Africa's total foreign trade volume increased from 3.82% to 16.13%: the proportion contributed by Africa's exports to China up from 3.76% to 18.07%, and that by Africa's imports from China from 3.88% to 14.11%. 随着中非贸易额的不断增长,中非贸易占中国和非洲对外贸易的比重有所上升。2000-2012年,中非贸易占中国对外贸易总额的比重,从2.23%增加到5.13%。其中,中国自非洲进口占比从2.47%增加到6.23%,出口非洲的占比从2.02%增加到4.16%。从非洲角度看,中非贸易占非洲对外贸易的比重,呈现出更为明显的上升趋势。2000-2012年,中非贸易占非洲对外贸易总额的比重从3.82%增加到16.13%。其中,非洲对中国出口的商品占比由3.76%上升到18.07%,从中国进口商品占比从3.88%上升到14.11%,增长迅速。
Chinese products exported to Africa are generally of fine quality and well-priced, and fulfill the consumption demands of all social strata in Africa. With the scale of trade expanded, the structure of China-Africa trade has been improved step by step. As the consumption capacity of the African market continues to expand, the amount of technical products that China exports to Africa has increased remarkably. In 2012, the proportion of mechanical and electrical products as a part of China's total commodity exports to Africa reached 45.9%. In order to guarantee the quality of products exported to Africa, from December 2010 to March 2011, the Chinese side took special steps to crack down on the potential export to Africa of counterfeit and shoddy products and commodities that violated intellectual property rights. This involved multiple measures, such as prior-to-shipment quality examinations for industrial products that were to be exported to Africa. These measures helped guarantee the quality of Chinese commodities exported to Africa. 中国对非出口产品总体上质量优、价格好,满足了非洲各阶层民众的消费需求。在规模扩大的同时,中非贸易结构逐步得以优化。随着非洲市场消费能力的不断提高,中国对非洲出口产品的技术含量明显增加。2012年,机电产品占中国对非洲出口商品的比重已达到45.9%。为进一步提升对非洲出口商品的质量,从2010年12月到2011年3月,中方开展了打击对非洲出口假冒伪劣和侵犯知识产权商品专项治理行动,采取输非工业品装运前检验等多项措施,中国对非出口商品质量得以明显提高。
Over the past three years, China's import volume from Africa has increased notably, as the trade volume and quantity of bulk commodities, like crude oil and agricultural products, keep rising. Through China-Africa trade, Africa's exporters have obtained access to a stable market, higher pricing and greater benefits. In the meantime, China has vigorously expanded its imports from Africa by enacting tariff exemptions and setting up exhibition centers for African products. Since January 2012, the 30 least developed African countries that have established diplomatic relations with China have been granted zero-tariff treatment for 60% of their exported items. By the end of 2012, 22 of them had seen 910 million yuan worth of tariff exempted, involving US$1.49 billion-worth of goods. In May 2011, an African Products Exhibition Center opened in Yiwu City, Zhejiang Province. By reducing operation expenditures and other supportive policies, the Exhibition Center has attracted over 2,000 salable commodity items from more than 20 African countries. 过去三年,中国自非进口金额不断增长,原油、农产品等大宗商品贸易金额、数量都快速增长。通过中非贸易,非洲出口产品获得稳定市场,提升了价格,获得了更大实惠。同时,中国通过免关税、设立非洲产品展销中心等措施,积极扩大从非洲进口。自2012年1月起,与中国建交的30个非洲最不发达国家全部可以享受60%的输华商品零关税待遇措施。截至2012年底,有22个非洲受惠国累计受惠货值达到14.9亿美元,关税税款优惠9.1亿元人民币。2011年5月,中国设立的非洲产品展销中心在浙江省义乌市正式开业。通过减免运营费用等扶持政策,展销中心已吸引非洲20多个国家的2000余种商品入驻销售。
Sino-African bilateral trade has great potential due to the complementary conditions on both sides, and is significant for the economic development of both China and Africa. China will take multiple measures to promote the healthy development of China-Africa trade. These include implementing the "Special Plan on Trade with Africa," which will expand the scope of zero tariff treatment for African products exported to China and increase China's imports from Africa, and improving the brand building, marketing channels and quality of China's commodities exported to Africa. In addition, China will help African countries improve their customs and commodity inspection facilities by mobilizing aid for trade, provide support for African countries to promote trade facilitation, and push forward trade development within Africa. 中非贸易互补性强、潜力巨大,对中非双方的经济发展具有重要意义。中国将继续采取一系列措施促进中非贸易的健康发展,主要包括:实施“对非贸易专项计划”,扩大非洲输华产品零关税待遇的受惠范围,扩大非洲产品的进口;加强对非出口产品品牌和营销渠道建设,促进对非出口产品质量提升。另外,中国将通过提供促贸援助,帮助非洲国家改善海关、商检设施条件,为非洲国家提高贸易便利化水平提供支持,推动非洲区内贸易的发展。
II. Improving the Level of Investment and Financing Cooperation  二、提升投融资合作层次
A poor economic foundation and insufficient construction funds have always been factors limiting the development of African countries. The Chinese government encourages and supports enterprises and financial institutions to increase investment in Africa, striving to improve the quality and level of China-Africa cooperation. 经济基础薄弱、建设资金匮乏一直是非洲国家发展的主要瓶颈。中国政府鼓励、支持企业和金融机构扩大对非投资,努力提升中非合作的质量和水平。
Since 2009, Africa has seen a decrease of foreign direct investment, but an accelerated growth of direct investment from China during this same period. From 2009 to 2012, China's direct investment in Africa increased from US$1.44 billion to US$2.52 billion, with an annual growth rate of 20.5%. Over the same period, China's accumulative direct investment in Africa increased from US$9.33 billion to US$21.23 billion, 2.3 times the 2009 figure. The rapid growth of China's direct investment in Africa is indicative of Africa's development potential and investment appeal, and also points to the mutually beneficial nature of China-Africa cooperation. 2009年以来,非洲地区吸收外国直接投资连续下滑,但中国对非直接投资快速增加。据统计,2009-2012年,中国对非直接投资流量由14.4亿美元增至25.2亿美元,年均增长20.5%,存量由93.3亿美元增至212.3亿美元,增长1.3倍。中国对非投资的快速增长,一方面说明非洲的发展潜力和投资吸引力,另一方面也体现出中非合作的互补性。
While increasing aggregate investment, China is also improving the level of its investment in Africa. Currently, over 2,000 Chinese enterprises are investing and developing in more than 50 African countries and regions, and cooperation fields have expanded from agriculture, mining and building industry to intensive processing of resource products, industrial manufacturing, finance, commercial logistics and real estate. 在投资总量扩大的同时,中国对非投资层次也不断提升。目前,有超过2000家的中国企业在非洲50多个国家和地区投资兴业,合作领域从传统的农业、采矿、建筑等,逐步拓展到资源产品深加工、工业制造、金融、商贸物流、地产等。
Figure 2: Distribution of China's Direct Investment in Africa (by the End of 2011) (Omitted) 图表:图2:截至2011年底中国对非直接投资分布图(略)
Xinhua/Ma Yan, Editor   新华社记者 马研 编制
In recent years, China has improved its mechanisms for investment in Africa. By the end of 2012, China had signed bilateral investment treaties (BIT) with 32 African countries, and established joint economic commission mechanisms with 45 African countries. The China-Africa Development Fund, established as one of the eight pledges China made at the FOCAC Beijing Summit, had by the end of 2012 agreed to invest US$2.385 billion in 61 projects in 30 African countries, and had already invested US$1.806 billion for 53 projects. According to preliminary statistics, the agreed upon investment projects will bring US$10 billion worth of investment to Africa, increase local exports by about US$2 billion annually, and benefit more than 700,000 people. China's financial institutions have actively expanded financing support for Africa. At the Fourth FOCAC Ministerial Conference in 2009, China announced the establishment of "a special loan for small and medium-sized African businesses." By the end of 2012, the special loan service had promised to offer loans totaling US$1.213 billion, with contract value of US$1.028 billion and loans granted worth US$666 million, providing strong support for the development of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, processing and manufacturing, trade and logistics, and other industries closely associated with people's livelihoods in Africa. 近年来,中国对非投资机制不断完善。截至2012年底,中国已与32个非洲国家签署双边投资保护协定,与45个国家建立经贸联委会机制。作为中非合作论坛北京峰会推出的八项举措之一,截至2012年底,中非发展基金在非洲30个国家投资61个项目,决策投资额23.85亿美元,并已对53个项目实际投资18.06亿美元。初步统计,决策投资项目全部实施后,可带动对非投资超过100亿美元,每年增加非洲当地出口约20亿美元、超过70万人从中受益。中国金融机构通过多种手段,积极扩大对非融资支持。2009年中非合作论坛第四届部长级会议上,中国宣布设立“非洲中小企业发展专项贷款”。截至2012年底,专项贷款累计承诺贷款12.13亿美元,已签合同金额10.28亿美元,发放贷款6.66亿美元,有力支持了农林牧渔、加工制造、贸易流通等与非洲民生密切相关行业的发展。
Energy and mineral resource exploitation is the major impetus for the economic booms of many African countries. In this area, Chinese enterprises have helped African countries establish an upstream-downstream-integrated industry chain, transforming resource advantages into economic growth opportunities, and actively participated in local public welfare infrastructure construction. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Chinese enterprises have built highways, hospitals and other public infrastructure while extracting copper-cobalt ores. In the Republic of South Africa, Chinese mineral exploitation and processing enterprises have set up endowment funds to sponsor medical care, poverty reduction and education in local areas, and built advanced water treatment facilities. Chinese enterprises have sponsored the "Brightness Action" and organized first-rate ophthalmologists to perform cataract extraction surgeries for 623 patients in Zimbabwe and Zambia. 能矿资源开发是非洲国家经济起飞和发展的重要动力。在这一领域,中国企业帮助非洲国家建立和发展上下游一体化的产业链,把资源优势转化为经济发展优势,并积极参与项目所在地的公共福利设施建设。在刚果(金),中国企业在开发铜钴矿的同时,建设了包括公路、医院在内的多个公共项目。在南非,进行矿产开发和加工的中国公司设立捐赠基金,赞助矿区医疗、减贫和教育事业,并建成先进的水处理设施。中国企业还捐资开展中非“光明行”活动,组织中国一流的眼科医生赴津巴布韦、赞比亚,为623名患者实施白内障复明手术。
Manufacturing is China's key investment field in Africa. From 2009 to 2012, Chinese enterprises' direct investment volume in Africa's manufacturing sector totaled US$1.33 billion. By the end of 2012, China's investment in Africa's manufacturing industry had reached US$3.43 billion. Mali, Ethiopia and other resource-poor countries have also attracted a large amount of Chinese investment. Chinese enterprises have invested in sugar refineries in Mali, set up glass, fur, medical capsule and automobile factories in Ethiopia, and invested in textile and steel pipe manufacturing projects in Uganda. All of these investments have compensated for these countries' unfavorable natural conditions and resources, increased their tax revenues and employment, and extended the value adding chain of "made in Africa" products. 制造业是中国对非投资的重点领域。2009-2012年,中国企业对非制造业直接投资额合计达13.3亿美元,2012年底,在非制造业投资存量达34.3亿美元。其中,马里、埃塞俄比亚等资源贫瘠国吸引了大量中国投资。中国企业在马里投资糖厂,在埃塞俄比亚建立玻璃、皮革、药用胶囊和汽车生产企业,在乌干达投资纺织和钢管生产项目等,弥补了所在国自然条件、资源禀赋的不足,创造了大量税收和就业,延长了“非洲制造”的增值链。中国企业的投资给非洲社会发展带来了全方位的变化。如在津巴布韦,投资经济作物种植的中国企业向当地农户提供无息贷款,改善生产基础设施条件,进行生产全程技术指导,组织当地员工赴华访问,资助当地建设学校、孤儿院,促进了中国企业与当地的良性互动和共同发展。
Chinese enterprises' investments have brought about changes to all dimensions of Africa's social development. For example, those that invest in cash crop cultivation in Zimbabwe have provided interest-free loans to local farmer households, improved production infrastructure, offered technical guidance for the whole production process, organized local employees to visit China, and funded local schools and orphanages. These have promoted the positive interaction and common development of Chinese enterprises and local society. 服务业具有无污染、低能耗的特点,是近年来中非投资合作的新亮点,中国企业在金融、商贸、科技服务、电力供应等领域均进行了投资。截至2012年底,中国对非洲金融业直接投资存量已达38.7亿美元,占全部对非投资的17.8%,一定程度上弥补了当地企业建设发展资金的不足。在商贸领域,中国企业与当地公司合作开发的安哥拉国际商贸城项目已经开工,建成后将成为西南部非洲最大的商贸物流中心、会展中心和投资服务中心。当前,还有众多中国中小投资者在非洲从事农副产品加工、小商品生产等,他们提供的产品和服务与非洲人民生活息息相关,对满足非洲人民生活需求、吸纳当地就业、促进中非经贸往来发挥了积极作用。随着中非人民相互了解与认知程度的加深和中非政府间的通力合作,这些中小投资者也将进一步融入当地社会,与当地人民共享发展成果。
Service industries that produce zero pollution and consume little energy have become a new highlight of China-Africa cooperation in recent years. Chinese enterprises have invested in finance, trade, science and technology services, power supply and other fields in Africa. By the end of 2012, China's direct investment in Africa's financial sector had reached US$3.87 billion, accounting for 17.8% of its total investment volume in Africa. To some extent, this was able to make up for the lack of sufficient development funds available to local enterprises. In the field of commerce and trade, the construction of the Angola International Trade Center, jointly initiated by Chinese and local enterprises, has been started. When completed, the project will be the largest commercial logistics, convention and investment service center in southwest Africa. There are now also a large number of small and medium-sized Chinese investors engaged in agricultural and sideline product processing and petty commodity production in Africa. Their products and services are closely linked with African people's livelihoods, playing an active role in meeting local needs, boosting local employment and promoting China-Africa trade contacts. As the mutual understanding between Chinese and African peoples is deepened and the cooperation between Chinese and African governments enhanced, these small and medium-sized Chinese investors will further incorporate into local society and share the fruits of development with local people. 近年来,随着非洲各国经济实力的增强和中非关系的日益密切,非洲企业也积极开展对华投资。截至2012年,非洲国家对华直接投资达142.42亿美元,较2009年增长44%。其中,2012年直接投资额为13.88亿美元,投资来源国包括毛里求斯、塞舌尔、南非、尼日利亚等,涉及石油化工、加工制造、批发零售等行业。
In recent years, as the economic strength of African countries has increased and China-Africa relations have grown closer, African enterprises have started to invest in China. By the end of 2012, the volume of African countries' direct investment in China totaled US$14.242 billion, increasing by 44% over 2009 levels. Of that, the figure for 2012 was US$1.388 billion. Investing countries included Mauritius, Seychelles, South Africa and Nigeria, and their investments covered petrochemical industries, manufacturing and processing, and wholesale and retail, among other fields. China-Africa investment and financing cooperation has solidified the foundation of Africa's economic development, increased Africa's capacity of independent development, improved Africa's competitiveness in the global economic sphere, and advanced Chinese enterprises' internationalized development. In the future, China will further expand investment and financing cooperation with Africa, fulfill its commitment on the provision of US$20 billion-worth of loans to Africa, which will be used for infrastructure construction, as well as the development of agriculture, manufacturing and small and medium-sized enterprises. China will give guidance to its enterprises on the establishment of processing and manufacturing bases in Africa, and increase investment in business services, transport, consultation management and other service industries. China will also encourage its enterprises to carry out multiple-field investment cooperation in Africa, and help African countries improve their external economic development environments. 中非投融资合作巩固了非洲经济发展的基础,增强了非洲自主发展能力,提升了非洲在全球经济格局中的竞争力,也推动了中国企业的国际化发展。今后,中国将继续扩大同非洲的投融资合作,落实好向非洲提供200亿美元贷款额度的承诺,重点支持双方在非洲基础设施建设、农业、制造业、中小企业发展等领域开展合作。继续积极引导中国企业在非洲建立加工和制造业基地;加大在商贸服务、交通运输及咨询管理等服务行业的投资;鼓励和支持中国企业在非洲开展多领域投资合作,支持非洲国家不断优化经济发展的外部环境。
III. Strengthening Cooperation in Agriculture and Food Security  三、加强农业与粮食安全合作
Agriculture is crucial for stable development and poverty reduction efforts in Africa. It is a pillar industry and a priority field for development in most African countries. China and Africa see favorable conditions and broad prospects for future agricultural cooperation. The Chinese government attaches great importance to its mutually beneficial agricultural cooperation with Africa, and works hard to help African countries turn resource advantages into developmental ones and sustainably develop their agricultural capacities. 农业事关非洲的发展稳定和脱贫减困,是大部分非洲国家的支柱产业和优先发展领域,中非双方在农业领域具有良好的合作条件和广阔的合作前景。中国政府重视同非洲国家在农业领域的互利合作,帮助非洲国家把资源优势转化为发展优势,实现农业可持续发展。
...... 近年来,中非农产品贸易发展迅速。2009-2012年,中国对非洲农产品出口从15.8亿美元上升至24.9亿美元,增长了57.6%;中国自非洲农产品进口从11.6亿美元上升至28.6亿美元,增长了1.46倍,进口农产品中大部分是非食品类商品,包括棉麻丝、油籽和其他农产品。非洲农产品对华出口迅速增长的一个主要原因是,中国政府自2005年开始实行非洲国家部分输华商品零关税政策,非洲特色农产品作为主要受惠产品之一,对华出口得以快速增长。以芝麻为例,从2002年开始,中国自非洲少量进口芝麻。在零关税政策推动下,中国自非洲进口芝麻快速增长,进口额从2005年的0.97亿美元增加到2011年的4.41亿美元,年均增长率高达28.7%,高于同期中国自非洲进口全部商品的年均增速。
 ......



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