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Development and Progress of Tibet
西藏的发展与进步
【法宝引证码】
 
  

Development and Progress of Tibet

 

西藏的发展与进步

(October 2013) (2013年10月)
Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
Contents 目 录
 
Foreword 前 言
I. The Development and Progress in Tibet Is the Inevitable Result of History 一、西藏发展进步是历史的必然
II. Economic Growth and Improvement of the People's Livelihood 二、经济发展与民生改善
III. Political Progress -- the People Are the Masters of Their Own Fate 三、政治进步与人民当家作主
IV. Cultural Preservation and Freedom of Religious Belief 四、文化保护和宗教信仰自由
V. Social Changes and Development of All Undertakings 五、社会变迁与各项事业的发展
VI. Environmental Protection and Ecological Improvement 六、环境保护与生态文明建设
Concluding Remarks 结束语
 
Foreword 前 言
Tibet is located in the southern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and stands at the southwestern border of China. It is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. 西藏,位于青藏高原南半部,地处中国的西南边疆,是中华人民共和国的一个自治区。
Tibet has been an integral part of China since ancient times. Prior to the 1950s, Tibet was a society of feudal serfdom under theocratic rule, a society characterized by a combination of political and religious powers. Government officials, aristocrats and monasteries collectively maintained tight control over Tibet's resources and wealth, and the Tibetan people lived in dire misery without any freedom. At that time, Tibet was as dark and backward as medieval Europe. 西藏自古以来就是中国的一部分。20世纪50年代之前,西藏处于政教合一的封建农奴制统治之下,神权至上,官家、贵族、寺院三位一体,牢牢控制着西藏的资源和财富,人民灾难深重,毫无自由可言。那时的西藏社会如同欧洲中世纪一样黑暗、落后。
The founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 marked Tibet's entry into modern civilization. After a series of important historical stages, from its peaceful liberation and democratic reform to the establishment of the autonomous region and the reform and opening-up drive, Tibet has steered itself into a fast lane of development together with the rest of China. Half a century later, Tibet is a world totally different from its old self before the 1950s. The Tibetan people have gained freedom, equality and dignity, and are fully enjoying the fruits of modern civilization. They are working hard in unison toward the building of a united, democratic, affluent, culturally and ethically advanced and harmonious socialist society in the Tibet Autonomous Region. 西藏步入现代文明始于1949年中华人民共和国的建立。历经和平解放、民主改革、自治区成立、改革开放等重要历史发展阶段,西藏走上了与全国一道快速发展的轨道。经过半个多世纪的发展,今天的西藏与20世纪50年代以前相比有着天壤之别。西藏人民获得了自由、平等和尊严,充分享受着现代文明成果,正为建设团结、民主、富裕、文明、和谐的社会主义新西藏而团结奋斗。
The development and progress in Tibet is in accord with the rules for the development of human society, and reflects the mutual aspirations of the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet. It is the natural result of the overall development and progress of China as a whole. The development and progress of Tibet mirrors the victory of human society' s enterprising spirit and creativity in the quest for justice and happiness, and has proved the inevitability of history. 西藏的发展与进步,符合人类社会发展规律,符合西藏各族人民的共同愿望,是中国全面发展进步的必然结果。西藏的发展与进步,是人类社会追求正义与幸福的进取精神和创造能力的胜利,是历史的必然。
I. The Development and Progress in Tibet Is the Inevitable Result of History  一、西藏发展进步是历史的必然
The development and progress in modern Tibet results from the innate logic of its social and historical environment, and has its roots in China' s progress in a larger context. Its development is in line with the advance of world' s modern civilization. Prior to 1959, Tibet was a typical society of feudal serfdom under a theocracy, characterized by a combination of political and religious powers. The development and progress in Tibet began right from the ruins of feudal serfdom. 当代西藏的发展进步,内生于自身特殊的社会历史逻辑,植根于中国国家的发展进步迈向,并与世界现代文明发展相适应。1959年之前,西藏的社会形态是典型的政教合一的封建农奴制度,西藏的发展进步正是在封建农奴制的废墟上发端的。
Tibetan society prior to 1959 1959年之前的西藏社会
There is plenty of literature describing the situation of Tibetan society before 1959. From the following excerpts one can have a glimpse at the darkness and backwardness of old Tibet. 对1959年之前的西藏社会状况,人们曾有过许多描述,这里仅做部分节选,从中可略窥旧西藏黑暗、落后之一斑。
In his 1905 book The Unveiling of Lhasa, former British journalist in India Edmund Candler, who worked for the Daily Mail, recorded the details of the old Tibetan society: 原英国《每日邮报》驻印度记者埃德蒙·坎德勒在1905年出版的《拉萨真面目》中写道:
Old Tibet "is governed on the feudal system. The monks are the overlords, the peasantry their serfs." "...at present, the people are medieval, not only in their system of government and their religion, their inquisition, their witchcraft, their incarnations, their ordeals by fire and boiling oil, but in every aspect of their daily life." "... he toils a lifetime to win by his own labour and in scanty measure the necessaries ..." Lhasa was "squalid and filthy beyond description, undrained and unpaved. Not a single house looked clean or cared for. The streets after rain are nothing but pools of stagnant water frequented by pigs and dogs searching for refuse." 旧西藏“具有中世纪的性质”,“实行的是封建制度”。“喇嘛是太上皇,农奴是他们的奴隶”。“人民还停留在中世纪的年代,不仅仅是他们的政体、宗教方面,在他们的严厉惩罚、巫术、灵童转世以及要经受烈火与沸油的折磨方面是如此,而且在他们日常生活的所有方面也都不例外”。“藏人如牛似马地劳累,而赢来的却是为数甚微的生活必需品”。拉萨“这座城市脏得无法形容,没有下水道,路面也没有铺砌石块。没有一栋房子看上去清洁干净或经常有人打扫。下雨之后,街道就成了一洼洼的死水塘,猪狗则跑到这些地方来寻找废物渣滓”。
 英国藏学家查尔斯·贝尔在20世纪40年代撰写的《十三世达赖喇嘛传》中写道:
In Portrait of A Dalai Lama: The Life and Times of the Great Thirteenth, a 1940s work by Charles Bell, the British Tibetologist made observations of the harsh punishments in Tibet: "At the same time the Tibetan criminal code is drastic. In addition to fines and imprisonment, floggings are frequent, not only of people after they have been convicted of an offence, but also of accused persons, and indeed witnesses, during the course of the trial. For serious offences, use is made of the pillory as well as of the cangue, which latter is a heavy square wooden board round the neck. Iron fetters are fastened on the legs of murderers and inveterate burglars. For every serious or repeated offences, such as murder, violent robbery, repeated thefts, or serious forgery, the hand may be cut off at the wrist, the nose sliced off, or even the eyes gouged out, the last more likely for some heinous political crime. In former days those convicted of murder were put into a leather sack, which was sewn up and thrown into a river." “西藏的刑法是严厉的。除了罚款和监禁外,鞭笞也是常事。在审判过程中,受到鞭打的不仅是被判有罪的人,而且还有被告甚至见证人。对严重违法者,既使用颈枷也使用手铐。颈枷是戴在脖子上的一块沉重的方木块。对杀人犯和惯偷惯盗,则使用铁质脚镣。对很严重的罪或屡次犯罪,诸如谋杀、暴力抢劫、惯偷或严重的伪造罪等,则要剁手(齐手腕),割鼻,甚至挖眼睛。而挖眼睛又多半用于某些政治上的滔天大罪。往昔那些犯有谋杀罪的人被装进皮口袋,缝起来,给扔进河里”。
The Canadian Tibetologist A. Tom Grunfeld published The Making of Modern Tibet in 1987. In it he wrote: 加拿大藏学家谭·戈伦夫在1987年出版的《现代西藏的诞生》中写道:
"Tibetans were ruled by an unusual form of feudal theocracy.... The heads of the feudal estates maintained a monopoly of power over all local matters. Serfs were 'tied' to their masters.... So powerless were they that they required permission to enter a monastery and even to marry. If two serfs of different lords married, the male offspring reverted to the father's lord, while the female offspring went to the mother's. Permission to leave the estate - even for the briefest period - for such matters as family visits, pilgrimages or for some sideline trading required the consent of the lord. Historically there was very little class mobility in Tibet, and for the most part serfs were forced to accept the position they found themselves in upon birth. There is no evidence to support the images of a utopian Shangri-la." “过去统治西藏的是一种异乎寻常的封建的神权政治。……封建庄园主则垄断了处理所有地方事务的权力”。“绝大多数西藏人都是农奴”。“农奴被‘拴在'他们主人的手中。……他们毫无权利,即使要走进寺院,要结婚,也要征得主人的同意。如果分属于不同领主的两个农奴结了婚,所生男孩要归父亲的领主;如果是女孩,要归母亲的领主。要想离开庄园,哪怕是一小会儿,也要得到领主许可才行。如果想出门远行,朝拜寺庙或想做一点小买卖,都需要得到领主的同意”。“在西藏历史上,变换阶级成分的可能性很小。对大多数农奴来说,他们不得不接受出生时的农奴地位”。“没有证据证明西藏是一个乌托邦理想的世外桃源”。
Two Chinese officials, Shen Zonglian and Liu Shengqi, who worked at the Chinese government' s Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission's Tibet office before 1949, wrote in their 1953 book Tibet and Tibetans: 曾在1949年之前担任过当时中国政府蒙藏委员会驻藏办事处官员的沈宗濂和柳陞祺在1953年出版的《西藏与西藏人》中写道:
"The men who have been running the Lhasa government are drawn from the top class of fewer than a hundred still flourishing noble families and an ecclesiastical hierarchy of equal size. To them the Tibetan masses are the 'hewers of wood and drawers of water.' Cut off completely from world trends and from all the dormant social forces in Tibet, and basking in the waning sunshine of a theocratic-feudalistic autocracy, this privileged class can exist only on the ignorance and political lethargy of the Tibetans. Their privileged status is bound to collapse in this fast-changing world, and the process is only going to be accelerated." “操纵拉萨政权的人物只来自不足一百家贵族中的上层和同等规模的僧侣集团。在他们看来,广大西藏人民不过是‘砍柴挑水的苦力'。这些特权人物生活在一种封闭状态,隔绝于世界潮流之外,忽视西藏社会蕴藏着的巨大力量,仍流连在一个僧侣、封建的独裁统治的残阳夕照之下,他们恰恰是因为西藏百姓的无知和对政治的冷漠才得以存在的。但历史必将加速前进,这个特权阶级必然在快速变革的世界中土崩瓦解”。
For centuries Tibetan society was mired in stagnation due to its backward serfdom and the isolated geographic location of Tibet. By the middle of the 20th century, when humanity was leaping toward modern civilization, Tibet still lagged far behind the rest of the world. 几百年来,由于保守落后的农奴制,加之封闭的地理环境,西藏社会发展处于凝滞状态。至20世纪中叶,在人类向现代文明大步前进之际,西藏依然远远隔绝于世界潮流之外。
Milestones of Tibet's development and progress 西藏发展进步的历程
The founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 opened up new prospects for the nation's development and progress on an unprecedented level. In 1951, the Central People's Government and the local Tibetan government signed the Agreement on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, signifying the beginning of Tibet's development and progress together with the people of the whole nation. 1949年中华人民共和国的成立,为国家的发展进步开辟了前所未有的空间。1951年,中央人民政府与原西藏地方政府签订《关于和平解放西藏办法的协议》,西藏实现和平解放,从此迈上与全国人民同发展共进步的历史轨道。
The year 1959 marked a turning point in Tibet's history. In that year the reactionary upper ruling strata of Tibet failed in an armed rebellion to perpetuate feudal serfdom, and the Central Government publicly announced the dismissal of the Tibetan local government. Meanwhile the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet launched a sweeping democratic reform to overthrow Tibet's feudal serfdom system under theocracy that had been in place for hundreds of years, ushering in a social reform that was considered the most extensive, profound and progressive in Tibetan history. The democratic reform liberated about a million serfs and slaves, and brought the basic human rights of equity and freedom to the Tibetan people for the first time in history. It laid the necessary economic, political and social foundation for the region' s future development and progress. 1959年是西藏历史发展的分水岭。这一年,西藏地方反动上层发动的旨在维护封建农奴制的武装叛乱失败,中央政府发布命令解散西藏地方政府,西藏各族人民发起民主改革运动,一举推翻延续几百年的政教合一的封建农奴制度,开启了西藏历史上最为广泛、最为深刻、最具进步意义的社会变革。民主改革,百万农奴翻身解放,在西藏历史上首次实现人人平等、自由的基本人权,为日后的发展进步奠定了经济、政治和社会基础。
In 1965, the Tibet Autonomous Region was founded, and the systems of the people's congress and regional ethnic autonomy were established. These events marked the leap forward for Tibetan society from a feudal serfdom under theocracy to socialism, with the people becoming their own masters. With the establishment of the new political system and the dissemination of ideas on democratic politics, the former serfs and slaves as well as the feudal aristocrats all became modern citizens who enjoy equal rights and exercise their political rights to equally participate in the management of state affairs and the affairs of their local ethnic groups autonomously. In this way, the Tibetan people were greatly motivated to use their enthusiasm and creativity to build a better future. 1965年,西藏自治区成立,人民代表大会制度、民族区域自治制度等在西藏最终确立,西藏社会制度实现了从政教合一的封建农奴制度向人民当家作主的社会主义制度的跨越。伴随新型政治制度的建立和民主政治观念的传播,西藏百万农奴和旧时封建贵族等都成为享有平等权利的现代公民,行使平等参与国家事务管理和自主管理本民族本地区事务的政治权利,极大调动了人民创造美好生活的积极性和创造性。
At the end of 1978, Tibet initiated the reform and opening-up drive toward modernization along with the rest of the country, ushering in a new stage of economic and social development. The Central Government set lofty goals for Tibet, striving to quicken its development and advancing it to the front row of the "four modernizations." In light of the local conditions, the government decided on guiding principles for the work in Tibet in the new era and issued favorable policies for Tibet's development. These moves vigorously contributed to the development and progress in Tibet. 1978年以后,西藏和全国一道进入改革开放和现代化建设新时期,经济社会发展呈现新局面。中央政府提出加快西藏发展、在中国四个现代化建设中走进前列的目标,并根据西藏实际,制定了新时期西藏工作的指导思想和特殊优惠政策,大力支援西藏建设,有力推进了西藏的发展进步。
In the 21st century, Tibet has entered the fast lane of development. At the Fifth Symposium on Work in Tibet held in January 2010, the Central Authorities set the goals for Tibet's development in the next stage. The objectives for 2015 are to maintain the pace of leapfrog economic development, significantly narrow the gap between the per capita net income of farmers and herdsmen in Tibet and the national average, significantly increase Tibet's ability to provide public services, further improve the ecosystem, greatly develop Tibet's infrastructure, achieve unity and harmony among all ethnic groups, maintain social stability, and make a more solid foundation for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. The objectives set for 2020 are to raise the per capita net income of farmers and herdsmen in Tibet so that it will be close to the national average, comprehensively raise the living standards of the people, improve its basic public services to approach the national average level, comprehensively improve infrastructure conditions, achieve significant results in creating an ecological security screen, greatly increase Tibet's capabilities for self-development, make Tibetan society more harmonious and stable, and ensure that a moderately prosperous society in all respects is established. With these goals achieved, better prospects for development will emerge in Tibet. 进入21世纪,西藏的发展进步驶入历史快车道。2010年1月,中央召开第五次西藏工作座谈会,会议提出西藏下一步发展的目标,即到2015年,保持经济跨越式发展势头,农牧民人均纯收入与全国平均水平的差距显著缩小,基本公共服务能力显著提高,生态环境进一步改善,基础设施建设取得重大进展,各民族团结和谐,社会持续稳定,全面建设小康社会的基础更加扎实;到2020年,农牧民人均纯收入接近全国平均水平,人民生活水平全面提升,基本公共服务能力接近全国平均水平,基础设施条件全面改善,生态安全屏障建设取得明显成效,自我发展能力明显增强,社会更加和谐稳定,确保实现全面建设小康社会的奋斗目标。西藏迎来更美好的发展前景。
Development and progress in Tibet is the victory of human justice 西藏发展进步是人类正义的胜利
- The development and progress of Tibet is in accordance with the rules for the development of human society. From traditional agriculture and animal husbandry to a modern market economy, from the integration of political and religious powers to their separation, from autocracy to democracy, superstition to science, and isolation to openness - these are the generic laws for the development of human society. Over the past 60 years of its development, Tibet has unfailingly followed these rules and the general trend. Today, despite the existing gaps in the level of development between Tibet and other provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in China, Tibet has narrowed the distance and basically realized synchronized growth with the rest of the country. Observed from the macro perspective of human history, Tibet has leapt from a feudal serfdom society into one with a modern civilization within a matter of only a few decades, creating an outstanding example of regional modernization. --西藏的发展进步符合人类社会的发展规律。由传统的农牧业经济到现代市场经济,由政教合一到政教分离,由专制到民主,由迷信到科学,由封闭到开放,是人类社会普遍的发展规律。西藏60多年的发展正是遵循了这个规律和总趋势。目前,尽管西藏的总体发展水平与全国其他省区市还有一定差距,但已经拉近了距离,大体上实现了同步发展。从人类大历史的角度观察,西藏在短短几十年时间里由封建农奴制社会一跃跨入现代文明社会,创造了一个地区现代化发展的典范。
- The development and progress of Tibet is inevitably connected with the overall development and progress of China. The fate of Tibet has always been closely linked to the fate of China. Since the advent of modern times, Chinese society has been challenged by the daunting task of comprehensive transition to modernization. Tibet, as an inalienable part of China, also follows the general logic of social reform in the country. During the process of peaceful liberation of Tibet, Mao Zedong, leader of the Communist Party of China, set the course for transforming old Tibet into a "people's democratic Tibet." The profound and unprecedented changes in Tibet over the past 60 years have been consequently realized through the establishment and progress of the political, economic, social and cultural systems of the nation as a whole. --西藏的发展进步是中国发展进步的必然结果。西藏的命运始终与祖国的命运紧密相连。近代以后,中国社会面临整体性的现代化转型,西藏作为中国不可分割的一部分,同样遵循中国社会变革的大逻辑。在西藏和平解放过程中,中国共产党领导人毛泽东即提出把旧西藏“改造为人民民主的西藏”的重大命题。60多年来,西藏发生的前所未有的深刻变化,正是在全国政治制度、经济制度、社会制度、文化制度等建立和发展的大背景下实现的。
- The development and progress of Tibet serves the fundamental interests of the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet. The development and progress of Tibet is the cause of the Tibetan people. In the past six decades, the development and progress of Tibet has always centered around the people's fundamental interests. In Tibet the self-improvement of individuals is consistent with the progress of society, with which more social wealth is created and thus meets the ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people. Essentially, the development and progress of Tibet reflects man's development and the realization of the people's principal position. It is a great practice for respecting and guaranteeing human rights. The development of Tibet has been a process in which people are gaining more and more freedom on the road to liberation, as well as the transformation from "deity first" to "people first." It marks the victory of the Tibetan people over the shackles of theocracy, and honors their pursuit of dignity and personal value. It is the Tibetan people who have benefited most from Tibet's development and progress. --西藏的发展进步符合西藏各族人民的根本利益。西藏的发展进步是西藏人民的事业。60多年来,西藏的发展进步始终以人民根本利益为依归,表现为社会的发展进步与个人的发展完善的内在统一,通过推动社会发展进步不断创造更加丰富的社会财富,努力满足人民日益增长的物质和精神文化需要。西藏的发展进步实质是人的发展和人民主体性的实现,是尊重和保障人权的一次伟大实践。西藏的发展表现为人民不断获得自由和解放的过程,表现为从以神为本到以人为本的转变,是人民摆脱宗教神权奴役、追求做人尊严和价值的胜利。西藏人民是西藏发展进步的最大受益者。
II. Economic Growth and Improvement of the People's Livelihood  二、经济发展与民生改善
Developing the economy is an important way to ensure the basic rights of all ethnic groups in Tibet, especially their rights to subsistence and development. The establishment of a modern economy in Tibet and its development has laid a solid material foundation for the progress of various undertakings in the region. 发展经济是确保西藏各族人民的基本权利,特别是生存权和发展权的重要途径。西藏现代经济的建立和发展,为各项事业的发展奠定了坚实的物质基础。
Economic growth constantly enhancing people's living standards 经济发展使人民生活水平不断提高
Following the peaceful liberation of Tibet, the Central Government has always given top priority to helping Tibet develop its economy, enhance its people's living standards, and change its impoverished and backward situation. It has issued a series of favorable policies, and made great achievements in promoting Tibet's economy. Currently a relatively complete socialist market system has been established in the region, and historical leapfrog development has been realized in terms of economic aggregate. Tibet's economy is growing steadily and quickly. The Gross Regional Product (GRP) of Tibet rocketed from 129 million yuan in 1951 to 70.1 billion yuan in 2012, representing an annual growth of 8.5 percent on average. The per capita GRP reached 22,900 yuan. Since 1994 Tibet has realized double-digit growth for 19 consecutive years, with an annual growth rate of 12.7 percent on average. 和平解放后,中央政府把帮助西藏发展经济、提高人民生活水平、改变贫穷落后面貌放在首位,制定了一系列特殊优惠政策,推动经济建设取得巨大成就。目前,西藏已初步建立起较为完善的社会主义市场经济,实现了经济总量的历史飞跃,并持续保持较快的经济发展势头。西藏地区生产总值由1951年的1.29亿元增加到2012年的701亿元,年均增长8.5%,人均生产总值达到2.29万元。1994年以来,西藏地区生产总值连续19年实现两位数以上增长,年均增速12.7%。
Substantial improvements have been made in the people's lives and their living standards. The per capita net income of farmers and herdsmen in Tibet had maintained double-digit growth for 10 consecutive years, reaching 5,719 yuan in 2012. The per capita disposable income of urban dwellers was 18,028 yuan. The building of a new socialist countryside, initiated in 2006, has greatly benefited local farmers and herdsmen, especially through its low-income housing projects. By the end of 2012, a total of 408,300 low-income houses were built, providing housing to 88.7 percent of local households of farmers and herdsmen. All farmers and herdsmen will have moved into safe modern houses by the end of 2013. In 2012, the per capita floor space of farmers and herdsmen was 28.77 sq m, and that of urban dwellers 36.14 sq m. In rural areas, infrastructure has been improved to provide the necessary facilities for the local population, including water, power, transportation, telecommunication, natural gas, radio and television, and postal services. Some 90 percent and 99.7 percent of Tibetan townships now have access to postal service and road network, respectively, and 94.2 percent of administrative villages could be reached by road. A total of 1.93 million farmers and herdsmen now have access to safe drinking water, and 150,000 rural households are using clean biogas. In addition, over 95 percent of rural households use iodized salt. 人民生活不断改善,生活质量不断提高。2012年,全区农牧民人均纯收入达到5719元,连续10年保持两位数以上的增长,城镇居民人均可支配收入达到18028元。2006年以来实施的以安居工程为突破口的社会主义新农村建设,惠及广大农牧民。截至2012年底,全区累计建成40.83万户安居房,占农牧民总户数的88.7%。2013年底前,所有农牧民将住进安全适用的房屋。2012年,西藏农牧民人均居住面积为28.77平方米,城镇居民人均居住面积为36.14平方米。水、电、路、讯、气、广播电视、邮政等农村综合配套设施建设逐步完善,乡镇通邮率、乡镇通公路率和行政村通公路率分别达到90%、99.7%、94.2%。累计解决193万农牧民的安全饮水问题,15万户农牧民用上了清洁的沼气能源,农牧区碘盐覆盖率达到95%以上。
As life improves, the people are beginning to have more choices in consumption. Refrigerators, color televisions, telephones, computers, washing machines, motorcycles, mobile phones and other consumer goods have entered ordinary households. In 2012, for every 100 urban households in Tibet there were 27 cars, 16 motorcycles, 86 refrigerators, 129 color TVs, 63 computers and 88 washing machines. According to the "CCTV Economic Life Survey" jointly hosted by the National Bureau of Statistics, China Post Group, and China Central Television (CCTV), Lhasa topped the "happiness index" for five consecutive years. 随着人民生活逐步富裕,消费结构开始多样化,冰箱、彩电、电话、电脑、洗衣机、摩托车、手机等消费品进入了寻常百姓家。2012年,西藏城镇每百户居民中拥有汽车、摩托车分别为27辆和16辆,冰箱、彩电、电脑、洗衣机分别为86台、129台、63台、88台。在国家统计局、中国邮政集团公司和中央电视台联合举办的“CCTV经济生活大调查”中,拉萨市连续5年被评为中国幸福指数最高的城市。
Adhering to green and sustainable development 坚持绿色发展和可持续发展
The economy of old Tibet was supported by farming, animal husbandry and handicrafts, very close to a backward natural economy. With the strenuous efforts of the local people, Tibet has established a modern economic system with local characteristics. Putting the people's interests first and seeking green and sustainable development, Tibet has adopted rigorous measures to rein in energy-extensive, high-pollution and high-emission industries. Integrating socioeconomic progress and environmental protection, Tibet strives to safeguard the long-term interests of its people. 旧西藏只有农牧业和手工业,且处于十分落后的自然经济状态。经过西藏各族人民的不懈努力,已经建立起具有西藏特点的现代经济体系。西藏坚持以人为本的理念,重视绿色发展和可持续发展,严格限制高能耗、高污染、高排放行业发展,把经济社会发展与环境保护统一起来,切实保护西藏各族人民的长远利益。
Farming and animal husbandry are Tibet's traditional industries and also the supporting pillars of its economy. For decades such policies have been followed that allow the farmland and grassland to recuperate on a regular basis. And by delegating managerial authority to lower levels, cancelling the old agricultural tax, increasing capital and technical investment, and promoting comprehensive productivity, Tibet has realized balanced and sustainable development in farming and animal husbandry. The annual grain production in recent years stands above 900,000 tons. Tibet is vigorously developing agricultural products with local characteristics, and the added value of its primary industry increased from 128 million yuan in 1959 to 8.038 billion yuan in 2012, growing by 4.7 percent annually. 农牧业是西藏的传统产业,也是基础产业。多年来,西藏农牧区实行休养生息政策,通过下放生产经营自主权、免征农业税、增加投入、增加科技含量以及加快推进综合生产能力等措施,使农牧业实现了全面持续发展。近年来,粮食总产量保持在90万吨以上。积极打造高原特色农产品基地,第一产业增加值由1959年的1.28亿元增加到2012年的80.38亿元,年均增长4.7%。
There was no modern industry in old Tibet, but after more than 60 years of development, modern industry has been established in Tibet from scratch, and it has grown considerably in size. Today Tibet has a modern industrial system comprising over 20 industries, including energy, light industry, textiles, machinery, mining, building materials, chemical industry, food processing, folk handicrafts and traditional Tibetan medicine. The total industrial output value skyrocketed from 1.4 million yuan in 1956 to 10.591 billion yuan in 2012. The major industries with local characteristics have been expanding in scale, and tertiary industry is also growing rapidly. In 2012, Tibet welcomed domestic and overseas tourists on 10.584 million occasions, including foreign visitors on 194,900 occasions. In the same year, the tourism industry in Tibet generated 12.65 billion yuan in revenue. The proportionate layout of Tibet's industrial structure in terms of primary, secondary and tertiary industries was 11.5 : 34.6 : 53.9. 旧西藏没有现代工业。通过60多年的发展,西藏的现代工业从无到有,从小到大,逐步发展起来。如今,已建立起一个包括能源、轻工、纺织、机械、采矿、建材、化工、食品加工、民族手工业、藏医药等20多个门类的现代工业体系。工业总产值从1956年的0.014亿元增加到2012年的105.91亿元。特色优势产业不断发展壮大,第三产业发展迅速。2012年接待国内外游客1058.4万人次,其中境外游客19.49万人次,旅游总收入达到126.5亿元。2012年三次产业结构为11.5∶34.6∶53.9。
Modernization and urbanization constantly improving people's lives 现代化和城镇化不断提高人们的生活质量
In the old days Tibet had no roads in the modern sense, but today a comprehensive transportation system including road, aviation, railway, and pipeline transportation is being developed and improved. In 2012 Tibet had 8,896 km of roads with sub-high-grade surface or better, and the total length of road opened to traffic reached 65,200 km. Every county and township now has access to road transportation. Sixty-two counties are accessible by tarmac roads. In 2006 the Qinghai-Tibet Railway began operation, introducing railway transportation into Tibet for the first time in history. The construction of the railway line connecting Lhasa and Shigatse will be completed in 2014. In 2011 Tibet's first expressway opened to traffic, linking Lhasa and Gongga Airport. By the end of 2012 Tibet had five airports, and nine airlines had operations there. Now 34 domestic air routes link Tibet with other parts of China, with Gongga Airport (Lhasa) as the main terminal supplemented by Bamda Airport (Qamdo), Mainling Airport (Nyingchi), Gunsa Airport (Ngari), Heping Airport (Shigatse). Before the peaceful liberation of Tibet only one small power station, with a capacity of 125 kw, provided electricity to the small number of privileged aristocrats. Today's Tibet has a rapidly growing power industry. With hydraulic power as the main energy source, Tibet is also developing geothermal power, wind power, solar power and other new energies that complement each other. In 2012 the total installed generating capacity reached 1.23 million kw, and the coverage of power supply was 100 percent. In Lhasa, the city heating project started trial operation, providing heating to 40 percent of the city's households by the end of 2012. In old Tibet people used to carry goods by themselves or use pack animals, and mail was delivered by courier stations. This is now history. Currently a network of optical cable, satellite and long-distance telephone lines has been established in the region, and all places above county level are now covered by 3G signals. Every township has broadband connection and every village has telephone services. In 2012 the number of households using landline telephone reached 2.76 million, and there were 91 telephones for every 100 persons. The number of households with Internet connections users was 1.47 million, with a coverage rate of 33.3 percent. 旧西藏没有一条现代意义上的公路,现在以公路、航空、铁路、管道运输建设为重点的综合交通运输体系逐步完善。2012年,西藏次高级以上路面里程达到8896公里,公路通车里程达到6.52万公里,基本实现县县通公路、乡乡通公路,其中62个县通油路。2006年,青藏铁路建成通车,结束了西藏不通铁路的历史。拉萨至日喀则铁路预计2014年建成通车。2011年,西藏第一条高速公路拉萨至贡嘎机场专用公路建成通车。截至2012年底,西藏已建成通航机场5个,9家航空公司在藏运营,开通国内航线34条,初步形成了以拉萨贡嘎机场为干线,以昌都邦达、林芝米林、阿里昆莎、日喀则和平机场为支线的机场布局。和平解放前,西藏仅有一座125千瓦、只供少数上层贵族享受的小电站,而今西藏电力发展迅速,以水电为主,地热、风能、太阳能等多能互补的新型能源体系全面建成。2012年,西藏电力装机总容量达到123万千瓦,用电人口覆盖率达到100%。拉萨市城市供暖试点工程开通运行,2012年底实现40%的供暖目标。旧西藏人背畜驮、驿站式传递的落后状态已彻底改变。目前,已经建成遍布全区的光缆、卫星和长途电话网,全区县以上基本实现3G通信技术全覆盖,基本实现乡乡通宽带、村村通电话。2012年,电话用户数达到276万户,普及率为91部/百人;互联网用户数达到147万户,普及率为33.3%。
Urbanization has brought the fruits of modern civilization to people living in Tibet. Prior to the peaceful liberation of Tibet, only a handful of places were inhabited by any concentration of people, and only Lhasa, Qamdo and Shigatse could be called towns. The area of the town proper of Lhasa then was less than three square kilometers. In recent years Tibet has been promoting intensive, intelligent, green and low-carbon urbanization, which is a new-type urban system that centers on Lhasa City and radiates to prefectures, counties, border towns and towns with cultural attractions, in an attempt to attract more industries and residents. By 2012 Tibet had two cities and 140 towns, with an urbanization rate of 22.75 percent. 城镇化使西藏各族人民更多分享现代文明发展带来的成果。和平解放前,西藏只有少量人口居住点,城镇只有拉萨、昌都、日喀则等少数地方,拉萨城区不足3平方公里。近年来,西藏坚持走集约、智能、绿色、低碳的新型城镇化道路,加快构建以拉萨市为中心,以地区所在地为支点,以县城、边境城镇、特色文化旅游城镇为网络的城镇体系,提高产业和人口集聚能力。2012年,西藏设有两个市和140个建制镇,城镇化率达22.75%。
The reform and opening-up drive has quickened Tibet's development. 对外开放加快了西藏的发展
Over the past 30 years or more, through reform and opening up, Tibet has been proactively promoting commerce, foreign trade and tourism. It has increased exchanges with other parts of China as well as communication and cooperation with foreign countries. In 1993 Tibet began to develop the socialist market economy with the rest of the country, developing into a new system within the same framework. Reforms have been carried out in the pricing and circulation of goods and materials, grains, and consumer goods, all of which have entered the market system. Currently Tibet is incorporated into the national market system. Commodities from all over the nation and across the world keep flowing into Tibet, enriching the urban and rural markets as well as the lives of the people. At the same time, well-known and quality products with local characteristics and folk handcrafts are transported to other parts of the country in large quantities. 改革开放30多年来,西藏通过深化改革和扩大开放积极推动全区商业、对外贸易和旅游产业加快发展,不仅增强了与内地的交流,同时也加强了与世界的联系和合作。1993年,西藏与全国一道开始建立“框架一致、体制衔接”的社会主义市场经济体制,深化物资、粮食、日用消费品等领域价格流通改革并全面进入市场。目前,西藏已经深深融入全国统一的市场体系,来自全国和世界各地的商品源源不断地进入西藏,丰富着城乡市场和百姓生活。西藏的名、优、特产品及民族手工业产品,大量进入全国市场。
Economically, Tibet is now more and more closely linked to the world. In 2012 the total volume of its foreign trade reached 3.424 billion U.S. dollars, more than 850 times that of 1953, which stood at 4 million U.S. dollars, with an annual growth rate of 12.1 percent. By the end of 2012 actualized foreign investment in Tibet was 470 million U.S. dollars. Taking advantage of its geographical position, Tibet is strengthening friendly cooperation with India, Nepal and other neighboring countries. To promote border trade, it is building a "commodity passageway" to South Asia via the land route, and has built trading centers in such port cities as Gyirong, Zhangmu, Yatung, Pulan and Riwu. 西藏与世界的经济联系日益密切。2012年,全区进出口总额为34.24亿美元,是1953年0.04亿美元的850多倍,年均增长12.1%。截至2012年底,西藏实际利用外资4.7亿美元。西藏立足区位优势,加强与印度、尼泊尔等周边国家的友好合作,实施面向南亚的陆路贸易大通道建设,建设吉隆、樟木、亚东、普兰和日屋口岸,大力发展边境贸易。
III. Political Progress--the People Are the Masters of Their Own Fate  三、政治进步与人民当家作主
Democratic reform and regional ethnic autonomy lifted Tibet out of the old state of feudal serfdom under theocracy and put in place the systems of people's congress and regional ethnic autonomy, under which people of all ethnic groups in Tibet have become the true masters of the country, society and their own fate. With the development and improvement of socialist democracy around the country, Tibet has seen its democratic system growing sounder, forms of democracy becoming more diversified, and channels for orderly political participation being expanded. 经过民主改革和实行民族区域自治,西藏彻底摆脱了政教合一的封建农奴制度,建立起人民代表大会制度和民族区域自治制度,西藏各族人民真正成为国家、社会和自己命运的主人。随着中国社会主义民主政治的发展和完善,西藏的民主制度不断健全,民主形式日益丰富,有序政治参与渠道不断扩大。
Establishing the system of people's congresses 确立了人民代表大会制度
The system of people's congress is a fundamental political system of China that ensures the people's right to be the masters of the country. Under this system the Chinese people exercise state power through the National People's Congress (NPC) and local people's congresses at different levels. In September 1965 the First Session of the First People's Congress of the Tibet Autonomous Region was held in Lhasa, marking the formal establishment of this system in Tibet. Tibet's administrative, judicial and procuratorial organs are all created by the regional people's congress to which they are responsible and by which they are supervised. Major regional affairs are decided by the regional people's congress. Tibet's administrative organs carry out the laws, regulations, rules, resolutions and decisions adopted by the regional people's congress. Through deputies to the people's congress at different levels, people in Tibet exercise their right to manage state and regional affairs. All Chinese citizens living in Tibet who are 18 years old or above, regardless of gender, occupation, family background, ethnicity, religious belief, educational background, financial conditions or length of residence in this region, enjoy the right to vote and the right to be elected. People of all ethnic groups in Tibet directly elect deputies to the people's congresses at the county (district) and township (town) levels, and these deputies then elect deputies to the regional people' s congress and to the NPC. The Moinba and Lhoba ethnic groups, despite their small populations, both have their representatives at the NPC and local people' s congresses at all levels in Tibet. During elections at the regional, prefecture (city), county (district) and village (town) levels, the voter turnout rate has grown steadily over the years. In the 2012 elections at these four levels the voter turnout rate exceeded 94 percent. 人民代表大会制度是中国人民当家作主的根本政治制度。在中国,人民通过全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会行使国家权力。1965年9月,西藏自治区第一届人民代表大会第一次会议在拉萨召开,人民代表大会制度从此在西藏正式确立。在西藏,自治区行政机关、审判机关、检察机关都由自治区人民代表大会产生,对它负责,受它监督。自治区重大事项由区人民代表大会决定。自治区行政机关负责执行区人民代表大会通过的法规、条例、决议、决定。通过各级人大代表,西藏各族人民行使管理国家事务和地区事务的权利。在今天的西藏,凡年满18周岁的公民,不分性别、职业、家庭出身、民族、宗教信仰、受教育程度、财产状况和居住期限,都依法享有选举权和被选举权。西藏各族人民直接选举县(区)、乡(镇)人民代表大会的代表,这些代表又选举出自治区人民代表大会和出席全国人大会议的代表。西藏的门巴、珞巴等人口较少民族在全国人大及西藏各级人大中均有自己的代表。在自治区、地(市)、县(区)、乡(镇)四级人大换届选举中,参选率不断提高。在2012年四级人大换届选举中,参选率达94%以上。
...... 藏族和其他少数民族的人大代表始终在全区各级人大代表中占有绝对多数。2012年经过直接和间接选举产生的34244名四级人大代表中,藏族和其他少数民族代表31901名,占93%以上,门巴族、珞巴族、纳西族、回族、壮族等均有自己的代表。目前,在全国人大代表中,西藏自治区有20名代表,其中12名为藏族公民,门巴族、珞巴族公民各1名。自治区十届人大常委会组成人员44名,其中藏族和其他少数民族25名,常委会主任、副主任14名,其中藏族和其他少数民族8名。妇女的社会地位明显提高。西藏自治区人民代表大会中的妇女代表占代表总数的25.4%,各级政府公务员中妇女占34.49%。
 建立了政治协商制度
 ......



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