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Prison Law of the People's Republic of China [Revised]
中华人民共和国监狱法 [已被修订]
【法宝引证码】
 
  

  
PRISON LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
(Adopted at the 11th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress on December 29, 1994, promulgated by Order No. 35 of the President of the People's Republic of China on December 29, 1994, and effective as of the date of promulgation)
 

中华人民共和国主席令
(第三十五号)


《中华人民共和国监狱法》已由中华人民共和国第八届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十一次会议于1994年12月29日通过,现予公布,自公布之日起施行。
中华人民共和国主席 江泽民
1994年12月29日
中华人民共和国监狱法
(1994年12月29日第八届全国
人民代表大会常务委员会第十一次会议通过)

CONTENTS
 目录
CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS
 第一章 总则
CHAPTER II PRISON
 第二章 监狱
CHAPTER III EXECUTION OF CRIMINAL PUNISHMENTS
 第三章 刑罚的执行
SECTION 1 PUTTING IN PRISON
 第一节 收监
SECTION 2 HANDLING OF PETITIONS, COMPLAINTS AND ACCUSATIONS MADE BY PRISONERS
 第二节 对罪犯提出的申诉、控告、检举的处理
SECTION 3 EXECUTION OUTSIDE PRISON
 第三节 监外执行
SECTION 4 COMMUTATION OF PUNISHMENT AND RELEASE ON PAROLE
 第四节 减刑、假释
SECTION 5 RELEASE AND RESETTLEMENT
 第五节 释放和安置
CHAPTER IV PRISON ADMINISTRATION
 第四章 狱政管理
SECTION 1 SEPARATE CUSTODY AND SEPARATE CONTROL
 第一节 分押分管
SECTION 2 GUARD
 第二节 警戒
SECTION 3 USE OF RESTRAINT IMPLEMENTS AND WEAPONS
 第三节 戒具和武器的使用
SECTION 4 CORRESPONDENCE AND MEETING WITH VISITORS
 第四节 通信、会见
SECTION 5 LIFE AND HEALTH
 第五节 生活、卫生
SECTION 6 REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS
 第六节 奖惩
SECTION 7 HANDLING OF CRIMES COMMITTED BY PRISONERS DURING THE TERM OF IMPRISONMENT
 第七节 对罪犯服刑期间犯罪的处理
CHAPTER V EDUCATION AND REFORM OF PRISONERS
 第五章 对罪犯的教育改造
CHAPTER VI EDUCATION AND REFORM OF JUVENILE DELINQUENTS
 第六章 对未成年犯的教育改造
CHAPTER VII SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS
 第七章 附则

CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS
 第一章 总则


Article 1 This Law is formulated in accordance with the Constitution for
the purpose of correctly executing criminal punishments, punishing and
reforming prisoners, preventing and reducing crimes.
   第一条 为了正确执行刑罚,惩罚和改造罪犯,预防和减少犯罪,根据宪法,制定本法。
Article 2 A prison is an organ of the State for executing criminal punishments.
Criminal punishments of prisoners sentenced to death penalty with a two- year suspension of execution, life imprisonment, or fixed-term imprisonment shall be executed in prisons under the Criminal Law and the Criminal Procedure Law.
   第二条 监狱是国家的刑罚执行机关。
依照刑法和刑事诉讼法的规定,被判处死刑缓期二年执行、无期徒刑、有期徒刑的罪犯,在监狱内执行刑罚。
Article 3 A prison shall, with regard to prisoners, implement the
principle of combining punishment with reform and combining education
with labour, in order to transform them into law-abiding citizens.
   第三条 监狱对罪犯实行惩罚和改造相结合、教育和劳动相结合的原则,将罪犯改造成为守法公民。
Article 4 A prison shall exercise supervision and control over prisoners
according to law, and shall, in accordance with the needs of reforming
prisoners, organize prisoners to engage in productive labour and conduct
ideological, cultural and technical education among prisoners.
   第四条 监狱对罪犯应当依法监管,根据改造罪犯的需要,组织罪犯从事生产劳动,对罪犯进行思想教育、文化教育、技术教育。
Article 5 Activities in prison administration, execution of criminal
punishments, and education and reform of prisoners conducted according
to law by the people's police of a prison shall be protected by law.
   第五条 监狱的人民警察依法管理监狱、执行刑罚、对罪犯进行教育改造等活动,受法律保护。
Article 6 A people's procuratorate shall exercise supervision in
accordance with the law over the legality of activities conducted by
prisons in execution of criminal punishments.
   第六条 人民检察院对监狱执行刑罚的活动是否合法,依法实行监督。
Article 7 Human dignity of a prisoner shall not be humiliated, and his
personal safety, lawful properties, and rights to defence, petition,
complaint and accusation as well as other rights which have not been
deprived of or restricted according to law shall not be violated.
A prisoner must strictly observe laws, regulations, and rules and
discipline of the prison, subject himself to control, accept education
and take part in labour.
   第七条 罪犯的人格不受侮辱,其人身安全、合法财产和辩护、申诉、控告、检举以及其他未被依法剥夺或者限制的权利不受侵犯。
罪犯必须严格遵守法律、法规和监规纪律,服从管理,接受教育,参加劳动。
Article 8 The State shall ensure the expenditures of a prison for the
reform of prisoners. The prisons' expenditures for the people's police,
for the reform of prisoners, for the living expenses of prisoners, for
the administration and installations of the prison, and other special
expenses shall be included into the State budget.
The State shall provide production facilities and production expenses
necessary for prisoners to do labour.
   第八条 国家保障监狱改造罪犯所需经费。监狱的人民警察经费、罪犯改造经费、罪犯生活费、狱政设施经费及其他专项经费,列入国家预算。
国家提供罪犯劳动必需的生产设施和生产经费。
Article 9 Lands, mineral resources and other natural resources used by a
prison according to law as well as properties of a prison shall be
protected by law; no organizations or individuals shall seize or
undermine them.
   第九条 监狱依法使用的土地、矿产资源和其他自然资源以及监狱的财产,受法律保护,任何组织或者个人不得侵占、破坏。
Article 10 The department of judicial administration under the State
Council shall be in charge of the work of prisons in the whole country.
   第十条 国务院司法行政部门主管全国的监狱工作。

CHAPTER II PRISON
 第二章 监狱


Article 11 The establishment, abolition or move of a prison shall be
subject to the approval of the department of judicial administration
under the State Council.
   第十一条 监狱的设置、撤销、迁移,由国务院司法行政部门批准。
Article 12 A prison shall install one warden, several deputy wardens,
and, in light of the actual needs, set up necessary working organs and
provide other administrative personnel.
The administrative personnel in a prison are the people's police.
   第十二条 监狱设监狱长一人、副监狱长若干人,并根据实际需要设置必要的工作机构和配备其他监狱管理人员。
监狱的管理人员是人民警察。
Article 13 The people's police of a prison shall strictly abide by the
Constitution and the law, be loyal to their duties, enforce the law
impartially, strictly observe discipline and be honest and upright.
   第十三条 监狱的人民警察应当严格遵守宪法和法律,忠于职守,秉公执法,严守纪律,清正廉洁。
Article 14 The people's police of a prison shall not commit any of the
following acts:
   第十四条 监狱的人民警察不得有下列行为:
(1) to demand, accept or seize money or goods from prisoners or their
relatives;
 (一)索要、收受、侵占罪犯及其亲属的财物;
(2) to release a prisoner without authorization or through dereliction
of duty to cause a prisoner to flee from the prison;
 (二)私放罪犯或者玩忽职守造成罪犯脱逃;
(3) to use torture to coerce a confession, or to use corporal
punishment, or to maltreat a prisoner;
 (三)刑讯逼供或者体罚、虐待罪犯;
(4) to humiliate the human dignity of a prisoner;
 (四)侮辱罪犯的人格;
(5) to beat or connive at others to beat a prisoner;
 (五)殴打或者纵容他人殴打罪犯;
(6) to utilize a prisoner to provide labour services for personal gains;
 (六)为谋取私利,利用罪犯提供劳务;
(7) to privately deliver a letter or an article for a prisoner in
violation of regulations;
 (七)违反规定,私自为罪犯传递信件或者物品;
(8) to illegally surrender the functions and powers to supervise and
control prisoners to another person; or
 (八)非法将监管罪犯的职权交予他人行使;
(9) other law-breaking acts.
If the people's police of a prison commit any act specified in the
preceding paragraph and the case constitutes a crime, the offenders
shall be investigated for criminal responsibility; if the case does not
constitute a crime, the offenders shall be given administrative
sanctions.
 (九)其他违法行为。
监狱的人民警察有前款所列行为,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;尚未构成犯罪的,应当予以行政处分。

CHAPTER III EXECUTION OF CRIMINAL PUNISHMENTS
 第三章 刑罚的执行


SECTION 1 PUTTING IN PRISON
 第一节 收监


Article 15 With respect to a criminal who is sentenced to death penalty
with a two-year suspension of execution, life imprisonment or fixed-term
imprisonment, the people's court shall serve the notice of execution of
the sentence and the written judgment on the public security organ where
the criminal is in custody. The public security organ shall hand the
criminals over to a prison for execution of the punishment within one
month from the date of receiving the notice of execution of the sentence
and the written judgment.
Before a criminal is handed over for execution of the criminal
punishment, if the remaining term of his sentence is not more than one
year, the criminal punishment shall be executed by the detention house
instead.
   第十五条 人民法院对被判处死刑缓期二年执行、无期徒刑、有期徒刑的罪犯,应当将执行通知书、判决书送达羁押该罪犯的公安机关,公安机关应当自收到执行通知书、判决书之日起一个月内将该罪犯送交监狱执行刑罚。
罪犯在被交付执行刑罚前,剩余刑期在一年以下的,由看守所代为执行。
Article 16 A people's court shall, in handing over a criminal for
execution of the criminal punishment, serve on the prison a copy of the
bill of prosecution from the people's procuratorate together with the
written judgment, the notice of execution and the registration form of
closing the case from the people's court. The prison shall not put the
criminal in prison without receiving the above-mentioned documents; if
such documents are incomplete or have errors in the records, the
people's court which passed the effective judgment shall, without delay,
make them complete or correct; if any of the above-mentioned
circumstances may lead to wrongful imprisonment of a person, the prison
shall not accept him.
   第十六条 罪犯被交付执行刑罚时,交付执行的人民法院应当将人民检察院的起诉书副本、人民法院的判决书、执行通知书、结案登记表同时送达监狱。监狱没有收到上述文件的,不得收监;上述文件不齐全或者记载有误的,作出生效判决的人民法院应当及时补充齐全或者作出更正;对其中可能导致错误收监的,不予收监。
Article 17 A prison shall give physical examination to the criminals who
are handed over for execution of their criminal punishments. A criminal
sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment may, after
physical examination, temporarily not be put in prison under either of
the following circumstances:
   第十七条 监狱应当对交付执行刑罚的罪犯进行身体检查。经检查,被判处无期徒刑、有期徒刑的罪犯有下列情形之一的,可以暂不收监:
(1) if a criminal is seriously ill and needs to be released on parole for
medical treatment; or
 (一)有严重疾病需要保外就医的;
(2) if a criminal is a pregnant woman or a woman who is breast-feeding
her own baby.
With respect to a criminal temporarily not to be put in prison as
provided in the preceding paragraph, the decision on temporary
execution outside prison shall be made by the people's court which
handed the criminal over for the execution. With respect to any such
criminal whose temporary execution of the sentence outside prison
constitutes a danger to the society, he shall be put in prison. If a
criminal temporarily serves his sentence outside prison, the public
security organ in the place of the criminal's residence shall execute
the criminal punishment. After the circumstances specified in the
preceding paragraph under which a criminal is temporarily not put in
prison disappeared, the criminal who has not completed the execution of
his original term of sentence shall be handed over to a prison for
imprisonment by the public security organ.
 (二)怀孕或者正在哺乳自己婴儿的妇女。
对前款所列暂不收监的罪犯,应当由交付执行的人民法院决定暂予监外执行。对其中暂予监外执行有社会危险性的,应当收监。暂予监外执行的罪犯,由居住地公安机关执行刑罚。前款所列暂不收监的情形消失后,原判刑期尚未执行完毕的罪犯,由公安机关送交监狱收监。
Article 18 When a criminal is put in prison, his or her body and the
articles brought with him or her shall strictly be checked. The non-
daily necessities shall be taken care of by the prison for the criminal
or with the agreement of the criminal be returned to his or her
families, and contraband goods shall be confiscated.
A female criminal shall be checked by a people's policewoman.
   第十八条 罪犯收监,应当严格检查其人身和所携带的物品。非生活必需品,由监狱代为保管或者征得罪犯同意退回其家属,违禁品予以没收。
女犯由女性人民警察检查。
Article 19 A criminal may not bring his or her child with him or her to
serve sentence in prison.
   第十九条 罪犯不得携带子女在监内服刑。
Article 20 After a criminal is put in prison, the prison shall inform
the criminal's family members. A written notice shall be sent out within
five days from the date when the criminal is put in prison.
   第二十条 罪犯收监后,监狱应当通知罪犯家属。通知书应当自收监之日起五日内发出。

SECTION 2 HANDLING OF PETITIONS, COMPLAINTS AND ACCUSATIONS MADE BY PRISONERS
 第二节 对罪犯提出的申诉、控告、检举的处理


Article 21 If a prisoner is not satisfied with the effective judgment,
he may file a petition.
A people's procuratorate or a people's court shall without delay handle
the petitions filed by prisoners.
   第二十一条 罪犯对生效的判决不服的,可以提出申诉。
对于罪犯的申诉,人民检察院或者人民法院应当及时处理。
Article 22 A prison shall without delay handle the complaints or
accusations made by prisoners, or transfer the above material to a
public security organ or a people's procuratorate for handling. The
public security organ or the people's procuratorate shall inform the
prison of the result of its handling.
   第二十二条 对罪犯提出的控告、检举材料,监狱应当及时处理或者转送公安机关或者人民检察院处理,公安机关或者人民检察院应当将处理结果通知监狱。
Article 23 A prison shall transfer without delay the petitions,
complaints and accusations made by prisoners and shall not withhold
them.
   第二十三条 罪犯的申诉、控告、检举材料,监狱应当及时转递,不得扣压。
Article 24 In the course of execution of the criminal punishment, if a
prison believes on the basis of a prisoner's petition that the judgment
may be wrongfully made, it shall refer the matter to a people's
procuratorate or a people's court for handling. The people's
procuratorate or the people's court shall notify the prison of the
result of its handling within six months from the date of receiving the
prison's written recommendation for handling.
   第二十四条 监狱在执行刑罚过程中,根据罪犯的申诉,认为判决可能有错误的,应当提请人民检察院或者人民法院处理,人民检察院或者人民法院应当自收到监狱提请处理意见书之日起六个月内将处理结果通知监狱。

SECTION 3 EXECUTION OUTSIDE PRISON
 第三节 监外执行


Article 25 If a prisoner sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term
imprisonment serving his sentence in prison complies with the conditions
for execution outside prison as provided by the Criminal Procedure Law,
he may be permitted to temporarily serve his sentence outside prison.
   第二十五条 对于被判处无期徒刑、有期徒刑在监内服刑的罪犯,符合刑事诉讼法规定的监外执行条件的,可以暂予监外执行。
Article 26 For temporary execution outside prison, a written
recommendation shall be made by a prison and submitted for approval to
the administrative organ of prisons of the province, autonomous region
or municipality directly under the Central Government. The organ
granting the approval shall notify the public security organ and the
people's court making the original judgment of the decision on the
approval of the temporary execution outside prison, and send a duplicate
of its decision to the people's procuratorate.
If a people's procuratorate considers that it is improper to apply
temporary execution outside prison to the prisoner, the people's
procuratorate shall send its written opinions within one month from the
date of receiving the notice to the organ that approved the temporary
execution outside prison. The said organ shall, upon receiving the
written opinions from the people's procuratorate, conduct forthwith
reexamination and re-verification of its decision.
   第二十六条 暂予监外执行,由监狱提出书面意见,报省、自治区、直辖市监狱管理机关批准。批准机关应当将批准的暂予监外执行决定通知公安机关和原判人民法院,并抄送人民检察院。
人民检察院认为对罪犯适用暂予监外执行不当的,应当自接到通知之日起一个月内将书面意见送交批准暂予监外执行的机关,批准暂予监外执行的机关接到人民检察院的书面意见后,应当立即对该决定进行重新核查。
Article 27 If a prisoner temporarily serves his sentence outside prison,
the public security organ in the place of the prisoner's residence shall
execute his sentence. The prison that originally held the prisoner in
custody shall promptly inform such public security organ of the
prisoner's performances of reform in prison.
   第二十七条 暂予监外执行的罪犯,由居住地公安机关执行。原关押监狱应当及时将罪犯在监内改造情况通报负责执行的公安机关。
Article 28 After the circumstances causing temporary execution outside
prison disappeared, if the prisoner has not completed his term of
sentence, the public security organ in charge of the execution shall
without delay inform the prison to put the prisoner back into prison; if
a prisoner has completed his term of sentence, the prison that
originally held the prisoner in custody shall handle the formalities for
the release. If a prisoner died during the period of temporary execution
outside prison, the public security organ shall, without delay, inform
the prison that originally held the prisoner in custody about the death.
   第二十八条 暂予监外执行的情形消失后,刑期未满的,负责执行的公安机关应当及时通知监狱收监;刑期届满的,由原关押监狱办理释放手续。罪犯在暂予监外执行期间死亡的,公安机关应当及时通知原关押监狱。

SECTION 4 COMMUTATION OF PUNISHMENT AND RELEASE ON PAROLE
 第四节 减刑、假释


Article 29 If a prisoner sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term
imprisonment has shown true repentance or rendered meritorious service
during the term of imprisonment, his sentence may be commuted on the
basis of the result of the assessment made by the prison. If a prisoner
has rendered one of the following major meritorious services, his
sentence shall be commuted:
   第二十九条 被判处无期徒刑、有期徒刑的罪犯,在服刑期间确有悔改或者立功表现的,根据监狱考核的结果,可以减刑。有下列重大立功表现之一的,应当减刑:
(1) having stopped a grave criminal activity of another person;
 (一)阻止他人重大犯罪活动的;
(2) having reported a grave criminal activity inside or outside prison
which has been ascertained to be true;
 (二)检举监狱内外重大犯罪活动,经查证属实的;
(3) having made an invention or a major technical innovation;
 (三)有发明创造或者重大技术革新的;
(4) having risked his or her life to save others in daily production or
life;
 (四)在日常生产、生活中舍己救人的;
(5) having made remarkable performances in fighting against natural
calamities or in avoiding or removing grave accidents; or
 (五)在抗御自然灾害或者排除重大事故中,有突出表现的;
(6) having made other major contributions to the State or the society.
 (六)对国家和社会有其他重大贡献的。
Article 30 A recommendation for commutation of a sentence shall be made
by a prison to a people's court. The people's court shall within one
month from the date of receiving the written recommendation examine it
and make a ruling thereon; if the case is complicated or the
circumstances are special, the said period may be extended by one month.
A duplicate of the ruling on commutation of a sentence shall be sent to
the people's procuratorate.
   第三十条 减刑建议由监狱向人民法院提出,人民法院应当自收到减刑建议书之日起一个月内予以审核裁定;案情复杂或者情况特殊的,可以延长一个月。减刑裁定的副本应当抄送人民检察院。
Article 31 Where a prisoner sentenced to death penalty with a two-year
suspension of execution conforms with the conditions for commutation to
life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment as provided by the law
during the period of suspension of execution of his death penalty, the
prison holding the prisoner in custody shall make a timely
recommendation for commutation upon expiration of the two-year
suspension of execution and report it first to the administrative organ
of prisons of the province, autonomous region or the municipality
directly under the Central Government for examination and verification,
and then submit the matter to the higher people's court for a ruling.
   第三十一条 被判处死刑缓期二年执行的罪犯,在死刑缓期执行期间,符合法律规定的减为无期徒刑、有期徒刑条件的,二年期满时,所在监狱应当及时提出减刑建议,报经省、自治区、直辖市监狱管理机关审核后,提请高级人民法院裁定。
Article 32 Where a prisoner sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term
imprisonment conforms with the conditions for release on parole as
provided by the law, the prison shall, on the basis of the result of its
assessment, make a recommendation for release on parole to the people's
court. The people's court shall, within one month from the date of
receiving the written recommendation, examine it and make a ruling
thereon; if the case is complicated or the circumstances are special,
the said period may be extended by one month. A duplicate of the ruling
on parole shall be sent to the people's procuratorate.
   第三十二条 被判处无期徒刑、有期徒刑的罪犯,符合法律规定的假释条件的,由监狱根据考核结果向人民法院提出假释建议,人民法院应当自收到假释建议书之日起一个月内予以审核裁定;案情复杂或者情况特殊的,可以延长一个月。假释裁定的副本应当抄送人民检察院。
Article 33 Where a people's court has made a ruling on parole, the
prison shall parole the prisoner as scheduled and issue him a
certificate of parole.
A parolee shall be supervised by a public security organ. Where a
parolee during the period of parole commits any acts in violation of
laws, administrative rules and regulations or the regulations of the
public security department under the State Council on the supervision
and control of parolees, if such acts do not constitute a new crime, the
public security organ may make a written recommendation for the
cancellation of parole to the people's court. The people's court shall
within one month from the date of receiving the written recommendation
examine it and make a ruling thereon. Where the people's court has ruled
to cancel the parole, the parolee shall be handed over to the prison for
custody by the public security organ.
   第三十三条 人民法院裁定假释的,监狱应当按期假释并发给假释证明书。
被假释的罪犯由公安机关予以监督。被假释的罪犯,在假释期间有违反法律、行政法规和国务院公安部门有关假释的监督管理规定的行为,尚未构成新的犯罪的,公安机关可以向人民法院提出撤销假释的建议,人民法院应当自收到撤销假释建议书之日起一个月内予以审核裁定。人民法院裁定撤销假释的,由公安机关将罪犯送交监狱收监。
Article 34 If a prisoner does not satisfy the conditions for commutation
or parole as provided by the law, the prisoner shall not be commuted or
paroled on any ground.
If a people's procuratorate considers that a ruling on commutation or
parole made by a people's court is improper, it may lodge a protest
within the time limit specified by the Criminal Procedure Law. With
respect to the case protested by the people's procuratorate, the
people's court shall try it anew.
   第三十四条 对不符合法律规定的减刑、假释条件的罪犯,不得以任何理由将其减刑、假释。
人民检察院认为人民法院减刑、假释的裁定不当,应当依照刑事诉讼法规定的期间提出抗诉,对于人民检察院抗诉的案件,人民法院应当重新审理。

SECTION 5 RELEASE AND RESETTLEMENT
 第五节 释放和安置


Article 35 If a prisoner has completed service of his sentence, the
prison shall release him as scheduled and issue him a certificate of
release.
   第三十五条 罪犯服刑期满,监狱应当按期释放并发给释放证明书。
Article 36 After a prisoner is released, the public security organ shall
make residence registration for him on the strength of his certificate
of release.
   第三十六条 罪犯释放后,公安机关凭释放证明书办理户籍登记。
Article 37 With respect to a person released after serving his sentence,
the local people's government shall assist him in resettling down.
If a person released after serving his sentence has lost his ability to
do labour, and has no statutory supporters or basic source of income,
the local people's government shall offer him relief.
   第三十七条 对刑满释放人员,当地人民政府帮助其安置生活。
刑满释放人员丧失劳动能力又无法定赡养人、扶养人和基本生活来源的,由当地人民政府予以救济。
Article 38 A person released after serving his sentence shall enjoy
equal rights with other citizens in accordance with the law.
   第三十八条 刑满释放人员依法享有与其他公民平等的权利。

CHAPTER IV PRISON ADMINISTRATION
 第四章 狱政管理


SECTION 1 SEPARATE CUSTODY AND SEPARATE CONTROL
 第一节 分押分管


Article 39 A prison shall practise separate custody and separate control
with respect to male adult prisoners, female adult prisoners and
juvenile delinquents. In respect of the reform of juvenile delinquents
and female prisoners, special consideration shall be given to their
physiological and psychological characteristics.
A prison shall, with respect to prisoners, carry out separate custody
and varied control on the basis of their types of crimes and
punishments, terms of sentences and performances of reform.
   第三十九条 监狱对成年男犯、女犯和未成年犯实行分开关押和管理,对未成年犯和女犯的改造,应当照顾其生理、心理特点。
监狱根据罪犯的犯罪类型、刑罚种类、刑期、改造表现等情况,对罪犯实行分别关押,采取不同方式管理。
Article 40 Female prisoners shall be under the direct control of
people's policewomen.
   第四十条 女犯由女性人民警察直接管理。

SECTION 2 GUARD
 第二节 警戒


Article 41 The people's armed police forces shall be in charge of the
armed guard of prisons. The specific measures shall be prescribed by the
State Council and the Central Military Commission.
   第四十一条 监狱的武装警戒由人民武装警察部队负责,具体办法由国务院、中央军事委员会规定。
Article 42 If a prison discovers that a prisoner in custody has escaped,
the prison shall capture him as soon as possible. If the prison can not
immediately capture the escaped prisoner, it shall notify the public
security organ without delay. The public security organ shall be
responsible for the pursuit and capture of the escaped prisoner, and the
prison shall closely coordinate with the public security organ.
   第四十二条 监狱发现在押罪犯脱逃,应当即时将其抓获,不能即时抓获的,应当立即通知公安机关,由公安机关负责追捕,监狱密切配合。
Article 43 A prison shall set up guard installations in accordance with
the needs of supervision and control. The guard segregation zone around
a prison shall be delimited. No one shall, without permission, enter
into such zone.
   第四十三条 监狱根据监管需要,设立警戒设施。监狱周围设警戒隔离带,未经准许,任何人不得进入。
Article 44 State organs, public organizations, enterprises, institutions
and grass-roots organizations in the neighbourhood of a prison or its
operation areas shall assist the prison in its security work.
   第四十四条 监区、作业区周围的机关、团体、企业事业单位和基层组织,应当协助监狱做好安全警戒工作。

SECTION 3 USE OF RESTRAINT IMPLEMENTS AND WEAPONS
 第三节 戒具和武器的使用


Article 45 Under any of the following circumstances, a prison may use
restraint implements:
   第四十五条 监狱遇有下列情形之一的,可以使用戒具:
(1) if a prisoner commits any acts of escape;
 (一)罪犯有脱逃行为的;
(2) if a prisoner commits any acts of violence;
 (二)罪犯有使用暴力行为的;
(3) if a prisoner is on the way of escort; or
 (三)罪犯正在押解途中的;
(4) if a prisoner commits other dangerous acts against which it is
necessary to take precautions.
After the circumstances specified in the preceding paragraph
disappeared, restraint implements shall not be used.
 (四)罪犯有其他危险行为需要采取防范措施的。
前款所列情形消失后,应当停止使用戒具。
Article 46 Personnel on duty of the people's police or the people's
armed police forces may, under any of the following circumstances, which
can not be checked without the use of weapons, use weapons in accordance
with the relevant regulations of the State:
   第四十六条 人民警察和人民武装警察部队的执勤人员遇有下列情形之一,非使用武器不能制止的,按照国家有关规定,可以使用武器:
(1) if any prisoner is assembling a crowd to make a riot or rebellion;
 (一)罪犯聚众骚乱、暴乱的;
(2) if any prisoner is escaping or resisting arrest;
 (二)罪犯脱逃或者拒捕的;
(3) if any prisoner is committing physical assault or destruction with a
lethal weapon or other dangerous articles to endanger the safety of
another person's life or property;
 (三)罪犯持有凶器或者其他危险物,正在行凶或者破坏,危及他人生命、财产安全的;
(4) if any prisoner is being seized and rescued by force; or
 (四)劫夺罪犯的;
(5) if any prisoner is seizing a weapon by force.
Personnel who have used weapons shall report the situations in
accordance with the relevant regulations of the State.
 (五)罪犯抢夺武器的。
使用武器的人员,应当按照国家有关规定报告情况。

SECTION 4 CORRESPONDENCE AND MEETING WITH VISITORS
 第四节 通信、会见


Article 47 A prisoner may, during the service of his sentence,
correspond with others, but their correspondence shall be examined by
the prison. If the prison discovers that the contents of a letter
present a hindrance to the reform of the prisoner, the prison may detain
the letter. Letters from a prisoner to the higher authorities of the
prison or to the judicial organs shall be free from examination.
   第四十七条 罪犯在服刑期间可以与他人通信,但是来往信件应当经过监狱检查。监狱发现有碍罪犯改造内容的信件,可以扣留。罪犯写给监狱的上级机关和司法机关的信件,不受检查。
Article 48 A prisoner may, in accordance with the relevant regulations,
meet with his relatives and guardians during the service of his
sentence.
   第四十八条 罪犯在监狱服刑期间,按照规定,可以会见亲属、监护人。
Article 49 Goods or money to be received by a prisoner shall be subject
to the approval and examination of the prison.
  第四十九条 罪犯收受物品和钱款,应当经监狱批准、检查。

SECTION 5 LIFE AND HEALTH
 第五节 生活、卫生


Article 50 The living standard of prisoners shall be measured by the
quantity of material objects, and it shall be set by the State.
   第五十条 罪犯的生活标准按实物量计算,由国家规定。
Article 51 The beddings and clothings of prisoners shall be uniformly
rationed and provided by the prison.
   第五十一条 罪犯的被服由监狱统一配发。
Article 52 Considerations shall be given to the special habits and
customs of prisoners of minority ethnic groups.
   第五十二条 对少数民族罪犯的特殊生活习惯,应当予以照顾。
Article 53 Wards of a prison shall be firm, ventilated, possible for the
natural light to come in, clean and warm.
   第五十三条 罪犯居住的监舍应当坚固、通风、透光、清洁、保暖。
Article 54 A prison shall set up medical organs and living and sanitary
facilities, and institute regulations on the life and sanitation of
prisoners. Medical and health care of prisoners shall be put into the
public health and epidemic prevention programme of the area in which the
prison is located.
   第五十四条 监狱应当设立医疗机构和生活、卫生设施,建立罪犯生活、卫生制度。罪犯的医疗保健列入监狱所在地区的卫生、防疫计划。
Article 55 If a prisoner dies during imprisonment, the prison shall
immediately inform the prisoner's family members, the people's
procuratorate and the people's court. If a prisoner dies from a disease,
the prison shall make a medical appraisal. If the people's procuratorate
suspects the prison's medical appraisal, it may make an appraisal anew
on the cause of the death. If the family members of the prisoner suspect
the prison's medical appraisal, they may raise their suspicion to the
people's procuratorate. If a prisoner dies an abnormal death, the
people's procuratorate shall immediately conduct examinations and make
an appraisal on the cause of the death.
   第五十五条 罪犯在服刑期间死亡的,监狱应当立即通知罪犯家属和人民检察院、人民法院。罪犯因病死亡的,由监狱作出医疗鉴定。人民检察院对监狱的医疗鉴定有疑义的,可以重新对死亡原因作出鉴定。罪犯家属有疑义的,可以向人民检察院提出。罪犯非正常死亡的,人民检察院应当立即检验,对死亡原因作出鉴定。

SECTION 6 REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS
 第六节 奖惩


Article 56 A prison shall establish a routine check-up system for
prisoners. The result of such check-ups shall be taken as the basis for
awarding or punishing prisoners.
   第五十六条 监狱应当建立罪犯的日常考核制度,考核的结果作为对罪犯奖励和处罚的依据。
Article 57 If a prisoner is under one of the following circumstances,
the prison may commend or award him, or record a merit for him:
   第五十七条 罪犯有下列情形之一的,监狱可以给予表扬、物质奖励或者记功:
(1) if a prisoner observes the rules and discipline of the prison,
studies hard, takes an active part in labour and shows admission of
guilt and acceptance of the judgement;
 (一)遵守监规纪律,努力学习,积极劳动,有认罪服法表现的;
(2) if a prisoner has stopped any law-breaking or criminal activities;
 (二)阻止违法犯罪活动的;
(3) if a prisoner has overfulfilled his production task;
 (三)超额完成生产任务的;
(4) if a prisoner has made achievements in saving on raw materials or
caring for public property;
 (四)节约原材料或者爱护公物,有成绩的;
(5) if a prisoner has achieved certain success in technical renovation
or passing on his production skill;
 (五)进行技术革新或者传授生产技术,有一定成效的;
(6) if a prisoner has made contributions in preventing or removing a
disastrous accident; or
 (六)在防止或者消除灾害事故中作出一定贡献的;
(7) if a prisoner has made other contributions to the State and the
society.
Where a prisoner sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment is under one of
the circumstances specified in the preceding paragraph, if he has served
more than a half of the original term of his sentence, and has always
shown good performances during imprisonment and if his leaving from the
prison will no longer endanger the society, the prison may, in light of
the circumstances, permit him to leave the prison for the purpose of
visiting his family members or relatives.
 (七)对国家和社会有其他贡献的。
被判处有期徒刑的罪犯有前款所列情形之一,执行原判刑期二分之一以上,在服刑期间一贯表现好,离开监狱不致再危害社会的,监狱可以根据情况准其离监探亲。
Article 58 If a prisoner has committed one of the following acts
obstructing the order of supervision and control, the prison may give
him a warning, demerit-recording or solitary confinement:
   第五十八条 罪犯有下列破坏监管秩序情形之一的,监狱可以给予警告、记过或者禁闭:
(1) assembling a crowd to make a stir and to disturb the order of the
prison;
 (一)聚众哄闹监狱,扰乱正常秩序的;
(2) abusing or beating the people's police;
 (二)辱骂或者殴打人民警察的;
(3) bullying other prisoners;
 (三)欺压其他罪犯的;
(4) stealing, gambling, coming to blows, or stirring up fights and
causing troubles;
 (四)偷窃、赌博、打架斗殴、寻衅滋事的;
(5) refusing to do labour though he has the ability to work or being
slack in work and refusing to mend his ways even after education;
 (五)有劳动能力拒不参加劳动或者消极怠工,经教育不改的;
(6) escaping from doing labour by means of self-injury or self-
mutilation;
 (六)以自伤、自残手段逃避劳动的;
(7) intentionally violating the operation rules in productive labour or
intentionally destroying tools of production; or
 (七)在生产劳动中故意违反操作规程,或者有意损坏生产工具的;
(8) other acts violating the rules and discipline of the prison.
The term of solitary confinement imposed on a prisoner as stipulated by
the preceding paragraph shall be from seven to fifteen days.
If a prisoner has committed an act specified in the first paragraph
during the service of his sentence, and if the case constitutes a crime,
he shall be investigated for criminal responsibility according to law.
 (八)有违反监规纪律的其他行为的。
依照前款规定对罪犯实行禁闭的期限为七天至十五天。
罪犯在服刑期间有第一款所列行为,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

SECTION 7 HANDLING OF CRIMES COMMITTED BY PRISONERS DURING THE TERM OF IMPRISONMENT
 第七节 对罪犯服刑期间犯罪的处理


Article 59 If a prisoner intentionally commits a crime during the
service of his sentence, he shall be given a heavier punishment
according to law.
   第五十九条 罪犯在服刑期间故意犯罪的,依法从重处罚。
Article 60 A criminal case committed by a prisoner in the prison shall
be investigated by the prison. On the conclusion of the investigation, a
recommendation for prosecution or a recommendation for exemption from
prosecution written by the prison together with the case file and the
evidence shall be handed over to a people's procuratorate.
   第六十条 对罪犯在监狱内犯罪的案件,由监狱进行侦查。侦查终结后,写出起诉意见书或者免予起诉意见书,连同案卷材料、证据一并移送人民检察院。

CHAPTER V EDUCATION AND REFORM OF PRISONERS
 第五章 对罪犯的教育改造


Article 61 In the education and reform of prisoners, the principle of
suiting education to different persons and cases and persuading
prisoners through reasoning shall be implemented and the method of
combining collective education with individual education and combining
education by the prison with education by the society adopted.
   第六十一条 教育改造罪犯,实行因人施教、分类教育、以理服人的原则,采取集体教育与个别教育相结合、狱内教育与社会教育相结合的方法。
Article 62 A prison shall carry out ideological education among
prisoners in legality, morality, current situations, policies and
outlook on their futures.
   第六十二条 监狱应当对罪犯进行法制、道德、形势、政策、前途等内容的思想教育。
Article 63 A prison shall, in light of different conditions of
prisoners, carry out literacy education, primary education and junior
secondary education. If a prisoner has passed due examinations, the
educational department shall issue him the corresponding certificate of
education.
   第六十三条 监狱应当根据不同情况,对罪犯进行扫盲教育、初等教育和初级中等教育,经考试合格的,由教育部门发给相应的学业证书。
Article 64 A prison shall carry out occupational and technical education
among prisoners in accordance with the needs of production in the prison
and of employment after their release. If a prisoner has passed due
examination and verification, the labour department shall issue him the
corresponding certificate of technical grade.
   第六十四条 监狱应当根据监狱生产和罪犯释放后就业的需要,对罪犯进行职业技术教育,经考核合格的,由劳动部门发给相应的技术等级证书。
Article 65 A prison shall encourage prisoners to study on their own. If
a prisoner has passed due examinations, the relevant department shall
issue him the corresponding certificate.
   第六十五条 监狱鼓励罪犯自学,经考试合格的,由有关部门发给相应的证书。
Article 66 The cultural, occupational and technical education of
prisoners shall be included into the educational plan of the area where
the prison is located. A prison shall have necessary educational
facilities such as class-rooms and reading-rooms.
   第六十六条 罪犯的文化和职业技术教育,应当列入所在地区教育规划。监狱应当设立教室、图书阅览室等必要的教育设施。
Article 67 A prison shall organize prisoners to conduct proper sport
activities and cultural recreations.
   第六十七条 监狱应当组织罪犯开展适当的体育活动和文化娱乐活动。
Article 68 State organs, public organizations, units of armed forces,
enterprises, institutions, personage of various circles and family
members or relatives of prisoners shall assist prisons in doing a good
job in the education and reform of prisoners.
   第六十八条 国家机关、社会团体、部队、企业事业单位和社会各界人士以及罪犯的亲属,应当协助监狱做好对罪犯的教育改造工作。
Article 69 An able-bodied prisoner must do labour.
   第六十九条 有劳动能力的罪犯,必须参加劳动。
Article 70 A prison shall, in the light of the individual conditions of
prisoners, rationally organize them to do labour so as to correct their
bad habits, to cultivate their habits of working, to acquire production
skills and to create conditions for employment after their release.
   第七十条 监狱根据罪犯的个人情况,合理组织劳动,使其矫正恶习,养成劳动习惯,学会生产技能,并为释放后就业创造条件。
Article 71 With regard to the working hours of prisoners, a prison shall
make reference to the State's relevant regulations on working hours;
under special circumstances such as seasonal production, the working
hours may be readjusted.
Prisoners shall have the right to rest on statutory festivals and
holidays.
   第七十一条 监狱对罪犯的劳动时间,参照国家有关劳动工时的规定执行;在季节性生产等特殊情况下,可以调整劳动时间。
罪犯有在法定节日和休息日休息的权利。
Article 72 Prisons shall, in accordance with the relevant regulations,
pay remunerations to the prisoners who take part in labour, and
implement relevant regulations of the State on labour protection.
   第七十二条 监狱对参加劳动的罪犯,应当按照有关规定给予报酬并执行国家有关劳动保护的规定。
Article 73 If a prisoner is injured, disabled or dead in the course of
doing labour, the prison shall handle the matter with reference to
relevant regulations of the State on labour insurance.
   第七十三条 罪犯在劳动中致伤、致残或者死亡的,由监狱参照国家劳动保险的有关规定处理。

CHAPTER VI EDUCATION AND REFORM OF JUVENILE DELINQUENTS
 第六章 对未成年犯的教育改造


Article 74 Criminal punishments on juvenile delinquents shall be
executed in the reformatories for juvenile delinquents.
   第七十四条 对未成年犯应当在未成年犯管教所执行刑罚。
Article 75 The focus in the execution of criminal punishments on
juvenile delinquents shall be on education and reform. Labour for
juvenile delinquents shall conform to the characteristics of minors and
its main objectives shall be to acquire an elementary education and
production skills.
A prison shall coordinate with the State, society and educational
institutions such as schools in providing necessary conditions for
juvenile delinquents to receive compulsory education.
   第七十五条 对未成年犯执行刑罚应当以教育改造为主。未成年犯的劳动,应当符合未成年人的特点,以学习文化和生产技能为主。
监狱应当配合国家、社会、学校等教育机构,为未成年犯接受义务教育提供必要的条件。
Article 76 If a juvenile delinquent has reached the age of 18 and the
remaining term of his sentence does not exceed two years, he may still
be kept in the reformatory for juvenile delinquents for the execution of
the remaining term of his sentence.
   第七十六条 未成年犯年满十八周岁时,剩余刑期不超过二年的,仍可以留在未成年犯管教所执行剩余刑期。
Article 77 If matters relating to the control, education and reform of juvenile delinquents are not covered by this Chapter, the relevant provisions of this Law shall apply.
   第七十七条 对未成年犯的管理和教育改造,本章未作规定的,适用本法的有关规定。

CHAPTER VII SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS
 第七章 附则


Article 78 This Law shall go into effect as of the date of promulgation.

   第七十八条 本法自公布之日起施行。

     
     
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