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General Provisions of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China [Not Yet Effective]
中华人民共和国民法总则 [尚未生效]
【法宝引证码】
  • Issuing authority: National People's Congress
  • Document Number: Order No. 66 of the President
  • Date issued: 03-15-2017
  • Effective date: 10-01-2017
  • Level of Authority: Laws
  • Area of law:Civil Law
 
  
  
Order of the President of the People's Republic of China 

中华人民共和国主席令

(No. 66) (第六十六号)

The General Provisions of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China, as adopted at the 5th Session of the Twelfth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on March 15, 2017, are hereby issued, and shall come into force on October 1, 2017. 《中华人民共和国民法总则》已由中华人民共和国第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议于2017年3月15日通过,现予公布,自2017年10月1日起施行。
President of the People's Republic of China: Xi Jinping 中华人民共和国主席 习近平
March 15, 2017 2017年3月15日
General Provisions of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国民法总则
(Adopted at the 5th Session of the Twelfth National People's Congress on March 15, 2017) (2017年3月15日第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议通过)
Table of Contents 目录
Chapter I Basic Provisions 第一章 基本规定
Chapter II Natural Persons 第二章 自然人
Section 1 Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct 第一节 民事权利能力和民事行为能力
Section 2 Guardianship 第二节 监护
Section 3 Declaration of Absence and Declaration of Death 第三节 宣告失踪和宣告死亡
Section 4 Individual Industrial and Commercial Households and Rural Usufructuary Households 第四节 个体工商户和农村承包经营户
Chapter III Legal Persons 第三章 法 人
Section 1 General Rules 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 For-Profit Legal Persons 第二节 营利法人
Section 3 Non-Profit Legal Persons 第三节 非营利法人
Section 4 Special Legal Persons 第四节 特别法人
Chapter IV Unincorporated Organizations 第四章 非法人组织
Chapter V Civil Rights 第五章 民事权利
Chapter VI Juridical Acts 第六章 民事法律行为
Section 1 General Rules 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 Declaration of Will 第二节 意思表示
Section 3 Validity of Juridical Acts 第三节 民事法律行为的效力
Section 4 Juridical Acts Subject to Conditions or Terms 第四节 民事法律行为的附条件和附期限
Chapter VII Agency 第七章 代 理
Section 1 General Rules 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 Agency by Mandate 第二节 委托代理
Section 3 Termination of Agency 第三节 代理终止
Chapter VIII Civil Liability 第八章 民事责任
Chapter IX Extinctive Prescription 第九章 诉讼时效
Chapter X Calculation of Time Periods 第十章 期间计算
Chapter XI Supplemental Provisions 第十一章 附 则
Chapter I Basic Provisions 

第一章 基本规定

Article 1 For the purposes of protecting the lawful rights and interests of the parties to civil legal relations, regulating civil relations, maintaining the social and economic order, meeting the developmental requirements of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and upholding core socialist values, this Law is enacted in accordance with the Constitution.   第一条 为了保护民事主体的合法权益,调整民事关系,维护社会和经济秩序,适应中国特色社会主义发展要求,弘扬社会主义核心价值观,根据宪法,制定本法。
Article 2 Civil law regulates the personal relationships and property relationships among natural persons, legal persons, and organizations without juridical personality, as equal parties.   第二条 民法调整平等主体的自然人、法人和非法人组织之间的人身关系和财产关系。
Article 3 The personal rights, property rights, and other lawful rights and interests of the parties to civil legal relations shall be protected by law, and no organization or individual may infringe upon such rights and interests.   第三条 民事主体的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益受法律保护,任何组织或者个人不得侵犯。
Article 4 All parties to civil legal relations are equal in legal status in civil activities.   第四条 民事主体在民事活动中的法律地位一律平等。
Article 5 The parties to civil legal relations shall conduct civil activities under the principle of free will, and create, modify, or terminate civil legal relations according to their own wills.   第五条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循自愿原则,按照自己的意思设立、变更、终止民事法律关系。
Article 6 The parties to civil legal relations shall conduct civil activities under the principle of fairness, and rationally determine the rights and obligations of each party.   第六条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循公平原则,合理确定各方的权利和义务。
Article 7 The parties to civil legal relations shall conduct civil activities under the principle of good faith, adhere to honesty, and fulfill their promises.   第七条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循诚信原则,秉持诚实,恪守承诺。
Article 8 The parties to civil legal relations shall not conduct civil activities in violation of the law, nor contrary to public order and good morals.   第八条 民事主体从事民事活动,不得违反法律,不得违背公序良俗。
Article 9 The parties to civil legal relations shall conduct civil activities contributing to the conservation of resources and protection of environment.   第九条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当有利于节约资源、保护生态环境。
Article 10 Civil disputes shall be resolved in accordance with the law; or if the law is silent, customs may apply, but not contrary to public order and good morals.   第十条 处理民事纠纷,应当依照法律;法律没有规定的,可以适用习惯,但是不得违背公序良俗。
Article 11 Where there are any special provisions on civil relations in any other law, such special provisions shall apply.   第十一条 其他法律对民事关系有特别规定的,依照其规定。
Article 12 The law of the People's Republic of China shall apply to civil activities within the territory of the People's Republic of China, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第十二条 中华人民共和国领域内的民事活动,适用中华人民共和国法律。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Chapter II Natural Persons 

第二章 自然人

Section 1 Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct 

第一节 民事权利能力和民事行为能力

Article 13 A natural person has the capacity for civil rights from the moment of birth to the moment of death, enjoying civil rights and assuming civil obligations in accordance with the law.   第十三条 自然人从出生时起到死亡时止,具有民事权利能力,依法享有民事权利,承担民事义务。
Article 14 All natural persons are equal in capacity for civil rights.   第十四条 自然人的民事权利能力一律平等。
Article 15 The time of birth and the time of death of a natural person shall be the ones recorded on his or her birth certificate or death certificate; or in the absence of a birth certificate or death certificate, the time shall be the one recorded in the household registration or any other valid identity registration. If there is any other evidence sufficient to overturn the aforesaid time, the time proved by such evidence shall prevail.   第十五条 自然人的出生时间和死亡时间,以出生证明、死亡证明记载的时间为准;没有出生证明、死亡证明的,以户籍登记或者其他有效身份登记记载的时间为准。有其他证据足以推翻以上记载时间的,以该证据证明的时间为准。
Article 16 Where the protection of the interests of a fetus is involved in, among others, a succession or acceptance of a gift, the fetus shall be presumed to have capacity for civil rights. However, in case of a stillborn, the fetus's capacity for civil rights has never existed.   第十六条 涉及遗产继承、接受赠与等胎儿利益保护的,胎儿视为具有民事权利能力。但是胎儿娩出时为死体的,其民事权利能力自始不存在。
Article 17 A natural person attaining the age of eighteen is an adult. A natural person under the age of eighteen is a minor.   第十七条 十八周岁以上的自然人为成年人。不满十八周岁的自然人为未成年人。
Article 18 An adult has full capacity for civil conduct, and may perform juridical acts independently.   第十八条 成年人为完全民事行为能力人,可以独立实施民事法律行为。
A minor attaining the age of sixteen and primarily relying on his or her own labor income in living is deemed a person with full capacity for civil conduct. 十六周岁以上的未成年人,以自己的劳动收入为主要生活来源的,视为完全民事行为能力人。
Article 19 A minor attaining the age of eight is a person with limited capacity for civil conduct, who shall be represented by his or her statutory agent in performing juridical acts or whose performance of juridical acts shall be consented to or ratified by his or her statutory agent, but may alone perform juridical acts which purely benefit the minor or are commensurate with his or her age and intelligence.   第十九条 八周岁以上的未成年人为限制民事行为能力人,实施民事法律行为由其法定代理人代理或者经其法定代理人同意、追认,但是可以独立实施纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其年龄、智力相适应的民事法律行为。
Article 20 A minor under the age of eight is a person without capacity for civil conduct, who shall be represented in performing civil juridical acts by his or her statutory agent.   第二十条 不满八周岁的未成年人为无民事行为能力人,由其法定代理人代理实施民事法律行为。
Article 21 An adult incapable of discerning his or her conduct is a person without capacity for civil conduct, who shall be represented by his or her statutory agent in performing juridical acts.   第二十一条 不能辨认自己行为的成年人为无民事行为能力人,由其法定代理人代理实施民事法律行为。
The provision of the preceding paragraph shall also apply to a minor attaining the age of eight without the power of discernment of his or her conduct. 八周岁以上的未成年人不能辨认自己行为的,适用前款规定。
Article 22 An adult incapable of fully discerning his or her conduct shall be a person with limited capacity for civil conduct, who shall be represented by his or her statutory agent in performing juridical acts or whose performance of juridical acts shall be consented to or ratified by his or her statutory agent, but may perform alone juridical acts which purely benefit the adult or are commensurate with his or her intelligence and mental health.   第二十二条 不能完全辨认自己行为的成年人为限制民事行为能力人,实施民事法律行为由其法定代理人代理或者经其法定代理人同意、追认,但是可以独立实施纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为。
Article 23 The guardian of a person without capacity for civil conduct or with limited capacity for civil conduct shall be the statutory agent of the person.   第二十三条 无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人的监护人是其法定代理人。
Article 24 For an adult incapable of discerning or fully discerning his or her conduct, an interested party or a relevant organization may apply to a people's court for determining the adult as a person without capacity for civil conduct or a person with limited capacity for civil conduct.   第二十四条 不能辨认或者不能完全辨认自己行为的成年人,其利害关系人或者有关组织,可以向人民法院申请认定该成年人为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人。
After the adult is determined by a people's court as a person without capacity for civil conduct or a person with limited capacity for civil conduct, the people's court may, based on the recovery of his or her intelligence or mental health, determine the adult as a person with limited capacity for civil conduct or a person with full capacity for civil conduct, upon his or her application or application of an interested party or a relevant organization. 被人民法院认定为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人的,经本人、利害关系人或者有关组织申请,人民法院可以根据其智力、精神健康恢复的状况,认定该成年人恢复为限制民事行为能力人或者完全民事行为能力人。
For the purposes of this article, the relevant organizations include but are not limited to: an urban residents' committee, a villagers' committee, a school, a medical institution, a women's federation, a disabled persons' federation, an organization legally formed for seniors, and a civil affairs department, among others. 本条规定的有关组织包括:居民委员会、村民委员会、学校、医疗机构、妇女联合会、残疾人联合会、依法设立的老年人组织、民政部门等。
Article 25 The domicile of a natural person shall be his or her residence recorded in the household registration or any other valid identity registration; but if his or her habitual residence is different from the domicile, the habitual residence shall be deemed his or her domicile.   第二十五条 自然人以户籍登记或者其他有效身份登记记载的居所为住所;经常居所与住所不一致的,经常居所视为住所。
Section 2 Guardianship 

第二节 监 护

Article 26 Parents have the obligations of maintenance, education, and protection of their minor children.   第二十六条 父母对未成年子女负有抚养、教育和保护的义务。
Adult children have the obligations of supporting, assistance, and protection of their parents. 成年子女对父母负有赡养、扶助和保护的义务。
Article 27 The parents of a minor are his or her guardians.   第二十七条 父母是未成年子女的监护人。
Where both parents of a minor are dead or incapable of acting as a guardian, one of the following persons capable of acting as a guardian shall act as the guardian of the minor in the following order: 未成年人的父母已经死亡或者没有监护能力的,由下列有监护能力的人按顺序担任监护人:
(1) Paternal or maternal grandparents of the minor. (一)祖父母、外祖父母;
(2) Elder brothers or sisters of the minor. (二)兄、姐;
(3) Other individuals or organizations willing to act as the guardian, provided that it is approved by the urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department of the place of the minor's domicile. (三)其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织,但是须经未成年人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门同意。
Article 28 One of the following persons capable of acting as a guardian shall, in the following order, act as the guardian of an adult without capacity for civil conduct or with limited capacity for civil conduct:   第二十八条 无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的成年人,由下列有监护能力的人按顺序担任监护人:
(1) Spouse of the adult. (一)配偶;
(2) Parents or children of the adult. (二)父母、子女;
(3) Other close relatives of the adult. (三)其他近亲属;
(4) Other individuals or organizations willing to act as the guardian, provided that it is approved by the urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department of the place of the adult's domicile. (四)其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织,但是须经被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门同意。
Article 29 Where the parents of a ward are his or her guardians, they may designate the guardian by a will.   第二十九条 被监护人的父母担任监护人的,可以通过遗嘱指定监护人。
Article 30 Persons legally qualified for guardianship may, by agreement, determine the guardian. The true will of the ward shall be respected in the determination of guardian by agreement.   第三十条 依法具有监护资格的人之间可以协议确定监护人。协议确定监护人应当尊重被监护人的真实意愿。
Article 31 In case of any dispute over the determination of guardian, the urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department of the place of the ward's domicile may designate the guardian, and against the aforesaid designation, the relevant parties may apply to the people's court for designating the guardian; and the relevant parties may, notwithstanding, directly apply to the people's court for designating the guardian.   第三十一条 对监护人的确定有争议的,由被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门指定监护人,有关当事人对指定不服的,可以向人民法院申请指定监护人;有关当事人也可以直接向人民法院申请指定监护人。
The urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, civil affairs department, or people's court shall respect the true will of the ward, and designate the guardian from among persons legally qualified for guardianship under the principle of most benefiting the ward. 居民委员会、村民委员会、民政部门或者人民法院应当尊重被监护人的真实意愿,按照最有利于被监护人的原则在依法具有监护资格的人中指定监护人。
Before the guardian is designated under paragraph 1 of this article, if the personal rights, property rights, and other lawful rights and interests of the ward are under no protection, the urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, relevant organization prescribed by the law, or civil affairs department of the place of the ward's domicile shall act as the provisional guardian. 依照本条第一款规定指定监护人前,被监护人的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益处于无人保护状态的,由被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会、法律规定的有关组织或者民政部门担任临时监护人。
After designation, the guardian shall not be replaced without permission; and in case of replacement without permission, the designated guardian is not relieved of his or her responsibilities. 监护人被指定后,不得擅自变更;擅自变更的,不免除被指定的监护人的责任。
Article 32 Where there is no person legally qualified for guardianship, the civil affairs department may or the urban residents' committee or villagers' committee of the place of the ward's domicile satisfying the conditions for performing the duty of guardianship may act as the guardian.   第三十二条 没有依法具有监护资格的人的,监护人由民政部门担任,也可以由具备履行监护职责条件的被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会担任。
Article 33 An adult with full capacity for civil conduct may, by consulting in advance with his or her close relatives or other individuals or organizations willing to act as a guardian, determine his or her guardian in writing. When the adult loses all or part of capacity for civil conduct, the guardian determined by consultation shall perform the duty of guardianship of the adult.   第三十三条 具有完全民事行为能力的成年人,可以与其近亲属、其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织事先协商,以书面形式确定自己的监护人。协商确定的监护人在该成年人丧失或者部分丧失民事行为能力时,履行监护职责。
Article 34 The duties of a guardian include but are not limited to representing the ward in performing juridical acts and protecting the personal rights, property rights, and other lawful rights and interests of the ward.   第三十四条 监护人的职责是代理被监护人实施民事法律行为,保护被监护人的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益等。
The guardian's rights arising from performance of the duty of guardianship in accordance with the law shall be protected by law. 监护人依法履行监护职责产生的权利,受法律保护。
A guardian failing to perform the duty of guardianship or infringing upon the ward's lawful rights and interests shall assume legal liability. 监护人不履行监护职责或者侵害被监护人合法权益的,应当承担法律责任。
Article 35 A guardian shall perform the duty of guardianship under the principle of most benefiting the ward. The guardian shall not dispose of the ward's property unless for safeguarding the ward's interests.   第三十五条 监护人应当按照最有利于被监护人的原则履行监护职责。监护人除为维护被监护人利益外,不得处分被监护人的财产。
The guardian of a minor shall, in the performance of the duty of guardianship, respect the ward's true will when making decisions related to the ward's interests according to the ward's age and intelligence. 未成年人的监护人履行监护职责,在作出与被监护人利益有关的决定时,应当根据被监护人的年龄和智力状况,尊重被监护人的真实意愿。
The guardian of an adult shall, in the performance of the duty of guardianship, respect the ward's true will to the fullest extent, safeguard and assist the ward in performing juridical acts that are commensurate with the ward's intelligence and mental health. The guardian shall not interfere with any affairs that the ward is capable of handling alone. 成年人的监护人履行监护职责,应当最大程度地尊重被监护人的真实意愿,保障并协助被监护人实施与其智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为。对被监护人有能力独立处理的事务,监护人不得干涉。
Article 36 Where a guardian falls under any of the following circumstances, the people's court shall, upon application of the relevant individual or organization, disqualify the guardian, arrange necessary provisional guardianship measures, and designate another guardian in accordance with the law under the principle of most benefiting the ward:   第三十六条 监护人有下列情形之一的,人民法院根据有关个人或者组织的申请,撤销其监护人资格,安排必要的临时监护措施,并按照最有利于被监护人的原则依法指定监护人:
(1) Acting seriously to the detriment of the ward's physical and mental health. (一)实施严重损害被监护人身心健康行为的;
(2) Being slack in performing the duty of guardianship, or being incapable of performing the duty of guardianship but refusing to delegate part or all of the duty of guardianship to another person, which causes distress of the ward. (二)怠于履行监护职责,或者无法履行监护职责并且拒绝将监护职责部分或者全部委托给他人,导致被监护人处于危困状态的;
(3) Otherwise seriously infringing upon the ward's lawful rights and interests. (三)实施严重侵害被监护人合法权益的其他行为的。
For the purposes of this article, the relevant individuals and organizations include but are not limited to: any other person legally qualified for guardianship, an urban residents' committee, a villagers' committee, a school, a medical institution, a women's federation, a disabled persons' federation, an organization for the protection of minors, an organizations legally formed for seniors, and a civil affairs department. 本条规定的有关个人和组织包括:其他依法具有监护资格的人,居民委员会、村民委员会、学校、医疗机构、妇女联合会、残疾人联合会、未成年人保护组织、依法设立的老年人组织、民政部门等。
Where the individuals and organizations except the civil affairs department as prescribed in the preceding paragraph fail to apply for the disqualification of the guardian to the people's court in a timely manner, the civil affairs department shall file such an application with the people's court. 前款规定的个人和民政部门以外的组织未及时向人民法院申请撤销监护人资格的,民政部门应当向人民法院申请。
Article 37 Parents, children, and spouses who support the wards in the form of child support, support for elderly parents, or spousal support in accordance with the law shall continue to perform such obligations after they are disqualified by the people's courts as guardians.   第三十七条 依法负担被监护人抚养费、赡养费、扶养费的父母、子女、配偶等,被人民法院撤销监护人资格后,应当继续履行负担的义务。
Article 38 Where the ward's parent or child shows true repentance after being disqualified from guardianship by the people's court, except one having committed an intentional crime on the ward, the people's court may, by respecting the ward's true will and according to the circumstances, reinstate his or her guardianship upon his or her application, and the guardianship between the guardian designated by the people's court and the ward shall terminate concurrently.   第三十八条 被监护人的父母或者子女被人民法院撤销监护人资格后,除对被监护人实施故意犯罪的外,确有悔改表现的,经其申请,人民法院可以在尊重被监护人真实意愿的前提下,视情况恢复其监护人资格,人民法院指定的监护人与被监护人的监护关系同时终止。
Article 39 Under any of the following circumstances, the guardianship shall terminate:   第三十九条 有下列情形之一的,监护关系终止:
(1) The ward obtains or regains full capacity for civil conduct. (一)被监护人取得或者恢复完全民事行为能力;
(2) The guardian becomes incapable of guardianship. (二)监护人丧失监护能力;
(3) The ward or the guardian dies. (三)被监护人或者监护人死亡;
(4) The guardian relationship otherwise terminates as determined by a people's court. (四)人民法院认定监护关系终止的其他情形。
If the ward still needs guardianship after the guardianship terminates, another guardian shall be determined in accordance with the law. 监护关系终止后,被监护人仍然需要监护的,应当依法另行确定监护人。
Section 3 Declaration of Absence and Declaration of Death 

第三节 宣告失踪和宣告死亡

Article 40 Where a natural person has disappeared for two years, an interested party may apply to a people's court for a declaration of absence of the natural person.   第四十条 自然人下落不明满二年的,利害关系人可以向人民法院申请宣告该自然人为失踪人。
Article 41 The period of disappearance of a natural person shall be counted from the day when he or she is not heard from. If a person disappears during a war, the period of disappearance shall be counted from the day when the war ends or from the date of absence as confirmed by the relevant authority.   第四十一条 自然人下落不明的时间从其失去音讯之日起计算。战争期间下落不明的,下落不明的时间自战争结束之日或者有关机关确定的下落不明之日起计算。
Article 42 The property of an absentee shall be under the custody of his or her spouse, adult children, parents, or any other person willing to act as custodian of the property.   第四十二条 失踪人的财产由其配偶、成年子女、父母或者其他愿意担任财产代管人的人代管。
If there is any dispute over custody or the persons as mentioned in the preceding paragraph do not exist or are incapable of custody, the property shall be under the custody of a person designated by a people's court. 代管有争议,没有前款规定的人,或者前款规定的人无代管能力的,由人民法院指定的人代管。
Article 43 The property custodian shall appropriately manage the absentee's property, and protect the property rights and interests of the absentee.   第四十三条 财产代管人应当妥善管理失踪人的财产,维护其财产权益。
Any taxes and debts owed and other expenses payable by the absentee shall be paid by the property custodian out of the absentee's property. 失踪人所欠税款、债务和应付的其他费用,由财产代管人从失踪人的财产中支付。
Where the property custodian causes damage to the absentee's property intentionally or with gross negligence, the custodian shall assume compensatory liability. 财产代管人因故意或者重大过失造成失踪人财产损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 44 Where the property custodian fails to perform the duty of custody, infringes upon the absentee's property rights and interests, or becomes incapable of custody, an interested party for the absentee may apply to a people's court for replacement of the property custodian.   第四十四条 财产代管人不履行代管职责、侵害失踪人财产权益或者丧失代管能力的,失踪人的利害关系人可以向人民法院申请变更财产代管人。
The property custodian may, for good reason, apply to a people's court for replacement of the property custodian. 财产代管人有正当理由的,可以向人民法院申请变更财产代管人。
Where the people's court decides to replace the property custodian, the replacement custodian shall have the right to require the original custodian to hand over relevant property and report on property custody in a timely manner. 人民法院变更财产代管人的,变更后的财产代管人有权要求原财产代管人及时移交有关财产并报告财产代管情况。
Article 45 Where an absentee reappears, the people's court shall revoke the declaration of absence upon application of the person or an interested party.   第四十五条 失踪人重新出现,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当撤销失踪宣告。
Where an absentee reappears, the person shall have the right to require the property custodian to hand over relevant property and report on property custody in a timely manner. 失踪人重新出现,有权要求财产代管人及时移交有关财产并报告财产代管情况。
Article 46 Where a natural person falls under any of the following circumstances, an interested party may apply to a people's court for a declaration of death of the natural person:   第四十六条 自然人有下列情形之一的,利害关系人可以向人民法院申请宣告该自然人死亡:
(1) The natural person has disappeared for four years. (一)下落不明满四年;
(2) The natural person has disappeared for two years from an accident. (二)因意外事件,下落不明满二年。
Where a person has disappeared from an accident, and it is impossible for the person to survive the accident as certified by the relevant authority, an application for a declaration of death of the person is not subject to the two-year period. 因意外事件下落不明,经有关机关证明该自然人不可能生存的,申请宣告死亡不受二年时间的限制。
Article 47 Where both an application for a declaration of death and an application for a declaration of absence of the same natural person are filed by the interested parties with a people's court, the people's court shall declare the death of the person if the conditions for a declaration of death as set out in this Law are met.   第四十七条 对同一自然人,有的利害关系人申请宣告死亡,有的利害关系人申请宣告失踪,符合本法规定的宣告死亡条件的,人民法院应当宣告死亡。
Article 48 The day when the people's court renders a judgment to declare the death of a person shall be deemed the date of death of the person; but if the person is declared dead for his or her disappearance from an accident, the day when the accident occurred shall be deemed the date of death of the person.   第四十八条 被宣告死亡的人,人民法院宣告死亡的判决作出之日视为其死亡的日期;因意外事件下落不明宣告死亡的,意外事件发生之日视为其死亡的日期。
Article 49 Where a natural person declared dead is alive, the validity of the juridical acts performed by the natural person during the period of declared death shall not be affected.   第四十九条 自然人被宣告死亡但是并未死亡的,不影响该自然人在被宣告死亡期间实施的民事法律行为的效力。
Article 50 Where a person declared dead reappears, the people's court shall revoke the declaration of death upon application of the person or an interested party.   第五十条 被宣告死亡的人重新出现,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当撤销死亡宣告。
Article 51 The marital relationship of a person declared dead shall be extinguished from the date of declaration of death. If the declaration of death is revoked, the marital relationship shall resume automatically from the date of revocation of the declaration of death, unless his or her spouse has remarried or submits to the marriage registration authority a written statement of refusal to resume marriage.   第五十一条 被宣告死亡的人的婚姻关系,自死亡宣告之日起消灭。死亡宣告被撤销的,婚姻关系自撤销死亡宣告之日起自行恢复,但是其配偶再婚或者向婚姻登记机关书面声明不愿意恢复的除外。
Article 52 Where a child of a person declared dead is legally adopted by another person during the period of his or her declared death, the person shall not claim nullity of the adoption on the ground that the adoption is without his or her approval after the declaration of death is revoked.   第五十二条 被宣告死亡的人在被宣告死亡期间,其子女被他人依法收养的,在死亡宣告被撤销后,不得以未经本人同意为由主张收养关系无效。
Article 53 Where the declaration of death of a person is revoked, the person shall have the right to reclaim his or her property which has devolved to other parties to civil legal relationships in accordance with the law of succession. If any property cannot be reclaimed, the person shall be indemnified appropriately.   第五十三条 被撤销死亡宣告的人有权请求依照继承法取得其财产的民事主体返还财产。无法返还的,应当给予适当补偿。
Where an interested party conceals facts, causing another person to be declared dead, and thus obtains any property of the person, the interested party shall, in addition to returning the property, assume compensatory liability for any loss so caused. 利害关系人隐瞒真实情况,致使他人被宣告死亡取得其财产的,除应当返还财产外,还应当对由此造成的损失承担赔偿责任。
Section 4 Individual Industrial and Commercial Households and Rural Usufructuary Households 

第四节 个体工商户和农村承包经营户

Article 54 A natural person conducting industrial and commercial operations upon registration in accordance with the law is an individual industrial and commercial household. An individual industrial and commercial household may have a trade name.   第五十四条 自然人从事工商业经营,经依法登记,为个体工商户。个体工商户可以起字号。
Article 55 A member of a rural collective economic organization who has obtained a usufruct on rural land in accordance with the law for farm operations of the household is a rural usufructuary household.   第五十五条 农村集体经济组织的成员,依法取得农村土地承包经营权,从事家庭承包经营的,为农村承包经营户。
Article 56 Where the business of an individual industrial and commercial household is operated by an individual, the debts of the individual industrial and commercial household shall be assumed by the individual with his or her own property; where that is operated by a family, the debts of the individual industrial and commercial household shall be assumed by the family with family property; or where if it is impossible to ascertain whether that is operated by an individual or a family, the debts of the individual industrial and commercial household shall be assumed by the family with family property.   第五十六条 个体工商户的债务,个人经营的,以个人财产承担;家庭经营的,以家庭财产承担;无法区分的,以家庭财产承担。
The debts of a rural usufructuary household shall be assumed by the rural household which operates on the rural land subject to the usufruct with family property or be assumed by some family members with their property who actually operate on the rural land subject to the usufruct. 农村承包经营户的债务,以从事农村土地承包经营的农户财产承担;事实上由农户部分成员经营的,以该部分成员的财产承担。
Chapter III Legal Persons 

第三章 法 人

Section 1 General Rules 

第一节 一般规定

Article 57 A legal person is an organization with capacity for civil rights and capacity for civil conduct which independently enjoys civil rights and assumes civil obligations in accordance with the law.   第五十七条 法人是具有民事权利能力和民事行为能力,依法独立享有民事权利和承担民事义务的组织。
Article 58 A legal person shall be formed in accordance with the law.   第五十八条 法人应当依法成立。
A legal person shall have its own name, organs, domicile, and property or funding. The specific conditions and procedures for formation of a legal person shall be governed by laws and administrative regulations. 法人应当有自己的名称、组织机构、住所、财产或者经费。法人成立的具体条件和程序,依照法律、行政法规的规定。
Where the formation of a legal person is subject to the approval of the relevant authority in accordance with any law or administrative regulation, such a law or administrative regulation shall apply. 设立法人,法律、行政法规规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。
Article 59 A legal person's capacity for civil rights and capacity for civil conduct arise when the legal person is formed and cease to exist when the legal person is terminated.   第五十九条 法人的民事权利能力和民事行为能力,从法人成立时产生,到法人终止时消灭。
Article 60 A legal person shall assume civil liabilities independently with all of its property.   第六十条 法人以其全部财产独立承担民事责任。
Article 61 In accordance with the provisions of laws or the bylaws of a legal person, the person in charge who conducts civil activities on behalf of the legal person shall be the legal representative of the legal person.   第六十一条 依照法律或者法人章程的规定,代表法人从事民事活动的负责人,为法人的法定代表人。
The legal consequences of civil activities conducted by the legal representative in the name of the legal person shall be assumed by the legal person. 法定代表人以法人名义从事的民事活动,其法律后果由法人承受。
Any restriction on the legal representative's right of representation imposed by the bylaws or the supreme organ of the legal person shall not be set up against bona fide opposite parties. 法人章程或者法人权力机构对法定代表人代表权的限制,不得对抗善意相对人。
Article 62 Where the legal representative of a legal person causes damage to any other person in the performance of duties, the legal person shall assume civil liability for such damage.   第六十二条 法定代表人因执行职务造成他人损害的,由法人承担民事责任。
The legal person may, after assuming such civil liability, claim reimbursement from the legal representative at fault in accordance with the laws or its bylaws. 法人承担民事责任后,依照法律或者法人章程的规定,可以向有过错的法定代表人追偿。
Article 63 A legal person's domicile shall be the place of its principal office. If a legal person needs to be registered in accordance with the law, it shall register the place of its principal office as its domicile.   第六十三条 法人以其主要办事机构所在地为住所。依法需要办理法人登记的,应当将主要办事机构所在地登记为住所。
Article 64 Where any registered information on a legal person changes during its existence, the legal person shall apply for modification registration to the registration authority in accordance with the law.   第六十四条 法人存续期间登记事项发生变化的,应当依法向登记机关申请变更登记。
Article 65 The inconsistency between the actual circumstances of a legal person and the registered information on the legal person shall not be set up against bona fide opposite parties.   第六十五条 法人的实际情况与登记的事项不一致的,不得对抗善意相对人。
Article 66 The registration authority shall, in accordance with the law, publish the relevant registration information on a legal person in a timely manner.   第六十六条 登记机关应当依法及时公示法人登记的有关信息。
Article 67 In case of combination of a legal person, the surviving legal person shall enjoy the rights and assume the obligations of the legal person.   第六十七条 法人合并的,其权利和义务由合并后的法人享有和承担。
In case of division of a legal person, the surviving legal persons shall jointly and severally enjoy the rights and assume the obligations of the legal person, unless the creditor and the debtor have agreed otherwise. 法人分立的,其权利和义务由分立后的法人享有连带债权,承担连带债务,但是债权人和债务人另有约定的除外。
Article 68 A legal person is terminated upon completion of liquidation and deregistration in accordance with the law for any of the following reasons:   第六十八条 有下列原因之一并依法完成清算、注销登记的,法人终止:
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