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Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China [Revised]
中华人民共和国刑法 [已被修订]
 
  

 

*注:本篇法规已被修订,新法规名称为《中华人民共和国刑法》(发布日期:1997年3月14日 实施日期:1997年10月1日)

CRIMINAL LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
(Adopted at the Second Session of the Fifth National People's Congress on July 1, 1979, promulgated by Order No.5 of the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on July 6, 1979, and effective as of January 1,1980)
 

中华人民共和国刑法
(一九七九年七月一日第五届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过
一九七九年七月六日全国人民代表大会常务委员会委员长令第五号公布
一九八0年一月一日起施行)


CONTENTS
 目 录
PART ONE GENERAL PROVISIONS
 第一编 总 则
CHAPTER I THE GUIDING IDEOLOGY, TASKS AND SCOPE OF APPLICATION OF CRIMINAL LAW
 第一章 刑法的指导思想、任务和适用范围
CHAPTER II CRIMES
 第二章 犯罪
SECTION 1 CRIMES AND CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY
 第一节 犯罪和刑事责任
SECTION 2 PREPARATION FOR A CRIME, CRIMINAL ATTEMPT AND DISCONTINUATION OF A CRIME
 第二节 犯罪的预备、未遂和中止
SECTION 3 JOINT CRIMES
 第三节 共同犯罪
CHAPTER III PUNISHMENTS
 第三章 刑罚
SECTION 1 TYPES OF PUNISHMENTS
 第一节 刑罚的种类
SECTION 2 PUBLIC SURVEILLANCE
 第二节 管制
SECTION 3 CRIMINAL DETENTION
 第三节 拘役
SECTION 4 FIXED-TERM IMPRISONMENT AND LIFE IMPRISONMENT
 第四节 有期徒刑、无期徒刑
SECTION 5 THE DEATH PENALTY
 第五节 死刑
SECTION 6 FINES
 第六节 罚金
SECTION 7 DEPRIVATION OF POLITICAL RIGHTS
 第七节 剥夺政治权利
SECTION 8 CONFISCATION OF PROPERTY
 第八节 没收财产
CHAPTER IV THE CONCRETE APPLICATION OF PUNISHMENTS
 第四章 刑罚的具体运用
SECTION 1 SENTENCING
 第一节 量刑
SECTION 2 RECIDIVISTS
 第二节 累犯
SECTION 3 VOLUNTARY SURRENDER
 第三节 自首
SECTION 4 COMBINED PUNISHMENT FOR SEVERAL CRIMES
 第四节 数罪并罚
SECTION 5 SUSPENSION OF SENTENCE
 第五节 缓刑
SECTION 6 COMMUTATION OF PUNISHMENT
 第六节 减刑
SECTION 7 PAROLE
 第七节 假释
SECTION 8 LIMITATION
 第八节 时效
CHAPTER V OTHER PROVISIONS
 第五章 其他规定
PART TWO SPECIFIC PROVISIONS
 第二编 分则
CHAPTER I CRIMES OF COUNTERREVOLUTION
 第一章 反革命罪
CHAPTER II CRIMES OF ENDANGERING PUBLIC SECURITY
 第二章 危害公共安全罪
CHAPTER III CRIMES OF UNDERMINING THE SOCIALIST ECONOMIC ORDER
 第三章 破坏社会主义经济秩序罪
CHAPTER IV CRIMES OF INFRINGING UPON THE RIGHTS OF THE PERSON AND THE DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS OF CITIZENS
 第四章 侵犯公民人身权利、民主权利罪
CHAPTER V CRIMES OF PROPERTY VIOLATION
 第五章 侵犯财产罪
CHAPTER VI CRIMES OF OBSTRUCTING THE ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC ORDER
 第六章 妨害社会管理秩序罪
CHAPTER VII CRIMES OF DISRUPTING MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY
 第七章 妨害婚姻、家庭罪
CHAPTER VIII CRIMES OF DERELICTION OF DUTY
 第八章 渎职罪

PART ONE GENERAL PROVISIONS
 

第一编 总 则


CHAPTER I THE GUIDING IDEOLOGY, TASKS AND SCOPE OF APPLICATION OF THE CRIMINAL LAW
 

第一章 刑法的指导思想、任务和适用范围


Article 1. The Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, which takes Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought as its guide and the Constitution as its basis, is formulated in accordance with the policy of combining punishment with leniency and in the light of the actual circumstances and concrete experiences of the people of all China's nationalities in carrying out the people's democratic dictatorship, led by the proletariat and based on the worker-peasant alliance, that is, the dictatorship of the proletariat, and in conducting the socialist revolution and socialist construction.
   第一条 中华人民共和国刑法,以马克思列宁主义毛泽东思想为指针,以宪法为根据,依照惩办与宽大相结合的政策,结合我国各族人民实行无产阶级领导的、工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政即无产阶级专政和进行社会主义革命、社会主义建设的具体经验及实际情况制定。
Article 2. The tasks of the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China are to use criminal punishments to fight against all counterrevolutionary and other criminal acts in order to defend the system of the dictatorship of the proletariat; to protect socialist property owned by the whole people and socialist property collectively owned by the working people; to protect the citizens' privately owned lawful property; to protect the citizens, rights of the person and their democratic and other rights; to maintain public order and order in production, education, scientific research and other work and in the life of the masses; and to safeguard the smooth progress of the cause of the socialist revolution and socialist construction.
   第二条 中华人民共和国刑法的任务,是用刑罚同一切反革命和其他刑事犯罪行为作斗争,以保卫无产阶级专政制度,保护社会主义的全民所有的财产和劳动群众集体所有的财产,保护公民私人所有的合法财产,保护公民的人身权利、民主权利和其他权利,维护社会秩序、生产秩序、工作秩序、教学科研秩序和人民群众生活秩序,保障社会主义革命和社会主义建设事业的顺利进行。
Article 3. This Law is applicable to anyone who commits a crime within the territory of the People's Republic of China, unless the case is covered by special legal provisions.
This Law is also applicable to anyone who commits a crime on board a ship or airplane of the People's Republic of China.
If the criminal act or its consequence takes place within the territory of the People's Republic of China, the crime shall be deemed to have been committed within the territory of the People's Republic of China.
   第三条 凡在中华人民共和国领域内犯罪的,除法律有特别规定的以外,都适用本法。
凡在中华人民共和国船舶或者飞机内犯罪的,也适用本法。
犯罪的行为或者结果有一项发生在中华人民共和国领域内的,就认为是在中华人民共和国领域内犯罪。
Article 4. This Law is applicable to the citizens of the People's Republic of China who commit any of the following crimes outside the territory of the People's Republic of China:
   第四条 中华人民共和国公民在中华人民共和国领域外犯下列各罪的,适用本法:
(1) counterrevolution;
 (一)反革命罪;
(2) counterfeiting national currency (Article 122) and counterfeiting valuable securities (Article 123);
 (二)伪造国家货币罪(第一百二十二条),伪造有价证券罪(第一百二十三条);
(3) embezzlement (Article 155), accepting bribes (Article 185) and divulging state secrets (Article 186); and
 (三)贪污罪(第一百五十五条),受贿罪(第一百八十五条),泄露国家机密罪(第一百八十六条);
(4) posing as a state functionary to practise fraud (Article 166) and forging official documents, certificates and seals (Article 167).
 (四)冒充国家工作人员招摇撞骗罪(第一百六十六条),伪造公文、证件、印章罪(第一百六十七条)。
Article 5. This Law is also applicable to any citizen of the People's Republic of China who commits a crime outside the territory of the People's Republic of China that is not specified in the preceding Article, if for that crime this Law prescribes a minimum punishment of fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years; however, this does not apply to a crime that is not punishable according to the law of the place where it was committed.
   第五条 中华人民共和国公民在中华人民共和国领域外犯前条以外的罪,而按本法规定的最低刑为三年以上有期徒刑的,也适用本法;但是按照犯罪地的法律不受处罚的除外。
Article 6. This Law may be applicable to any foreigner who commits a crime outside the territory of the People's Republic of China, against the state of the People's Republic of China or against its citizens, if for that crime this Law prescribes a minimum punishment of fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years; however, this does not apply to a crime that is not punishable according to the law of the place where it was committed.
   第六条 外国人在中华人民共和国领域外对中华人民共和国国家或者公民犯罪,而按本法规定的最低刑为三年以上有期徒刑的,可以适用本法;但是按照犯罪地的法律不受处罚的除外。
Article 7. If any person commits a crime outside the territory of the People's Republic of China for which according to this Law he would bear criminal responsibility, he may still be dealt with according to this Law, even if he has already been tried in a foreign country. However, if he has already received criminal punishment in the foreign country, he may be exempted from punishment or given a mitigated punishment.
   第七条 凡在中华人民共和国领域外犯罪、依照本法应当负刑事责任的,虽然经过外国审判,仍然可以依照本法处理;但是在外国已经受过刑罚处罚的,可以免除或者减轻处罚。
Article 8. The problem of the criminal responsibility of foreigners who enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunities shall be resolved through diplomatic channels.
   第八条 享有外交特权和豁免权的外国人的刑事责任问题,通过外交途径解决。
Article 9. This Law shall enter into force on January 1, 1980. If an act committed after the founding of the People's Republic of China and before the entry into force of this law was not deemed a crime under the laws, decrees and policies in force at the time, those laws, decrees and policies shall apply. If the act was deemed a crime under the laws, decrees and policies in force at that time and is subject to prosecution under the provisions of SECTION 8, CHAPTER IV of the General Provisions of this Law, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to those laws, decrees and policies. However, if this Law does not deem it a crime or imposes a lighter punishment, this Law shall apply.
   第九条 本法自一九八0年一月一日起生效。中华人民共和国成立以后本法施行以前的行为,如果当时的法律、法令、政策不认为是犯罪的,适用当时的法律、法令、政策。如果当时的法律、法令、 政策认为是犯罪的,依照本法总则第四章第八节的规定应当追诉的,按照当时的法律、法令、政策追究刑事责任。但是,如果本法不认为是犯罪或者处刑较轻的,适用本法。

CHAPTER II CRIMES
SECTION 1 CRIMES AND CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY
 

第二章 犯罪

Article 10. A crime refers to an act that endangers the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state; endangers the system of the dictatorship of the proletariat; undermines the socialist revolution and socialist construction; disrupts public order; violates property owned by the whole people or collectively owned by the working people; violates the citizens' privately owned lawful property or infringes upon the citizens' rights of the person and their democratic and other rights; and any other act that endangers society and is punishable according to law. However, an act that is clearly of minor importance and little harm shall not be considered a crime.
 

第一节 犯罪和刑事责任


Article 11. An intentional crime refers to a crime committed by a person who clearly knows that his act will produce socially dangerous consequences but who wishes or allows such consequences to occur. Criminal responsibility shall be borne for intentional crimes.

   第十条 一切危害国家主权和领土完整,危害无产阶级专政制度, 破坏社会主义革命和社会主义建设,破坏社会秩序,侵犯全民所有的财产或者劳动群众集体所有的财产,侵犯公民私人所有的合法财产,侵犯公民的人身权利、民主权利和其他权利,以及其他危害社会的行为,依照法律应当受刑罚处罚的,都是犯罪;但是情节显著轻微危害不大的,不认为是犯罪。
Article 12. A negligent crime refers to a crime committed by a person who should have foreseen that his act would possibly produce socially dangerous consequences but who fails to do so through negligence or, having foreseen the consequences, readily believes that they can be avoided, the result being that these consequences do occur.
Criminal responsibility shall be borne for negligent crimes only when the law so provides.
   第十一条 明知自己的行为会发生危害社会的结果,并且希望或者放任这种结果发生,因而构成犯罪的,是故意犯罪。
故意犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
Article 13. If an act in fact results in harmful consequences due to unavoidable or unforeseeable causes rather than intent or negligence, it shall not be deemed a crime.
   第十二条 应当预见自己的行为可能发生危害社会的结果,因为疏忽大意而没有预见,或者已经预见而轻信能够避免,以致发生这种结果的,是过失犯罪。
过失犯罪,法律有规定的才负刑事责任。
Article 14. Any person who has reached the age of 16 and who commits a crime shall bear criminal responsibility.
Any person who has reached the age of 14 but not the age of 16 and who commits homicide, inflicting serious bodily injury, robbery, arson, habitual theft or any other crime seriously undermining social order shall bear criminal responsibility.
Any person who has reached the age of 14 but not the age of 18 and who commits a crime shall be given a lighter or mitigated punishment.
If a person is not punished because he has not reached the age of 16, the head of his family or his guardian shall be ordered to discipline and educate him. When necessary, he may also be taken in by the government for re-education.
   第十三条 行为在客观上虽然造成了损害结果, 但是不是出于故意或者过失,而是由于不能抗拒或者不能预见的原因所引起的,不认为是犯罪。
Article 15. If a mental patient causes dangerous consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or control his own conduct, he shall not bear criminal responsibility, but his family members or guardian shall be ordered to keep him under strict surveillance and arrange for his medical treatment.
Any person whose mental illness is of an intermittent nature shall bear criminal responsibility if he commits a crime when he is in a normal mental state.
Any intoxicated person who commits a crime shall bear criminal responsibility.
   第十四条 已满十六岁的人犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
已满十四岁不满十六岁的人,犯杀人、重伤、抢劫、放火、惯窃罪或者其他严重破坏社会秩序罪,应当负刑事责任。
已满十四岁不满十八岁的人犯罪,应当从轻或者减轻处罚。
因不满十六岁不处罚的,责令他的家长或者监护人加以管教;在必要的时候,也可以由政府收容教养。
Article 16. Any deaf-mute or blind person who commits a crime may be given a lighter or mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.
   第十五条 精神病人在不能辨认或者不能控制自己行为的时候造成危害结果的,不负刑事责任;但是应当责令他的家属或者监护人严加看管和医疗。
间歇性的精神病人在精神正常的时候犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
醉酒的人犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
Article 17. Criminal responsibility shall not be borne for an act that a person undertakes in justifiable defence to avert an immediate and unlawful infringement of the public interest or of his own or another person's rights of the person or other rights.
Criminal responsibility shall be borne if justifiable defence exceeds the limits of necessity and causes undue harm; however, consideration shall be given to a mitigated punishment or exemption from punishment.
   第十六条 又聋又哑的人或者盲人犯罪,可以从轻、减轻或者免除处罚。
Article 18. Criminal responsibility shall not be borne for an act that a person is compelled to commit in an emergency to avert an immediate danger to the public interest or to his own or another person's rights of the person or other rights.
Criminal responsibility shall be borne if an act committed in an emergency to avert danger exceeds the limits of necessity and causes undue harm; however, consideration shall be given to a mitigated punishment or exemption from punishment.
The provisions of the first paragraph of this Article with respect to averting danger to oneself shall not apply to a person who is charged with specific responsibility in his post or profession.
   第十七条 为了使公共利益、本人或者他人的人身和其他权利免受正在进行的不法侵害,而采取的正当防卫行为,不负刑事责任。
正当防卫超过必要限度造成不应有的危害的,应当负刑事责任;但是应当酌情减轻或者免除处罚。
SECTION 2 PREPARATION FOR A CRIME, CRIMINAL ATTEMPT AND DISCONTINUATION OF A CRIME
   第十八条 为了使公共利益、本人或者他人的人身和其他权利免受正在发生的危险,不得已采取的紧急避险行为,不负刑事责任。
紧急避险超过必要限度造成不应有的危害的,应当负刑事责任;但是应当酌情减轻或者免除处罚。
第一款中关于避免本人危险的规定,不适用于职务上、业务上负有特定责任的人。

Article 19. Preparation for a crime refers to the preparation of the instruments or the creation of the conditions for a crime. An offender who prepares for a crime may, in comparison with one who completed the crime, be given a lighter or mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.

 

第二节 犯罪的预备、未遂和中止


Article 20. A criminal attempt refers to a case where an offender has already begun to commit a crime but is prevented from completing it for reasons independent of his will.
An offender who attempts to commit a crime may, in comparison with one who completed the crime, be given a lighter or mitigated punishment.
   第十九条 为了犯罪,准备工具、制造条件的,是犯罪预备。
对于预备犯,可以比照既遂犯从轻、减轻处罚或者免除处罚。
Article 21. Discontinuation of a crime refers to cases where, in the process of committing a crime, the offender voluntarily discontinues the crime or voluntarily and effectively prevents the consequences of the crime from occurring.
An offender who discontinues a crime shall be exempted from punishment or be given a mitigated punishment.
   第二十条 已经着手实行犯罪, 由于犯罪分子意志以外的原因而未得逞的, 是犯罪未遂。
对于未遂犯,可以比照既遂犯从轻或者减轻处罚。
SECTION 3 JOINT CRIMES
   第二十一条 在犯罪过程中,自动中止犯罪或者自动有效地防止犯罪结果发生的,是犯罪中止。
对于中止犯,应当免除或者减轻处罚。

Article 22. A joint crime refers to an intentional crime committed by two or more persons jointly.
A negligent crime committed by two or more persons jointly shall not be punished as a joint crime; those who should bear criminal responsibility shall be individually punished according to the crimes they have committed.
 

第三节 共同犯罪


Article 23. A principal criminal refers to any person who organizes and leads a criminal group in carrying out criminal activities or plays a principal role in a joint crime.
A principal criminal shall be given a heavier punishment unless otherwise stipulated in the Specific Provisions of this Law.
   第二十二条 共同犯罪是指二人以上共同故意犯罪。
二人以上共同过失犯罪,不以共同犯罪论处;应当负刑事责任的,按照他们所犯的罪分别处罚。
Article 24. An accomplice refers to any person who plays a secondary or auxiliary role in a joint crime.
An accomplice shall, in comparison with a principal criminal, be given a lighter or mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.
   第二十三条 组织、领导犯罪集团进行犯罪活动的或者在共同犯罪中起主要作用的,是主犯。
对于主犯,除本法分则已有规定的以外,应当从重处罚。
Article 25. A person who is compelled or induced to participate in a crime shall, according to the circumstances of his crime and in comparison with an accomplice, be given a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.
   第二十四条 在共同犯罪中起次要或者辅助作用的,是从犯。
对于从犯,应当比照主犯从轻、减轻处罚或者免除处罚。
Article 26. A person who instigates others to commit a crime shall be punished according to the role he has played in the joint crime. Anyone who instigates a person under the age of 18 to commit a crime shall be given a heavier punishment.
If the instigated person has not committed the instigated crime, the instigator may be given a lighter or mitigated punishment.
   第二十五条 对于被胁迫、被诱骗参加犯罪的,应当按照他的犯罪情节,比照从犯减轻处罚或者免除处罚。
CHAPTER III PUNISHMENTS
SECTION 1 TYPES OF PUNISHMENTS
   第二十六条 教唆他人犯罪的,应当按照他在共同犯罪中所起的作用处罚。教唆不满十八岁的人犯罪的,应当从重处罚。
如果被教唆的人没有犯被教唆的罪,对于教唆犯,可以从轻或者减轻处罚。

Article 27. Punishments are divided into principal punishments and supplementary punishments.
 

第三章 刑罚

Article 28. The principal punishments are as follows:
 

第一节 刑罚的种类


(1) Public surveillance;
   第二十七条 刑罚分为主刑和附加刑。
(2) Criminal detention;
   第二十八条 主刑的种类如下:
(3) Fixed-term imprisonment;
 (一)管制;
(4) Life imprisonment; and
 (二)拘役;
(5) The death penalty.
 (三)有期徒刑;
Article 29. The supplementary punishments are as follows:
 (四)无期徒刑;
(1) Fines;
 (五)死刑。
(2) Deprivation of political rights; and
   第二十九条 附加刑的种类如下:
(3) Confiscation of property.
Supplementary punishments may be imposed independently.
 (一)罚金;
Article 30. Deportation may be imposed independently or supplementarily to a foreigner who commits a crime.
 (二)剥夺政治权利;
Article 31. If a victim has suffered economic losses as a result of a crime, the criminal shall, in addition to receiving a criminal sanction according to law, be sentenced to make compensation for the economic losses in the light of the circumstances.
 (三)没收财产。
附加刑也可以独立适用。
Article 32. If the circumstances of a person's crime are minor and do not require punishment, he may be exempted from criminal sanctions; however, he may, according to the different circumstances of each case, be reprimanded or ordered to make a statement of repentance, offer an apology, pay compensation for the losses or be subject to administrative sanctions by the competent department.
   第三十条 对于犯罪的外国人,可以独立适用或者附加适用驱逐出境。
SECTION 2 PUBLIC SURVEILLANCE
   第三十一条 由于犯罪行为而使被害人遭受经济损失的,对犯罪分子除依法给予刑事处分外,并应根据情况判处赔偿经济损失。
Article 33. The term of public surveillance shall not be less than three months and not more than two years.
Public surveillance shall be decided by the judgment of a people's court and executed by a public security organ.
   第三十二条 对于犯罪情节轻微不需要判处刑罚的, 可以免予刑事处分, 但可以根据案件的不同情况,予以训诫或者责令具结悔过、赔礼道歉、赔偿损失,或者由主管部门予以行政处分。

Article 34. A criminal who is sentenced to public surveillance must observe the following rules during the term in which his sentence is being executed:
 

第二节 管 制


(1) observe laws and decrees, submit to supervision by the masses and actively participate in collective productive labour or work;
   第三十三条 管制的期限,为三个月以上二年以下。
管制由人民法院判决,由公安机关执行。
(2) report regularly on his own activities to the organ executing the public surveillance; and
   第三十四条 被判处管制的犯罪分子,在执行期间,必须遵守下列规定:
(3) report and obtain approval from the organ executing the public surveillance for any change in residence or departure from the area.
Criminals sentenced to public surveillance shall, while engaged in labour, receive equal pay for equal work.
 (一)遵守法律、法令,服从群众监督,积极参加集体劳动生产或者工作;
Article 35. Upon the expiration of a term of public surveillance, the executing organ shall immediately announce the termination of public surveillance to the criminal sentenced to public surveillance and to the masses concerned.
 (二)向执行机关定期报告自已的活动情况;
Article 36. A term of public surveillance shall be counted from the date the judgment begins to be executed; if the criminal is held in custody before the execution of the judgment, each day spent in custody shall be considered as two days of the term sentenced.
 (三)迁居或者外出必须报经执行机关批准。
对于被判处管制的犯罪分子,在劳动中应当同工同酬。
SECTION 3 CRIMINAL DETENTION
   第三十五条 被判处管制的犯罪分子,管制期满,执行机关应即向本人和有关的群众宣布解除管制。
Article 37. A term of criminal detention shall not be less than 15 days and not more than 6 months.
   第三十六条 管制的刑期,从判决执行之日起计算;判决执行以前先行羁押的,羁押一日折抵刑期二日。

Article 38. Where a criminal is sentenced to criminal detention, his sentence shall be executed by the public security organ in the vicinity.
During the period of execution, a criminal sentenced to criminal detention may go home for one to two days each month; an appropriate remuneration may be given to those who participate in labour.
 

第三节 拘 役


Article 39. A term of criminal detention shall be counted from the date the judgment begins to be executed; if the criminal is held in custody before the execution of the judgment, each day in custody shall be considered as one day of the term sentenced.
   第三十七条 拘役的期限,为十五日以上六个月以下。
SECTION 4 FIXED-TERM IMPRISONMENT AND LIFE IMPRISONMENT
   第三十八条 被判处拘役的犯罪分子,由公安机关就近执行。
在执行期间,被判处拘役的犯罪分子每月可以回家一天至两天;参加劳动的,可以酌量发给报酬。
Article 40. A term of fixed-term imprisonment shall not be less than 6 months and not more than 15 years.
   第三十九条 拘役的刑期,从判决执行之日起计算;判决以前先行羁押的,羁押一日折抵刑期一日。

Article 41. A criminal sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment shall serve his sentence in prison or another place for reform through labour. Anyone who is able to work shall undergo reform through labour.
 

第四节 有期徒刑、无期徒刑


Article 42. A term of fixed-term imprisonment shall be counted from the date the judgment begins to be executed; if the criminal is held in custody before the execution of the judgment, each day in custody shall be considered as one day of the term sentenced.
   第四十条 有期徒刑的期限,为六个月以上十五年以下。
SECTION 5 THE DEATH PENALTY
   第四十一条 被判处有期徒刑、无期徒刑的犯罪分子,在监狱或者其他劳动改造场所执行;凡有劳动能力的,实行劳动改造。
Article 43. The death penalty shall only be applied to criminals who have committed the most heinous crimes. If the immediate execution of a criminal punishable be death is not deemed necessary, a two-year suspension of execution may be pronounced simultaneously with the imposition of the death sentence; the criminal shall undergo reform through labour and the results shall be observed.
All death sentences except for those that according to law should be decided by the Supreme People's Court, shall be submitted to the Supreme People's Court for approval. Death sentences with a suspension of execution may be decided or approved by a higher people's court.
   第四十二条 有期徒刑的刑期,从判决执行之日起计算;判决执行以前先行羁押的,羁押一日折抵刑期一日。

Article 44. The death penalty shall not be imposed on persons who had not reached the age of 18 at the time the crime was committed or to women who are pregnant at the time of trial. Persons who had reached the age of 16 but not the age of 18 may be sentenced to death with a two-year suspension of execution if the crime committed was particularly serious.
 

第五节 死 刑


Article 45. The death penalty shall be executed by means of shooting.
   第四十三条 死刑只适用于罪大恶极的犯罪分子。 对于应当判处死刑的犯罪分子, 如果不是必须立即执行的,可以判处死刑同时宣告缓期二年执行,实行劳动改造, 以观后效。
死刑除依法由最高人民法院判决的以外,都应当报请最高人民法院核准。死刑缓期执行的,可以由高级人民法院判决或者核准。
Article 46. If a person sentenced to death with a suspension of execution shows true repentance during the period of suspension, his punishment shall be commuted to life imprisonment upon the expiration of that two-year period; if he shows true repentance and performs meritorious service, his punishment shall be commuted to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than 15 years and not more than 20 years upon the expiration of that two-year period; if it is verified that he has resisted reform in a flagrant manner, the death penalty shall be executed upon the order or approval of the Supreme People's Court.
   第四十四条 犯罪的时候不满十八岁的人和审判的时候怀孕的妇女,不适用死刑。已满十六岁不满十八岁的,如果所犯罪行特别严重,可以判处死刑缓期二年执行。
Article 47. The term of suspension of execution of a death penalty shall be counted from the date the judgment becomes final. The term of a fixed-term imprisonment that is commuted from a death penalty with suspension of execution shall be counted from the date the commutation of sentence is ordered.
   第四十五条 死刑用枪决的方法执行。
SECTION 6 FINES
   第四十六条 判处死刑缓期执行的,在死刑缓期执行期间,如果确有悔改,二年期满以后,减为无期徒刑;如果确有悔改并有立功表现,二年期满以后,减为十五年以上二十年以下有期徒刑;如果抗拒改造情节恶劣、查证属实的,由最高人民法院裁定或者核准,执行死刑。
Article 48. The amount of any fine imposed shall be determined according to the circumstances of the crime.
   第四十七条 死刑缓期执行的期间,从判决确定之日起计算。死刑缓期执行减为有期徒刑的刑期,从裁定减刑之日起计算。

Article 49. A fine may be paid in a lump sum or in installments within the time limit specified in the judgment. If a fine is not paid upon the expiration of that time limit, the payment shall be compelled. If a person has true difficulties in paying because of an unavoidable disaster, the fine may be reduced or remitted according to the circumstances.
 

第六节 罚 金


SECTION 7 DEPRIVATION OF POLITICAL RIGHTS
   第四十八条 判处罚金,应当根据犯罪情节决定罚金数额。
Article 50. Deprivation of political rights refers to deprivation of the following rights:
   第四十九条 罚金在判决指定的期限内一次或者分期缴纳。期满不缴纳的,强制缴纳。如果由于遭遇不能抗拒的灾祸缴纳确实有困难的,可以酌情减少或者免除。

(1) the right to vote and to stand for election;
 

第七节 剥夺政治权利


(2) the right provided for in Article 45 of the Constitution;
   第五十条 剥夺政治权利是剥夺下列权利:
(3) the right to hold a position in a state organ; and
 (一)选举权和被选举权;
(4) the right to hold a leading position in any enterprise, institution or people's organization.
 (二)宪法四十五条规定的各种权利;(注)
Article 51. A term of deprivation of political rights shall not be less than one year and not more than five years, except as stipulated in Article 53 of this Law.
If a person sentenced to public surveillance is deprived of political rights as a supplementary punishment, the term of deprivation of political rights shall be the same as the term of public surveillance, and the punishments shall be executed simultaneously.
 (三)担任国家机关职务的权利;
Article 52. Counterrevolutionaries shall be sentenced to deprivation of political rights as a supplementary punishment; where necessary, criminals who seriously undermine public order may also be sentenced to deprivation of political rights as a supplementary punishment.
 (四)担任企业、事业单位和人民团体领导职务的权利。
Article 53. Criminals who are sentenced to death or to life imprisonment shall be deprived of political rights for life.
If a death penalty with a suspension of execution is commuted to a fixed-term imprisonment, or a life imprisonment is commuted to a fixed-term imprisonment, the term of the supplementary punishment of deprivation of political rights shall be changed to not less than three years and not more than ten years.
   第五十一条 剥夺政治权利的期限,除本法第五十三条规定外,为一年以上五年以下。
判处管制附加剥夺政治权利的,剥夺政治权利的期限与管制的期限相等,同时执行。
Article 54. A term of deprivation of political rights as a supplementary punishment shall be counted from the date on which imprisonment or criminal detention ends or from the date on which parole begins. Deprivation of political rights shall of course be in effect during the period in which the principal punishment is being executed.
   第五十二条 对于反革命分子应当附加剥夺政治权利;对于严重破坏社会秩序的犯罪分子,在必要的时候,也可以附加剥夺政治权利。
SECTION 8 CONFISCATION OF PROPERTY
   第五十三条 对于被判处死刑、无期徒刑的犯罪分子,应当剥夺政治权利终身。
在死刑缓期执行减为有期徒刑或者无期徒刑减为有期徒刑的时候,应当把附加剥夺政治权利的期限改为三年以上十年以下。
......



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