May 31, 2010
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Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Some Issues concerning the Improvement of the Socialist Market Economy [Effective]
中共中央關于完善社會主義市場經濟體制若幹問題的決定 [現行有效]
Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Some Issues concerning the Improvement of the Socialist Market Economy
(Adopted at the 3rd Plenary Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee on Oct. 14th 2003)
With a view to implementing the strategic planning set forth by the 16th CPC National Congress on establishing a sound socialist market economy and a more vigorous and open economic system, deepening the economic restructuring and promoting the overall economic and social development, the 3rd Plenary Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee has discussed some significant issues concerning the improvement of the socialist market economy and made the decision as follows:


I. The Situation and Tasks of China's Economic Restructuring
1. The significance and urgency of deepening the economic restructuring. Since the adoption of the reform and opening-up policies at the 3rd Plenary Session of the 11th CPC National Congress, the acknowledgment of the goals of restructuring the socialist market economy at the 14th CPC National Congress and the making of the relevant decision at the 3rd Plenary Session of the 14th CPC National Congress, China's economic restructuring has made significant breakthroughs in terms of both theories and practices. A socialist market economy has been established on a preliminary basis, the basic economic system with public ownership playing a dominant role and diverse forms of ownership developing side by side has been established, and the pattern of opening to the outside world in an all-round way, wide spheres and multiple layers has been basically formed. The deepening of the restructuring has not only greatly improved the social productivity, comprehensive national strength and people's living standards, but also helped China to endure such serious tests as the international economic and financial turbulences, grave natural disasters and disastrous epidemic situation. However, some problems still exist, such as the irrational economic structure, imbalanced distribution relations, sluggish growth of farmers' income, outstanding employment contradictions, intensified pressures on resources and environment and an economy being uncompetitive as a whole. The important reasons behind such problems are that China is still in the primary stage of socialism, that its economy has yet to be improved, and that the development of its productive forces is still facing many institutional obstacles. In order to adapt to the international environment of economic globalization and accelerated scientific and technologic progress and to meet the new situation of building a well-off society in an all-round way, we should speed up the restructuring, further release and develop productive forces and inject strong momentum into the economic development and overall social progress.
   (1)深化經濟體制改革的重要性和緊迫性。 十一屆三中全會開始改革開放、十四大確定社會主義市場經濟體制改革目標以及十四屆三中全會作出相關決定以來,我國經濟體制改革在理論和實踐上取得重大進展。社會主義市場經濟體制初步建立,公有制為主體、多種所有制經濟共同發展的基本經濟制度已經確立,全方位、寬領域、多層次的對外開放格局基本形成。改革的不斷深化,極大地促進了社會生產力、綜合國力和人民生活水平的提高,使我國經受住了國際經濟金融動蕩和國內嚴重自然災害、重大疫情等嚴峻考驗。同時也存在經濟結構不合理、分配關系尚未理順、農民收入增長緩慢、就業矛盾突出、資源環境壓力加大、經濟整體競爭力不強等問題,其重要原因是我國處于社會主義初級階段,經濟體制還不完善,生產力發展仍面臨諸多體制性障礙。為適應經濟全球化和科技進步加快的國際環境,適應全面建設小康社會的新形勢,必須加快推進改革,進一步解放和發展生產力,為經濟發展和社會全面進步注入強大動力。
2. The goals and tasks of improving the socialist market economy. We should, in accordance with the requirements of coordinating the development of urban and rural areas, of different regions, of economic and social sectors and of man and nature, and of coordinating the national development and the opening-up to the outside world, give a fuller play to the basic role of market in the allocation of resources, enhance the vitality and competitiveness of enterprises, build a sound national macro-control system, improve the government functions of social administration and public services, and provide forceful institutional guarantee for the building of a well-off society in an all-round way. The main tasks are: to improve the basic economic system with public ownership playing a dominant role and diverse forms of ownership developing side by side; to establish a system conducive to phasing out the dual structure in urban and rural economies; to form a mechanism for promoting the coordinated development of regional economies; to build up a unified, open, competitive and orderly modern market system; to improve the macro-control, administration, and economic legal systems; to perfect the employment, income distribution and social security systems; and to build up a mechanism in promotion of sustainable economic and social development.
   (2)完善社會主義市場經濟體制的目標和任務。 按照統籌城鄉發展、統籌區域發展、統籌經濟社會發展、統籌人與自然和諧發展、統籌國內發展和對外開放的要求,更大程度地發揮市場在資源配置中的基礎性作用,增強企業活力和競爭力,健全國家宏觀調控,完善政府社會管理和公共服務職能,為全面建設小康社會提供強有力的體制保障。主要任務是:完善公有制為主體、多種所有制經濟共同發展的基本經濟制度;建立有利于逐步改變城鄉二元經濟結構的體制;形成促進區域經濟協調發展的機制;建設統一開放競爭有序的現代市場體系;完善宏觀調控體系、行政管理體制和經濟法律制度;健全就業、收入分配和社會保障制度;建立促進經濟社會可持續發展的機制。
3. Guideline and principle of improving the economic restructuring. We should take the Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of the “Three Represents” as the guideline, implement the basic line, program and experience, act on the spirit of the 16th CPC National Congress in an all-round way, emancipate our thoughts, seek truth from facts and keep pace with the times. We should follow the orientation of restructuring toward a socialist market economy and pay sufficient attention to institutional build-up and system innovations. We should respect the pioneering spirit of the people and bring into full play the initiative of both the Central Government and the local governments. We should correctly handle the relationship of reform, development and stability, and press ahead with the reform with priorities and in a step-by-step manner. We should make overall plans, take all factors into consideration and do a good job in coordinating various interests during the course of reform. We should uphold the principle of “man first” and form the concept of overall, coordinated and sustainable development so as to promote the overall economic, social and human development.
   (3)深化經濟體制改革的指導思想和原則。 以鄧小平理論和“三個代表”重要思想為指導,貫徹黨的基本路線、基本綱領、基本經驗,全面落實十六大精神,解放思想、實事求是、與時俱進。堅持社會主義市場經濟的改革方向,注重制度建設和體制創新。堅持尊重群眾的首創精神,充分發揮中央和地方兩個積極性。堅持正確處理改革發展穩定的關系,有重點、有步驟地推進改革。堅持統籌兼顧,協調好改革進程中的各種利益關系。堅持以人為本,樹立全面、協調、可持續的發展觀,促進經濟社會和人的全面發展。
II. Further Consolidating and Developing the Public Sector of the Economy and Encouraging, Supporting and Guiding the Development of the Non-public Sectors of the Economy
4. Applying multiple forms for effectively realizing public ownership. We should keep the public sector of the economy as the dominant player and bring into full play the defining role of the state-owned sector of the economy. We should vigorously promote multiple forms for effectively realizing public ownership and accelerate the adjustment of the layout and structure of the state-owned sector. We should adapt to the trend of marketization, further enhance the vitality of the public sector, vigorously develop a mix sector of the economy shared by state-owned capital, collective capital, non-public capital, etc., realize the diversification of investment sources and make the joint-stock system as the major form for realizing public ownership. For enterprises that need to be controlled by the state-owned capital, absolute or relative share holding shall be adopted under different circumstances. We should improve the mechanism for entry-withdrawal and rational movement of state-owned capital, encourage more state-owned capital to go to the important industries and key fields that have a bearing on national security and the lifeline of the national economy, and enhance the controlling power of the state-owned sector. The state-owned enterprises in other industries and fields should adopt assets reorganization and structural adjustment, and prosper or perish through fair market competition. We should create large internationally competitive companies and enterprise groups, give a freer rein to small and medium state-owned enterprises, deepen the reform of collective enterprises by focusing on clearly defined property rights, and develop various forms of the collective sector of the economy.
   (4)推行公有制的多種有效實現形式。 堅持公有制的主體地位,發揮國有經濟的主導作用。積極推行公有制的多種有效實現形式,加快調整國有經濟布局和結構。要適應經濟市場化不斷發展的趨勢,進一步增強公有制經濟的活力,大力發展國有資本、集體資本和非公有資本等參股的混合所有制經濟,實現投資主體多元化,使股份制成為公有制的主要實現形式。需要由國有資本控股的企業,應區別不同情況實行絕對控股或相對控股。完善國有資本有進有退、合理流動的機制,進一步推動國有資本更多地投向關系國家安全和國民經濟命脈的重要行業和關鍵領域,增強國有經濟的控制力。其他行業和領域的國有企業,通過資產重組和結構調整,在市場公平競爭中優勝劣汰。發展具有國際競爭力的大公司大企業集團。繼續放開搞活國有中小企業。以明晰產權為重點深化集體企業改革,發展多種形式的集體經濟。
5. Developing and guiding the non-public sectors of the economy. Self-employed or private enterprises and other non-public sectors of the economy are important forces for promoting the development of social productive forces. We should remove or revise such laws, regulations and policies as are against developing the non-public sectors of the economy and eliminate the institutional obstacles thereto. The areas should be expanded for market access of non-public capital, which will be permitted to go to the infrastructures, public undertakings and other industries and fields where the inflow of such capital is not prohibited by the laws and regulations. Non-public enterprises should be treated equally with other enterprises in terms of investment, financing, taxes, land use, foreign trade, etc. We should support the development of small and medium-sized non-public enterprises and encourage the eligible enterprises to be stronger and larger. The small and medium-sized non-public enterprises shall conduct operations under the law, pay taxes in accordance with the regulations, and protect the lawful rights and interests of employees. Services for and regulation of non-public enterprises should be improved.
   (5)大力發展和積極引導非公有制經濟。 個體、私營等非公有制經濟是促進我國社會生產力發展的重要力量。清理和修訂限制非公有制經濟發展的法律法規和政策,消除體制性障礙。放寬市場准入,允許非公有資本進入法律法規未禁入的基礎設施、公用事業及其他行業和領域。非公有制企業在投融資、稅收、土地使用和對外貿易等方面,與其他企業享受同等待遇。支持非公有制中小企業的發展,鼓勵有條件的企業做強做大。非公有制企業要依法經營,照章納稅,保障職工合法權益。改進對非公有制企業的服務和監管。
6. Establishing and improving the modern property rights system. Property rights, which include the rights over things, creditor's rights, stockholder's rights, intellectual property rights, etc., are the core and main content of ownership. A modern property rights system featuring clear-cut ascription, clearly defined rights and responsibilities, strict protection and smooth transfer should be established since it can: safeguard the public property rights and consolidate the role of the public sector of the economy as the main player; protect the private property rights and promote the development of the non-public sectors of the economy; facilitate the flow and reorganization of various capital and propel the development of the mixed sector of the economy; and enhance the business start-ups and innovations of both enterprises and people and form a sound credit foundation and market order. The establishment of the modern property rights system is not only the internal need for improving the basic economic system, but also the important basis for building a modern enterprise system. We should protect various kinds of property rights in accordance with the law, improving the trading rules and regulatory system of property rights, promote the orderly flow of property rights and safeguard the equal legal status and development rights of all market players.
   (6)建立健全現代產權制度。 產權是所有制的核心和主要內容,包括物權、債權、股權和知識產權等各類財產權。建立歸屬清晰、權責明確、保護嚴格、流轉順暢的現代產權制度,有利于維護公有財產權,鞏固公有制經濟的主體地位;有利于保護私有財產權,促進非公有制經濟發展;有利于各類資本的流動和重組,推動混合所有制經濟發展;有利于增強企業和公眾創業創新的動力,形成良好的信用基礎和市場秩序。這是完善基本經濟制度的內在要求,是構建現代企業制度的重要基礎。要依法保護各類產權,健全產權交易規則和監管制度,推動產權有序流轉,保障所有市場主體的平等法律地位和發展權利。
III. Improving the State-owned Assets Administration System and Deepening the Reform of State-owned Enterprises
7. Establishing and improving the state-owned assets administration and supervision system. The government shall separate its function of public administration with its role as state-owned assets investor. The state-owned assets administration organs shall, in accordance with the law, perform the investor's responsibilities for the state-owned assets under their supervision and administration, protect the rights and interests of the owners, safeguard various rights enjoyed by enterprises as market players, urge the enterprises to preserve and increase the value of state capital, and prevent the loss of state-owned assets. While establishing the state-owned assets budgetary institution and the enterprise operational achievement appraisal system, we should actively explore the effective means for supervision, administration and operation of state-owned assets and perfect the authorized operation system. The supervision and administration system should be established and improved for state-owned financial assets, non-profit assets, natural resources assets, etc.
   (7)建立健全國有資產管理和監督體制。 堅持政府公共管理職能和國有資產出資人職能分開。國有資產管理機構對授權監管的國有資本依法履行出資人職責,維護所有者權益,維護企業作為市場主體依法享有的各項權利,督促企業實現國有資本保值增值,防止國有資產流失。建立國有資本經營預算制度和企業經營業績考核體系。積極探索國有資產監管和經營的有效形式,完善授權經營制度。建立健全國有金融資產、非經營性資產和自然資源資產等的監管制度。
8. Improving the corporate governance of companies. We should act on the requirement of the modern enterprise system to standardize the rights and responsibilities of the stockholders' meeting, board of directors, board of supervisors, corporate managers, and perfect the system for employment of corporate leaders. The shareholders' meeting decides on the members of the board of directors and the board of supervisors, the board of directors selects corporate managers, and corporate managers exercise the power of staffing. Such arrangement will form a check and balance mechanism among the power organ, decision-making organ, supervisory organ and corporate managers. Party organizations of enterprises should play their role as the political core, and by adapting to the requirement of corporate governance of companies, improve the way of role-playing, support the stockholders' meeting, board of directors, board of supervisors, and corporate managers in exercising power according to law, and participate in the decision-making on significant issues of enterprises. We should stick to the principle of the Party assuming the responsibility for cadres' affairs and combine it with the mechanism for employing corporate managers through market. The Central and local Party committees should strengthen and improve the administration of the team of leaders in backbone state-owned enterprises. By relying on the employees and masses wholeheartedly, we should explore the effective means of democratic management by employees under the modern enterprise system so as to protect the lawful rights and interests of employees. We should continue to propel the transformation of enterprises' operating mechanism, deepen the reform in the systems of labor, employment, personnel and income distribution, resettle redundant personnel, peel social management functions off enterprises and create a sound environment for the reform and development of enterprises.
   (8)完善公司法人治理結構。 按照現代企業制度要求,規範公司股東會、董事會、監事會和經營管理者的權責,完善企業領導人員的聘任制度。股東會決定董事會和監事會成員,董事會選擇經營管理者,經營管理者行使用人權,並形成權力機構、決策機構、監督機構和經營管理者之間的制衡機制。企業黨組織要發揮政治核心作用,並適應公司法人治理結構的要求,改進發揮作用的方式,支持股東會、董事會、監事會和經營管理者依法行使職權,參與企業重大問題的決策。要堅持黨管幹部原則,並同市場化選聘企業經營管理者的機制相結合。中央和地方黨委要加強和改進對國有重要骨幹企業領導班子的管理。要全心全意依靠職工群眾,探索現代企業制度下職工民主管理的有效途徑,維護職工合法權益。繼續推進企業轉換經營機制,深化勞動用工、人事和收入分配制度改革,分流安置富余人員,分離企業辦社會職能,創造企業改革發展的良好環境。
9. Accelerating and improving the reform of monopoly industries. We should expand the areas for market access to monopoly industries and introduce competition mechanisms therein. Eligible enterprises should diversify the sources of investment. We should continue to propel and improve the restructuring of such industries as telecommunications, electric power, civil aviation, etc. The reform of railways, postal service, urban public undertakings, etc. should be accelerated by separating the functions of government from those of enterprises, assets and institutions. The natural monopoly businesses are subject to effective supervision and administration.
   (9)加快推進和完善壟斷行業改革。 對壟斷行業要放寬市場准入,引入競爭機制。有條件的企業要積極推行投資主體多元化。繼續推進和完善電信、電力、民航等行業的改革重組。加快推進鐵道、郵政和城市公用事業等改革,實行政企分開、政資分開、政事分開。對自然壟斷業務要進行有效監管。
IV. Deepening the Rural Reform and Improving the Rural Economy
10. Improving the rural land system. Household contract management of land is the core of the basic rural management system. We should keep stabilizing and improving the two-tier management system that integrates unified with separate management on the basis of household contract management, and safeguard various rights of farmers concerning contract management of land in accordance with the law. During the term of contract, farmer households may transfer the contractual right of land in accordance with the law and on a voluntary and compensatory basis. The methods of transfer should be improved so as to develop scale operation as appropriate in a step-by-step manner. We should practice the most stringent farmland protection system and secure the grain supply of the nation. We should reform the system and improve the procedures for land requisition in accordance with the principle of safeguarding the rights and interests of farmers and controlling the scale of land requisition. The use of land in construction for non-profit and business purposes should be defined strictly; land requisition shall conform to the overall planning and purpose control of land use, with fair compensation afforded to the farmers.
   (10)完善農村土地制度。 土地家庭承包經營是農村基本經營制度的核心,要長期穩定並不斷完善以家庭承包經營為基礎、統分結合的雙層經營體制,依法保障農民對土地承包經營的各項權利。農戶在承包期內可依法、自願、有償流轉土地承包經營權,完善流轉辦法,逐步發展適度規模經營。實行最嚴格的耕地保護制度,保證國家糧食安全。按照保障農民權益、控制征地規模的原則,改革征地制度,完善征地程序。嚴格界定公益性和經營性建設用地,征地時必須符合土地利用總體規劃和用途管制,及時給予農民合理補償。
11. Perfecting the commercialized rural services, agricultural product market and rural support and protection systems. Rural collective economic organizations should promote institutional innovations and strengthen service functions. Farmers are supported to develop diverse forms of rural professional cooperative organizations on a voluntary and democratic basis. Industrial and commercial enterprises are encouraged to invest in and develop the processing and marketing of agricultural products. We should vigorously promote the industrialized operation of agriculture and form the industrial chain featuring the integration of scientific research, manufacturing, processing and sales. The reform of agricultural science and technology and supply-and-marketing cooperatives should be deepened so as to form a commercialized service system of agriculture with broad participation of social forces. We should improve the market system for agricultural products, open the grain purchase market, and change indirect subsidy through the distribution link into direct subsidy to farmers, in an effort to protect the interests of grain farmers. The state should give more support and protection and increase the input of treasuries at all levels to agriculture and rural areas. The mechanism for poverty-relief development should be improved. The state will direct the new increase of expenses on such public undertakings as education, health, culture, etc. mainly towards rural areas, and explore the establishment of a policy-oriented agricultural insurance system.
   (11)健全農業社會化服務、農產品市場和對農業的支持保護體系。 農村集體經濟組織要推進制度創新,增強服務功能。支持農民按照自願、民主的原則,發展多種形式的農村專業合作組織。鼓勵工商企業投資發展農產品加工和營銷,積極推進農業產業化經營,形成科研、生產、加工、銷售一體化的產業鏈。深化農業科技推廣體制和供銷社改革,形成社會力量廣泛參與的農業社會化服務體系。完善農產品市場體系,放開糧食收購市場,把通過流通環節的間接補貼改為對農民的直接補貼,切實保護種糧農民的利益。加大國家對農業的支持保護,增加各級財政對農業和農村的投入。加強糧食綜合生產能力建設。完善扶貧開發機制。國家新增教育、衛生、文化等公共事業支出主要用于農村。探索建立政策性農業保險制度。
12. Deepening the rural tax and fee reform. The rural tax and fee reform is a significant step in easing the farmers' burden and deepening the rural reform. We should improve various policies on the experiment of rural tax and fee reform, cancel the agricultural specialty tax, and accelerate comprehensive and complementary reforms in government departments at county and township levels, rural compulsory education system, etc. Based on the completion of the experiment, we will cut the agricultural tax rate step by step so as to ease the farmers' burden.
   (12)深化農村稅費改革。 農村稅費改革是減輕農民負擔和深化農村改革的重大舉措。完善農村稅費改革試點的各項政策,取消農業特產稅,加快推進縣鄉機構和農村義務教育體制等綜合配套改革。在完成試點工作的基礎上,逐步降低農業稅率,切實減輕農民負擔。
13. Improving the environment for transfer employment of rural surplus laborers. The bi-directional movement and employment of rural surplus laborers between urban and rural areas is an important channel for increasing the farmers' income and propelling urbanization. We should establish and improve the training mechanism for rural laborers, propel the reform and adjustment of township enterprises, boost the county economy, expand the space for rural employment, eliminate the restrictive provisions on the movement of farmers to cities for employment, and create more job opportunities for farmers. We should unify the urban and rural labor markets step by step, strengthen guidance and administration in this regard and form a system for equal employment of urban and rural laborers. We should deepen the residence registration system, improve the administration of floating population and guide the smooth and orderly transfer of rural surplus laborers. The urbanization process should be accelerated; rural folk who have stable occupation and residence in the city may go through residence registration at the place of his employment or residence under the local provisions, and enjoy the due rights and bear the due responsibilities as local residents in accordance with the law.
   (13)改善農村富余勞動力轉移就業的環境。 農村富余勞動力在城鄉之間雙向流動就業,是增加農民收入和推進城鎮化的重要途徑。建立健全農村勞動力的培訓機制,推進鄉鎮企業改革和調整,大力發展縣域經濟,積極拓展農村就業空間,取消對農民進城就業的限制性規定,為農民創造更多就業機會。逐步統一城鄉勞動力市場,加強引導和管理,形成城鄉勞動者平等就業的制度。深化戶籍制度改革,完善流動人口管理,引導農村富余勞動力平穩有序轉移。加快城鎮化進程,在城市有穩定職業和住所的農業人口,可按當地規定在就業地或居住地登記戶籍,並依法享有當地居民應有的權利,承擔應盡的義務。
V. Improving the Market System and Regulating the Market Order
14. Accelerating the building of a unified national market. Enhancing the unity of market is a significant task in building a modern market system. We should boost the opening up of market both internally and externally, accelerate the market-oriented reform of factors' prices, develop such modern circulation forms as e-commerce, chain operations, efficient flow and distribution of materials, etc. and promote free movement and full competition nationwide of goods and factors of various kinds. Any provisions carving up the market by obstructing fair competition, installing administrative barriers or excluding the products or services of other places shall be repealed, and trade monopolies and regional blockades shall be smashed. We should vigorously develop professional market intermediary organizations featuring independence, impartiality and standardized operation, and regulate and develop all kinds of self-disciplined organizations such as trade associations, chambers of commerce, etc. in the principle of market orientation. We should improve the market regulation system featuring the integration of administrative law enforcement, trade self-discipline, public opinions supervision and mass participation, perfect the product quality supervision and administration mechanism, harshly crack down on such illegal acts as manufacturing and sales of fakes, business fraud, etc., and maintain and improve the market order.
   (14)加快建設全國統一市場。 強化市場的統一性,是建設現代市場體系的重要任務。大力推進市場對內對外開放,加快要素價格市場化,發展電子商務、連鎖經營、物流配送等現代流通方式,促進商品和各種要素在全國範圍自由流動和充分競爭。廢止妨礙公平競爭、設置行政壁壘、排斥外地產品和服務的各種分割市場的規定,打破行業壟斷和地區封鎖。積極發展獨立公正、規範運作的專業化市場中介服務機構,按市場化原則規範和發展各類行業協會、商會等自律性組織。完善行政執法、行業自律、輿論監督、群眾參與相結合的市場監管體系,健全產品質量監管機制,嚴厲打擊制假售假、商業欺詐等違法行為,維護和健全市場秩序。

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