May 31, 2010
---------------------
Monday
>>>Welcome visitor, you're not logged in.
Login   Subscribe Now!
Home User Management About Us Chinese
  Bookmark   Download   Print
Search:  serch "Fabao" Window Font Size: Home PageHome PageHome Page
 
Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party over the Past Century [Effective]
中共中央关于党的百年奋斗重大成就和历史经验的决议 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】
 
  
  

Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party over the Past Century
(Adopted at the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on November 11, 2021)
Preamble
Since its founding in 1921, the Communist Party of China (CPC) has remained true to its original aspiration and mission of seeking happiness for the Chinese people and rejuvenation for the Chinese nation. Staying committed to communist ideals and socialist convictions, it has united and led Chinese people of all ethnic groups in working tirelessly to achieve national independence and liberation, and then to make our country prosperous and strong and pursue a better life. The past century has been a glorious journey.
Over the past hundred years, the Party has led the people to a number of important milestones: achieving great success in the new-democratic revolution through bloody battles and unyielding struggles; achieving great success in socialist revolution and construction through a spirit of self-reliance and a desire to build a stronger China; achieving great success in reform, opening up, and socialist modernization by freeing minds and forging ahead; and achieving great success for socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era through a spirit of self-confidence, self-reliance, and innovating on the basis of what has worked in the past. The endeavors of the Party and the people over the past century represent the most magnificent chapter in the millennia-long history of the Chinese nation.
A review of the Party's major achievements and historical experience over the past century is necessary for the following purposes:--starting a new journey to build China into a modern socialist country in all respects in the historical context of the Party's centenary;--upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era;--strengthening our consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment with the central Party leadership;--enhancing our confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics;--resolutely upholding Comrade Xi Jinping's core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole and upholding the Central Committee's authority and its centralized, unified leadership to ensure that all Party members act in unison;--advancing the Party's self-reform, building all Party members' fighting capacity, strengthening their ability to respond to risks and challenges, and maintaining the Party's vigor and vitality; and--uniting and leading all Chinese people in making continued efforts to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. All Party members should uphold historical materialism and adopt a rational outlook on the Party's history. Looking back on the Party's endeavors over the past century, we can see why we were successful in the past and how we can continue to succeed in the future. This will ensure that we act with greater resolve and a stronger sense of purpose in staying true to our Party's founding mission, and that we more effectively uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era.
The Party adopted the Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party at the seventh plenary session of its Sixth Central Committee in 1945 and the Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party since the Founding of the People's Republic of China at the sixth plenary session of its 11th Central Committee in 1981. These two resolutions embody a facts-based review of major events in the Party's history, as well as important experience gained and lessons learned. These documents unified the whole Party in thinking and action at key historical junctures and played a vital guiding role in advancing the cause of the Party and the people. Their basic points and conclusions remain valid to this day.

 

中共中央关于党的百年奋斗重大成就和历史经验的决议
(2021年11月11日中国共产党第十九届中央委员会第六次全体会议通过)


序言
中国共产党自一九二一年成立以来,始终把为中国人民谋幸福、为中华民族谋复兴作为自己的初心使命,始终坚持共产主义理想和社会主义信念,团结带领全国各族人民为争取民族独立、人民解放和实现国家富强、人民幸福而不懈奋斗,已经走过一百年光辉历程。
一百年来,党领导人民浴血奋战、百折不挠,创造了新民主主义革命的伟大成就;自力更生、发愤图强,创造了社会主义革命和建设的伟大成就;解放思想、锐意进取,创造了改革开放和社会主义现代化建设的伟大成就;自信自强、守正创新,创造了新时代中国特色社会主义的伟大成就。党和人民百年奋斗,书写了中华民族几千年历史上最恢宏的史诗。
总结党的百年奋斗重大成就和历史经验,是在建党百年历史条件下开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程、在新时代坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的需要;是增强政治意识、大局意识、核心意识、看齐意识,坚定道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信,做到坚决维护习近平同志党中央的核心、全党的核心地位,坚决维护党中央权威和集中统一领导,确保全党步调一致向前进的需要;是推进党的自我革命、提高全党斗争本领和应对风险挑战能力、永葆党的生机活力、团结带领全国各族人民为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而继续奋斗的需要。全党要坚持唯物史观和正确党史观,从党的百年奋斗中看清楚过去我们为什么能够成功、弄明白未来我们怎样才能继续成功,从而更加坚定、更加自觉地践行初心使命,在新时代更好坚持和发展中国特色社会主义。
一九四五年党的六届七中全会通过的《关于若干历史问题的决议》、一九八一年党的十一届六中全会通过的《关于建国以来党的若干历史问题的决议》,实事求是总结党的重大历史事件和重要经验教训,在重大历史关头统一了全党思想和行动,对推进党和人民事业发挥了重要引领作用,其基本论述和结论至今仍然适用。
I. A Great Victory in the New-Democratic Revolution
In the period of the new-democratic revolution, the main tasks of the Party were to oppose imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucrat-capitalism, seek national independence and the people's liberation, and create the fundamental social conditions necessary for realizing national rejuvenation.
With a history stretching back more than 5,000 years, the Chinese nation is a great and ancient nation that has fostered a splendid civilization and made indelible contributions to the progress of human civilization. After the Opium War of 1840, however, China was gradually reduced to a semi-colonial, semi-feudal society due to the aggression of Western powers and the corruption of feudal rulers. The country endured intense humiliation, the people were subjected to untold misery, and the Chinese civilization was plunged into darkness. The Chinese nation suffered greater ravages than ever before. To save the nation from peril, the Chinese people rose to fight back, and patriots of high ideals sought to pull the nation together, putting up a heroic and moving struggle. The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement, the Westernization Movement, the Reform Movement of 1898, and the Yihetuan Movement rose one after the other, and a variety of plans were devised to ensure national survival, but all of these ended in failure. The Revolution of 1911 led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen brought down the absolute monarchy that had reigned over China for thousands of years, but it failed to change the semi-colonial and semi-feudal nature of Chinese society and to alter the bitter fate of the Chinese people. China was in urgent need of new ideas to lead the movement to save the nation and a new organization to rally forces of revolution.
With the salvoes of Russia's October Revolution in 1917, Marxism-Leninism was brought to China. The May 4th Movement of 1919 spurred the spread of Marxism throughout the country. Then in July 1921, as the Chinese people and the Chinese nation were undergoing a great awakening and Marxism-Leninism was becoming closely integrated with the Chinese workers' movement, the Communist Party of China was born. The founding of a communist party in China was an epoch-making event, and from then on the Chinese revolution took on an entirely new look.
The Party was keenly aware that the conflicts between imperialism and the Chinese nation, and those between feudalism and the people constituted the principal contradiction in modern Chinese society. To realize national rejuvenation, it would be essential to initiate an anti-imperialist and anti-feudal struggle.
In the early days of the Party and during the Great Revolution, the Party formulated the program of the democratic revolution, launched movements of workers, youths, peasants, and women, promoted and supported the reorganization of the Chinese Kuomintang (KMT) and the founding of the National Revolutionary Army, and led the great anti-imperialist and anti-feudal struggle across the country, bringing about a surge in the Great Revolution. In 1927, the reactionary clique within the KMT betrayed the revolution, brutally massacring communists and other revolutionaries. Meanwhile, the Right deviationist ideas within the Party represented by Chen Duxiu grew into Right opportunist errors and came to dominate the Party's leadership. The Party and the people were unable to mount an effective resistance, resulting in a disastrous defeat for the Great Revolution under the surprise attack of a powerful enemy.
During the Agrarian Revolutionary War, the Party realized in light of harsh realities that without revolutionary armed forces, it would be impossible to defeat armed counter-revolutionaries, win the Chinese revolution, and thus change the fate of the Chinese people and the Chinese nation. The Party would need to fight armed counter-revolution with armed revolution. The Nanchang Uprising of 1927 fired the opening shot of armed resistance against KMT reactionaries. This marked the start of the Communist Party of China's journey to lead the revolutionary struggle independently, build the people's armed forces, and seize state power by force. Soon afterwards, the policy of carrying out agrarian revolution and organizing armed uprisings was established at the August 7th Meeting. The Party led the Autumn Harvest Uprising, the Guangzhou Uprising, and uprisings in many other areas. Due to the great disparity in strength between the enemy forces and our own, most of these uprisings ended in failure. The fact of the matter was that in view of objective conditions at the time, the Chinese communists could not follow the example of Russia's October Revolution and win nationwide revolutionary victory by taking key cities first. The Party urgently needed to find a revolutionary path compatible with China's actual conditions.
The shift from attacking big cities to advancing into rural areas was a new starting point of decisive importance in the Chinese revolution. Led by Comrade Mao Zedong, soldiers and civilians established the first rural revolutionary base in the Jinggang Mountains, where the Party led the people in overthrowing local despots and redistributing the land. The Gutian Meeting of 1929 established the principles of strengthening the Party ideologically and the military politically. As progress was made in the struggle, the Party established the Central Revolutionary Base as well as the Western Hunan-Hubei, Haifeng-Lufeng, Hubei-Henan-Anhui, Qiongya, Fujian-Zhejiang-Jiangxi, Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi, Hunan-Jiangxi, Zuojiang-Youjiang, Sichuan-Shaanxi, Shaanxi-Gansu, and Hunan-Hubei-Sichuan-Guizhou bases. In addition, the Party also set up Party organizations and other revolutionary organizations in KMT-controlled areas and launched revolutionary mass struggles. However, the fifth counter-encirclement and suppression campaign in the Central Revolutionary Base ended in failure as a result of the misguided leadership of Wang Ming's "Left" dogmatism within the Party. The Red Army was forced to make a strategic shift, and arrived in northern Shaanxi Province after enduring the extraordinarily bitter and arduous journey of the Long March. The errors of the "Left" line caused enormous losses to revolutionary bases as well as revolutionary forces in KMT-controlled areas.
In January 1935, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee convened a meeting in Zunyi on the Long March, at which Comrade Mao Zedong was confirmed as the de facto leader of the Central Committee and the Red Army. The meeting laid the groundwork for establishing the leading position within the Central Committee of the correct Marxist line chiefly represented by Comrade Mao Zedong, as well as for the formation of the first generation of the central collective leadership with Comrade Mao Zedong at its core. The meeting opened a new stage in which the Party would act on its own initiative to address practical problems concerning the Chinese revolution, and saved the Party, the Red Army, and the Chinese revolution at a moment of greatest peril. It also subsequently enabled the Party to defeat Zhang Guotao's separatism, bring the Long March to a triumphant conclusion, and open up new horizons for the Chinese revolution. The Zunyi Meeting is therefore considered a pivotal turning point in the Party's history.
After the September 18th Incident in 1931 during the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, the conflict between China and Japan gradually overtook domestic class conflict as the issue of primary importance. As Japanese imperialists intensified their aggression against China, the country was plunged into an unprecedented national crisis. The Party was the first to propose that China should fight Japanese aggression with armed resistance, and launched extensive resistance movements. It also facilitated a peaceful settlement of the Xi'an Incident, thus playing a historic role in promoting a second period of cooperation between the KMT and the CPC and the united resistance against Japanese aggression. Following the July 7th Incident in 1937, the Party implemented the right policy on the Chinese united front against Japanese aggression, and adhered to the line of all-out resistance. It devised and executed the strategic guidelines for a protracted war as well as a whole set of strategies and tactics for a people's war, opened up vast battlefronts behind enemy lines, and developed bases for the resistance. The Party led the Eighth Route Army, the New Fourth Army, the Northeast United Resistance Army, and other forces of the people's armed resistance in brave fighting, and they were the pillar of the entire nation's resistance until the Chinese people finally prevailed. This marked the first time in modern history that the Chinese people had won a complete victory against foreign aggressors in the war of national liberation, and was an important part of the global war against fascism.
During the War of Liberation, as the KMT reactionaries flagrantly launched an all-out civil war, the Party led soldiers and civilians in gradually shifting from active defense to strategic offensive. It secured victories in the Liaoxi-Shenyang, Huai-Hai, and Beiping-Tianjin campaigns as well as the Crossing-the-Yangtze Campaign, advanced triumphantly into the central-south, northwest, and southwest, and wiped out eight million KMT troops, thus overthrowing the reactionary KMT government and the three mountains of imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucrat-capitalism. With the support of the people, the Party-led people's army demonstrated heroic mettle and unyielding resolve as they fought to the last against these fierce enemies, making a historic contribution to the victory of the new-democratic revolution.
In the course of the revolutionary struggle, Chinese communists, with Comrade Mao Zedong as their chief representative, adapted the basic tenets of Marxism-Leninism to China's specific realities and developed a theoretical synthesis of China's unique experience which came from painstaking trials and great sacrifices. They blazed the right revolutionary path of encircling cities from the countryside and seizing state power with military force. They established Mao Zedong Thought, which charted the correct course for securing victory in the new-democratic revolution.
In the course of the revolutionary struggle, the Party carried forward its great founding spirit comprised of the following principles: upholding truth and ideals, staying true to its original aspiration and founding mission, fighting bravely without fear of sacrifice, and remaining loyal to the Party and faithful to the people. The Party initiated and advanced the great project of Party building, introduced the principle of focusing on strengthening the Party in ideological terms, and upheld democratic centralism. It stuck to the three fine styles of conduct, namely combining theory with practice, maintaining close ties with the people, and conducting criticism and self-criticism; it developed the three important tools of the united front, armed struggle, and Party building, as it strived to build a national Marxist party of the people, which was fully consolidated in ideological, political, and organizational terms. The rectification movement—a Party-wide Marxist ideological education movement—was launched in 1942 and yielded tremendous results. The Party formulated the Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party, which helped the entire Party reach a common understanding of the basic questions regarding the Chinese revolution. At the Seventh National Congress, the correct line, principles, and policies were formulated for building a new-democratic China, and as a result the Party became united as never before in ideological, political, and organizational terms.
On October 1, 1949, the founding of the People's Republic of China was proclaimed after 28 years of bitter and courageous struggle carried out by the people under the leadership of the Party and with the active support of other political parties and democrats without party affiliation, thus realizing the independence of the Chinese nation and the liberation of the Chinese people. This put an end to China's history as a semi-colonial, semi-feudal society, to the rule of a handful of exploiters over the working people, to the state of total disunity that plagued the old China, and to all the unequal treaties imposed on our country by foreign powers and all the privileges that imperialist powers enjoyed on our land, marking the country's great transformation from a millennia-old feudal autocracy to a people's democracy. This also reshaped the world political landscape and offered enormous inspiration for oppressed nations and peoples struggling for liberation around the world.
It has been proven through practice that history and the people have chosen the Communist Party of China, and that without its leadership, it would not have been possible to realize national independence and the people's liberation. Through tenacious struggle, the Party and the people showed the world that the Chinese people had stood up and the time in which the Chinese nation could be bullied and abused was gone and would never return. This marked the beginning of a new epoch in China's development.
   一、夺取新民主主义革命伟大胜利
新民主主义革命时期,党面临的主要任务是,反对帝国主义、封建主义、官僚资本主义,争取民族独立、人民解放,为实现中华民族伟大复兴创造根本社会条件。
中华民族是世界上古老而伟大的民族,创造了绵延五千多年的灿烂文明,为人类文明进步作出了不可磨灭的贡献。一八四〇年鸦片战争以后,由于西方列强入侵和封建统治腐败,中国逐步成为半殖民地半封建社会,国家蒙辱、人民蒙难、文明蒙尘,中华民族遭受了前所未有的劫难。为了拯救民族危亡,中国人民奋起反抗,仁人志士奔走呐喊,进行了可歌可泣的斗争。太平天国运动、洋务运动、戊戌变法、义和团运动接连而起,各种救国方案轮番出台,但都以失败告终。孙中山先生领导的辛亥革命推翻了统治中国几千年的君主专制制度,但未能改变中国半殖民地半封建的社会性质和中国人民的悲惨命运。中国迫切需要新的思想引领救亡运动,迫切需要新的组织凝聚革命力量。
十月革命一声炮响,给中国送来了马克思列宁主义。五四运动促进了马克思主义在中国的传播。在中国人民和中华民族的伟大觉醒中,在马克思列宁主义同中国工人运动的紧密结合中,一九二一年七月中国共产党应运而生。中国产生了共产党,这是开天辟地的大事变,中国革命的面貌从此焕然一新。
党深刻认识到,近代中国社会主要矛盾是帝国主义和中华民族的矛盾、封建主义和人民大众的矛盾。实现中华民族伟大复兴,必须进行反帝反封建斗争。
建党之初和大革命时期,党制定民主革命纲领,发动工人运动、青年运动、农民运动、妇女运动,推进并帮助国民党改组和国民革命军建立,领导全国反帝反封建伟大斗争,掀起大革命高潮。一九二七年国民党内反动集团叛变革命,残酷屠杀共产党人和革命人民,由于党内以陈独秀为代表的右倾思想发展为右倾机会主义错误并在党的领导机关中占了统治地位,党和人民不能组织有效抵抗,致使大革命在强大的敌人突然袭击下遭到惨重失败。
土地革命战争时期,党从残酷的现实中认识到,没有革命的武装就无法战胜武装的反革命,就无法夺取中国革命胜利,就无法改变中国人民和中华民族的命运,必须以武装的革命反对武装的反革命。南昌起义打响武装反抗国民党反动派的第一枪,标志着中国共产党独立领导革命战争、创建人民军队和武装夺取政权的开端。八七会议确定实行土地革命和武装起义的方针。党领导举行秋收起义、广州起义和其他许多地区起义,但由于敌我力量悬殊,这些起义大多数失败了。事实证明,在当时的客观条件下,中国共产党人不可能像俄国十月革命那样通过首先占领中心城市来取得革命在全国的胜利,党迫切需要找到适合中国国情的革命道路。
从进攻大城市转为向农村进军,是中国革命具有决定意义的新起点。毛泽东同志领导军民在井冈山建立第一个农村革命根据地,党领导人民打土豪、分田地。古田会议确立思想建党、政治建军原则。随着斗争发展,党创建了中央革命根据地和湘鄂西、海陆丰、鄂豫皖、琼崖、闽浙赣、湘鄂赣、湘赣、左右江、川陕、陕甘、湘鄂川黔等根据地。党在国民党统治下的白区也发展了党和其他革命组织,开展了群众革命斗争。然而,由于王明“左”倾教条主义在党内的错误领导,中央革命根据地第五次反“围剿”失败,红军不得不进行战略转移,经过艰苦卓绝的长征转战到陕北。“左”倾路线的错误给革命根据地和白区革命力量造成极大损失。
一九三五年一月,中央政治局在长征途中举行遵义会议,事实上确立了毛泽东同志在党中央和红军的领导地位,开始确立以毛泽东同志为主要代表的马克思主义正确路线在党中央的领导地位,开始形成以毛泽东同志为核心的党的第一代中央领导集体,开启了党独立自主解决中国革命实际问题新阶段,在最危急关头挽救了党、挽救了红军、挽救了中国革命,并且在这以后使党能够战胜张国焘的分裂主义,胜利完成长征,打开中国革命新局面。这在党的历史上是一个生死攸关的转折点。
抗日战争时期,九一八事变后,中日民族矛盾逐渐超越国内阶级矛盾上升为主要矛盾。在日本帝国主义加紧侵略我国、民族危机空前严重的关头,党率先高举武装抗日旗帜,广泛开展抗日救亡运动,促成西安事变和平解决,对推动国共再次合作、团结抗日起了重大历史作用。七七事变后,党实行正确的抗日民族统一战线政策,坚持全面抗战路线,提出和实施持久战的战略总方针和一整套人民战争的战略战术,开辟广大敌后战场和抗日根据地,领导八路军、新四军、东北抗日联军和其他人民抗日武装英勇作战,成为全民族抗战的中流砥柱,直到取得中国人民抗日战争最后胜利。这是近代以来中国人民反抗外敌入侵第一次取得完全胜利的民族解放斗争,也是世界反法西斯战争胜利的重要组成部分。
解放战争时期,面对国民党反动派悍然发动的全面内战,党领导广大军民逐步由积极防御转向战略进攻,打赢辽沈、淮海、平津三大战役和渡江战役,向中南、西北、西南胜利进军,消灭国民党反动派八百万军队,推翻国民党反动政府,推翻帝国主义、封建主义、官僚资本主义三座大山。党领导的人民军队在人民支持下,以一往无前的英雄气概同穷凶极恶的敌人进行殊死斗争,为夺取新民主主义革命胜利建立了历史功勋。
在革命斗争中,以毛泽东同志为主要代表的中国共产党人,把马克思列宁主义基本原理同中国具体实际相结合,对经过艰苦探索、付出巨大牺牲积累的一系列独创性经验作了理论概括,开辟了农村包围城市、武装夺取政权的正确革命道路,创立了毛泽东思想,为夺取新民主主义革命胜利指明了正确方向。
在革命斗争中,党弘扬坚持真理、坚守理想,践行初心、担当使命,不怕牺牲、英勇斗争,对党忠诚、不负人民的伟大建党精神,实施和推进党的建设伟大工程,提出着重从思想上建党的原则,坚持民主集中制,坚持理论联系实际、密切联系群众、批评和自我批评三大优良作风,形成统一战线、武装斗争、党的建设三大法宝,努力建设全国范围的、广大群众性的、思想上政治上组织上完全巩固的马克思主义政党。党从一九四二年开始在全党进行整风,这场马克思主义思想教育运动收到巨大成效。党制定《关于若干历史问题的决议》,使全党对中国革命基本问题的认识达到一致。党的七大为建立新民主主义的新中国制定了正确路线方针政策,使全党在思想上政治上组织上达到空前统一和团结。
经过二十八年浴血奋斗,党领导人民,在各民主党派和无党派民主人士积极合作下,于一九四九年十月一日宣告成立中华人民共和国,实现民族独立、人民解放,彻底结束了旧中国半殖民地半封建社会的历史,彻底结束了极少数剥削者统治广大劳动人民的历史,彻底结束了旧中国一盘散沙的局面,彻底废除了列强强加给中国的不平等条约和帝国主义在中国的一切特权,实现了中国从几千年封建专制政治向人民民主的伟大飞跃,也极大改变了世界政治格局,鼓舞了全世界被压迫民族和被压迫人民争取解放的斗争。
实践充分说明,历史和人民选择了中国共产党,没有中国共产党领导,民族独立、人民解放是不可能实现的。中国共产党和中国人民以英勇顽强的奋斗向世界庄严宣告,中国人民从此站起来了,中华民族任人宰割、饱受欺凌的时代一去不复返了,中国发展从此开启了新纪元。
II. Socialist Revolution and Construction
In the period of socialist revolution and construction, the main tasks of the Party were to realize the transformation from new democracy to socialism, carry out socialist revolution, promote socialist construction, and lay down the fundamental political conditions and the institutional foundations necessary for national rejuvenation.
After the founding of the People's Republic, the Party led the people in surmounting a multitude of political, economic, and military challenges. It cleared out bandits and remnant KMT reactionary forces, peacefully liberated Tibet, and unified the entire mainland. It stabilized prices, unified standards for finances and the economy, completed the agrarian reform, and launched democratic reforms in all sectors of society. It introduced the policy of equal rights for men and women, suppressed counter-revolutionaries, and launched movements against the “three evils” of corruption, waste, and bureaucracy and against the “five evils” of bribery, tax evasion, theft of state property, cheating on government contracts, and stealing of economic information. As the stains of the old society were wiped out, China took on a completely new look. Meanwhile, the Chinese People's Volunteers marched valiantly across the Yalu River to fight alongside the Korean people and troops. They ultimately defeated a powerful enemy that was armed to the teeth, demonstrating the gallantry of our army and our country, and the unyielding spirit of our people. China's resounding victory in the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea safeguarded the security of the nascent People's Republic, and testified to its status as a major country. The new China thus gained a firm foothold amid complex domestic and international environments.
Under the Party's leadership, a government of people's democratic dictatorship was established and consolidated, which was led by the working class and based on an alliance of workers and peasants. This created the conditions necessary for the country's rapid development. In 1949, the Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) was passed at the CPPCC's first plenary session. In 1953, the Party officially set forth the general line for the transition period, namely gradually realizing the country's socialist industrialization and socialist transformation of agriculture, handicrafts, and capitalist industry and commerce over a fairly long period of time. In 1954, the Constitution of the People's Republic of China was adopted at the first session of the First National People's Congress. In 1956, China basically completed the socialist transformation of private ownership of the means of production, and put into practice public ownership of the means of production and distribution according to work, thus marking the establishment of the socialist economic system.Under the Party's leadership, China established the system of people's congresses, the system of CPC-led multiparty cooperation and political consultation, and the system of regional ethnic autonomy, providing institutional guarantees for ensuring that it is the people who run the country. Under the Party's leadership, China also forged and strengthened unity among people of all ethnic groups, established and developed socialist ethnic relations based on equality and mutual assistance, and achieved and cemented unity between workers, peasants, intellectuals, and people from other social strata across the country. As a result, a broad united front was consolidated and expanded. The establishment of the socialist system laid the foundation for all of China's subsequent progress and development.
In light of the domestic situation following socialist transformation, the Party propounded at its Eighth National Congress that the main contradiction in China was no longer the contradiction between the working class and the bourgeoisie, but rather that between the demand of the people for rapid economic and cultural development and the reality that the country's economy and culture fell short of the needs of the people. Therefore, the major task facing the nation was to concentrate on developing the productive forces and realize industrialization in order to gradually meet the people's growing material and cultural needs. The Party called on the people to redouble their efforts to build China step by step into a strong socialist country with modern agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology, and it led them in carrying out large-scale socialist construction across the board. Through the execution of several five-year plans, an independent and relatively complete industrial system and national economic framework were established, the conditions of agricultural production were markedly improved, and impressive progress was made in social programs such as education, science, culture, health, and sports. With continuous breakthroughs in cutting-edge technologies, including nuclear weapons, missiles, and satellites, China's defense industries underwent steady growth after starting from scratch. The People's Liberation Army continued to grow in strength, expanding from ground forces alone into a composite military force comprised of the navy, air force, and other specialized units. This provided firm support for the People's Republic to consolidate the newborn people's government, establish China's position as a major country, and defend the nation's dignity.
The Party adhered to an independent foreign policy of peace, championed and upheld the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and firmly defended China's independence, sovereignty, and dignity. It provided support and assistance for other oppressed nations in seeking liberation, for newly independent countries in their pursuit of development, and for various peoples as they put up just struggles, and stood opposed to imperialism, hegemonism, colonialism, and racism. The humiliating diplomacy of the old China was put to an end. The Party adjusted its diplomatic strategies in light of evolving circumstances, worked to restore all lawful rights of the People's Republic of China in the United Nations, opened up new horizons for China's diplomacy, and fostered commitment to the one-China principle among the international community. The Party put forward the theory of the differentiation of the three worlds and made the promise that China would never seek hegemony, earning respect and acclaim from the international community and developing countries in particular.
The Party fully foresaw the new challenges it would face after assuming power over the whole country. As early as at the second plenary session of its Seventh Central Committee which was held shortly before nationwide victory was attained in the War of Liberation, the Party called on all members to remain modest, prudent, and free from arrogance and rashness in their work, and to preserve the style of plain living and hard struggle. After the founding of the People's Republic, the Party focused on the major issue of Party building in the context of governing, and worked to strengthen the Party and consolidate Party leadership ideologically, organizationally, and in terms of conduct. The Party bolstered efforts to encourage officials to study theory and increase their knowledge, improved its capacity for exercising leadership, and demanded that all members, especially high-ranking officials, act with a greater sense of purpose to safeguard Party unity and solidarity. Rectification campaigns were carried out throughout the Party to strengthen education within the Party, consolidate primary-level organizations, raise membership requirements, and oppose bureaucratism, commandism, graft, and waste. The Party was on high alert against corruption, worked hard to prevent degeneracy among officials, and responded to corruption with firm punishment. These important measures strengthened the integrity of the Party and the solidarity of all Party members, built closer ties between the Party and the people, and accumulated essential starting experience for building a governing party.
During this period, Comrade Mao Zedong proposed a second round of efforts to integrate the basic tenets of Marxism-Leninism with China's realities. Chinese communists, with Comrade Mao Zedong as their chief representative, enriched and developed Mao Zedong Thought by taking stock of new realities, and put forward a series of important theories for socialist construction. These included recognizing that socialist society was a long historical period; strictly differentiating between two types of contradictions, namely those between the people and the enemy and those among the people, and properly dealing with these contradictions; handling the ten major relationships in China's socialist construction appropriately; finding a path to industrialization suited to China's realities; respecting the law of value; implementing the principle of long-term coexistence and mutual oversight between the Communist Party and other political parties; and applying the principle of letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend to scientific and cultural work. These creative theoretical achievements maintain important guiding significance to this day.
Mao Zedong Thought represents a creative application and advancement of Marxism-Leninism in China. It is a summation of theories, principles, and experience on China's revolution and construction that has been proven correct through practice, and its establishment marked the first historic step in adapting Marxism to the Chinese context. The living soul of Mao Zedong Thought is the positions, viewpoints, and methods embodied in its constituent parts, which are reflected in three basic points—seeking truth from facts, following the mass line, and staying independent. These have provided sound guidance for developing the cause of the Party and the people.
Regrettably, the correct line adopted at the Party's Eighth National Congress was not fully upheld. Mistakes were made such as the Great Leap Forward and the people's commune movement, and the scope of the struggle against Rightists was also made far too broad. Confronted with a grave and complex external environment at the time, the Party was extremely concerned about consolidating China's socialist state power, and made a wide range of efforts in this regard. However, Comrade Mao Zedong's theoretical and practical errors concerning class struggle in a socialist society became increasingly serious, and the Central Committee failed to rectify these mistakes in good time. Under a completely erroneous appraisal of the prevailing class relations and the political situation in the Party and the country, Comrade Mao Zedong launched and led the Cultural Revolution. The counter-revolutionary cliques of Lin Biao and Jiang Qing took advantage of Comrade Mao Zedong's mistakes, and committed many crimes that brought disaster to the country and the people, resulting in ten years of domestic turmoil which caused the Party, the country, and the people to suffer the most serious losses and setbacks since the founding of the People's Republic. This was an extremely bitter lesson. Acting on the will of the Party and the people, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee resolutely smashed the Gang of Four in October 1976, putting an end to the catastrophic Cultural Revolution.
From the founding of the People's Republic to the eve of reform and opening up, the Party led the people in completing the socialist revolution, eliminating all systems of exploitation, and bringing about the most extensive and profound social change in the history of the Chinese nation and a great transformation from a poor and backward Eastern country with a large population to a socialist country. Despite the serious setbacks it encountered in the process of exploration, the Party made creative theoretical achievements and great progress in socialist revolution and construction, which provided valuable experience, theoretical preparation, and material foundations for launching socialism with Chinese characteristics into a new historical period.
Through tenacious struggle, the Party and the people showed the world that the Chinese people were not only capable of dismantling the old world, but also of building a new one, that only socialism could save China, and that only socialism could develop China.
   二、完成社会主义革命和推进社会主义建设
社会主义革命和建设时期,党面临的主要任务是,实现从新民主主义到社会主义的转变,进行社会主义革命,推进社会主义建设,为实现中华民族伟大复兴奠定根本政治前提和制度基础。
新中国成立后,党领导人民战胜政治、经济、军事等方面一系列严峻挑战,肃清国民党反动派残余武装力量和土匪,和平解放西藏,实现祖国大陆完全统一;稳定物价,统一财经工作,完成土地改革,进行社会各方面民主改革,实行男女权利平等,镇压反革命,开展“三反”、“五反”运动,荡涤旧社会留下的污泥浊水,社会面貌焕然一新。中国人民志愿军雄赳赳、气昂昂跨过鸭绿江,同朝鲜人民和军队并肩战斗,战胜武装到牙齿的强敌,打出了国威军威,打出了中国人民的精气神,赢得抗美援朝战争伟大胜利,捍卫了新中国安全,彰显了新中国大国地位。新中国在错综复杂的国内国际环境中站稳了脚跟。
党领导建立和巩固工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政的国家政权,为国家迅速发展创造了条件。一九四九年,中国人民政治协商会议第一届全体会议制定《中国人民政治协商会议共同纲领》。一九五三年,党正式提出过渡时期的总路线,即在一个相当长的时期内,逐步实现国家的社会主义工业化,并逐步实现国家对农业、手工业和资本主义工商业的社会主义改造。一九五四年,召开第一届全国人民代表大会第一次会议,通过了《中华人民共和国宪法》。一九五六年,我国基本上完成对生产资料私有制的社会主义改造,基本上实现生产资料公有制和按劳分配,建立起社会主义经济制度。党领导确立人民代表大会制度、中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、民族区域自治制度,为人民当家作主提供了制度保证。党领导实现和巩固了全国各族人民的大团结,形成和发展各民族平等互助的社会主义民族关系,实现和巩固全国工人、农民、知识分子和其他各阶层人民的大团结,加强和扩大了广泛统一战线。社会主义制度的建立,为我国一切进步和发展奠定了重要基础。
党的八大根据我国社会主义改造基本完成后的形势,提出国内主要矛盾已经不再是工人阶级和资产阶级的矛盾,而是人民对于经济文化迅速发展的需要同当前经济文化不能满足人民需要的状况之间的矛盾,全国人民的主要任务是集中力量发展社会生产力,实现国家工业化,逐步满足人民日益增长的物质和文化需要。党提出努力把我国逐步建设成为一个具有现代农业、现代工业、现代国防和现代科学技术的社会主义强国,领导人民开展全面的大规模的社会主义建设。经过实施几个五年计划,我国建立起独立的比较完整的工业体系和国民经济体系,农业生产条件显著改变,教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育事业有很大发展。“两弹一星”等国防尖端科技不断取得突破,国防工业从无到有逐步发展起来。人民解放军得到壮大和提高,由单一的陆军发展成为包括海军、空军和其他技术兵种在内的合成军队,为巩固新生人民政权、确立中国大国地位、维护中华民族尊严提供了坚强后盾。
党坚持独立自主的和平外交政策,倡导和坚持和平共处五项原则,坚定维护国家独立、主权、尊严,支持和援助世界被压迫民族解放事业、新独立国家建设事业和各国人民正义斗争,反对帝国主义、霸权主义、殖民主义、种族主义,彻底结束了旧中国的屈辱外交。党审时度势调整外交战略,推动恢复我国在联合国的一切合法权利,打开对外工作新局面,推动形成国际社会坚持一个中国原则的格局。党提出划分三个世界的战略,作出中国永远不称霸的庄严承诺,赢得国际社会特别是广大发展中国家尊重和赞誉。
党充分预见到在全国执政面临的新挑战,早在解放战争取得全国胜利前夕召开的党的七届二中全会就向全党提出,务必继续保持谦虚、谨慎、不骄、不躁的作风,务必继续保持艰苦奋斗的作风。新中国成立后,党着重提出执政条件下党的建设的重大课题,从思想上组织上作风上加强党的建设、巩固党的领导。党加强干部理论学习和知识培训,提高党的领导水平,要求全党特别是党的高级干部增强维护党的团结统一的自觉性。党开展整风整党,加强党内教育,整顿基层党组织,提高党员条件,反对官僚主义、命令主义和贪污浪费。党高度警惕并着力防范党员干部腐化变质,坚决惩治腐败。这些重要举措,增强了党的纯洁性和全党的团结,密切了党同人民群众的联系,积累了执政党建设的初步经验。
在这个时期,毛泽东同志提出把马克思列宁主义基本原理同中国具体实际进行“第二次结合”,以毛泽东同志为主要代表的中国共产党人,结合新的实际丰富和发展毛泽东思想,提出关于社会主义建设的一系列重要思想,包括社会主义社会是一个很长的历史阶段,严格区分和正确处理敌我矛盾和人民内部矛盾,正确处理我国社会主义建设的十大关系,走出一条适合我国国情的工业化道路,尊重价值规律,在党与民主党派的关系上实行“长期共存、互相监督”的方针,在科学文化工作中实行“百花齐放、百家争鸣”的方针等。这些独创性理论成果至今仍有重要指导意义。
毛泽东思想是马克思列宁主义在中国的创造性运用和发展,是被实践证明了的关于中国革命和建设的正确的理论原则和经验总结,是马克思主义中国化的第一次历史性飞跃。毛泽东思想的活的灵魂是贯穿于各个组成部分的立场、观点、方法,体现为实事求是、群众路线、独立自主三个基本方面,为党和人民事业发展提供了科学指引。
遗憾的是,党的八大形成的正确路线未能完全坚持下去,先后出现“大跃进”运动、人民公社化运动等错误,反右派斗争也被严重扩大化。面对当时严峻复杂的外部环境,党极为关注社会主义政权巩固,为此进行了多方面努力。然而,毛泽东同志在关于社会主义社会阶级斗争的理论和实践上的错误发展得越来越严重,党中央未能及时纠正这些错误。毛泽东同志对当时我国阶级形势以及党和国家政治状况作出完全错误的估计,发动和领导了“文化大革命”,林彪、江青两个反革命集团利用毛泽东同志的错误,进行了大量祸国殃民的罪恶活动,酿成十年内乱,使党、国家、人民遭到新中国成立以来最严重的挫折和损失,教训极其惨痛。一九七六年十月,中央政治局执行党和人民的意志,毅然粉碎了“四人帮”,结束了“文化大革命”这场灾难。
从新中国成立到改革开放前夕,党领导人民完成社会主义革命,消灭一切剥削制度,实现了中华民族有史以来最为广泛而深刻的社会变革,实现了一穷二白、人口众多的东方大国大步迈进社会主义社会的伟大飞跃。在探索过程中,虽然经历了严重曲折,但党在社会主义革命和建设中取得的独创性理论成果和巨大成就,为在新的历史时期开创中国特色社会主义提供了宝贵经验、理论准备、物质基础。
中国共产党和中国人民以英勇顽强的奋斗向世界庄严宣告,中国人民不但善于破坏一个旧世界、也善于建设一个新世界,只有社会主义才能救中国,只有社会主义才能发展中国。
III. Reform, Opening Up, and Socialist Modernization
In the new period of reform, opening up, and socialist modernization, the main tasks facing the Party were to continue exploring a right path for building socialism in China, unleash and develop the productive forces, lift the people out of poverty and help them become prosperous in the shortest time possible, and fuel the push toward national rejuvenation by providing new, dynamic institutional guarantees as well as the material conditions for rapid development.
After the end of the Cultural Revolution, the Party stood at a crucial historical juncture in which it was confronted with the question of which course the Party and the country should take. The Party came to recognize that the only way forward was to launch a program of reform and opening up; otherwise, our endeavors in pursuing modernization and building socialism would be doomed to failure. In December 1978, the 11th Central Committee held its third plenary session. At the session the Party decisively abandoned the policy of taking class struggle as the key link, and initiated a strategic shift in the focus of the Party and country's work, thereby ushering in a new period of reform, opening up, and socialist modernization. This marked a great turning point of far-reaching significance in the Party's history since the founding of the People's Republic of China. The Party also made the momentous decision to completely renounce the Cultural Revolution. Over the more than 40 years that have passed since then, the Party has never wavered in following the line, principles, and policies adopted at this session.
After the third plenary session of the 11th Central Committee, Chinese communists, with Comrade Deng Xiaoping as their chief representative, united and led the whole Party and the entire nation in conducting a thorough review of the experience gained and lessons learned since the founding of the People's Republic. On this basis, and by focusing on the fundamental questions of what socialism is and how to build it and drawing lessons from the history of world socialism, they established Deng Xiaoping Theory, and devoted their efforts to freeing minds and seeking truth from facts. The historic decision was made to shift the focus of the Party and the country's work onto economic development and to launch the reform and opening up drive. Chinese communists brought the essence of socialism to light, set the basic line for the primary stage of socialism, and made it clear that China would follow its own path and build socialism with Chinese characteristics. They provided sensible answers to a series of basic questions on building socialism with Chinese characteristics, and formulated a development strategy for basically achieving socialist modernization by the middle of the 21st century through a three-step approach. They thus succeeded in founding socialism with Chinese characteristics.
After the fourth plenary session of the 13th Central Committee, Chinese communists, with Comrade Jiang Zemin as their chief representative, united and led the whole Party and the entire nation in upholding the Party's basic theory and line, deepening their understanding of what socialism is and how to build it, and what kind of party to build and how to build it. On this basis, they formed the Theory of Three Represents. In the face of complex domestic and international situations and serious setbacks confronting world socialism, they safeguarded socialism with Chinese characteristics, defined building a socialist market economy as an objective of reform and set a basic framework in this regard, and established a basic economic system for the primary stage of socialism under which public ownership is the mainstay and diverse forms of ownership develop together, as well as an income distribution system under which distribution according to work is the mainstay while multiple forms of distribution exist alongside it. They opened up new horizons for reform and opening up across all fronts and advanced the great new project of Party building. All these efforts helped to successfully launch socialism with Chinese characteristics into the 21st century.
After the 16th National Congress, Chinese communists, with Comrade Hu Jintao as their chief representative, united and led the whole Party and the entire nation in advancing practical, theoretical, and institutional innovation during the process of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. They gained a deep understanding of major questions such as what kind of development to pursue and how to pursue it under new circumstances, and provided clear answers to these questions, thus forming the Scientific Outlook on Development. Taking advantage of an important period of strategic opportunity, they focused their energy on development, with emphasis on pursuing comprehensive, balanced, and sustainable development that put the people first. They worked hard to ensure and improve people's wellbeing, promote social fairness and justice, bolster the Party's governance capacity, and maintain its advanced nature. In doing so, they succeeded in upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics under new circumstances.
In order to promote reform and opening up, the Party re-established the Marxist ideological, political, and organizational lines, thoroughly refuted the erroneous “two whatevers” policy, and correctly appraised the historical position of Comrade Mao Zedong and the value of Mao Zedong Thought as a scientific system. The Party made it clear that the principal contradiction in Chinese society was that China's underdeveloped social production was unable to meet the ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people, and hence the central task of the Party was to resolve this contradiction. On this basis, the Party put forward the goal of building China into a moderately prosperous society. The Party restored and formulated a series of correct policies in all fields of work, and began the process of readjusting the national economy. Under the leadership of the Party, comprehensive steps were taken to set things right ideologically, politically, and organizationally, and extensive efforts were made to redress wrongs suffered by those who were unjustly, falsely, and wrongly accused and to regulate social relations. The adoption of the Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party since the Founding of the People's Republic of China marked the successful conclusion of the Party's efforts to rectify its guiding principles.
The Party came to recognize that to open up new prospects for reform, opening up, and socialist modernization, it needed to steer the advancement of its endeavors with theoretical innovation. Comrade Deng Xiaoping once said, “When everything has to be done by the book, when thinking turns rigid and blind faith is the fashion, it is impossible for a party or a nation to make progress. Its life will cease and that party or nation will perish.” With this understanding, the Party led and supported extensive discussions on the criterion for testing truth, upheld and developed Marxism in light of new practices and the features of the times, and effectively answered a series of basic questions regarding socialism with Chinese characteristics, including development path, stage of development, fundamental tasks, development drivers, development strategies, political guarantee, national reunification, diplomacy and international strategy, leadership, and forces to rely on, thereby forming the theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics and achieving a new breakthrough in adapting Marxism to the Chinese context.
At its 12th through 17th national congresses, the Party made consistent overall plans for advancing reform, opening up, and socialist modernization in view of evolving circumstances at home and abroad and new requirements for the country's development. The Central Committee convened several plenary sessions dedicated to planning major initiatives for promoting reform, development, and stability. The introduction of the household contract responsibility system in rural areas marked the initial breakthrough in China's reform, further steps were gradually taken to reform the economic structure in the cities, and reform initiatives were then carried out across the board. Oriented toward the development of a socialist market economy, this reform gave greater and broader play to the basic role of market in allocating resources, while upholding and improving China's basic economic and income distribution systems. While resolutely advancing economic structural reform, the Party simultaneously carried out political, cultural, and social structural reforms as well as institutional reforms related to Party building, which led to the formation and development of vigorous institutions and mechanisms that suited the conditions of contemporary China. The Party designated opening up as a fundamental national policy. Under this policy, China progressed from establishing special economic zones in Shenzhen and a few other areas to opening up more parts of the country–Pudong in Shanghai, key inland cities as well as areas along the coastline, borders, the Yangtze River, and major transportation routes. It also acceded to the World Trade Organization, and went from “bringing in” to “going global.” In this process, we fully utilized both domestic and international markets and resources. With continuous progress in reform and opening up, China achieved the historic transformations from a highly centralized planned economy into a socialist market economy brimming with vitality, and from a country that was largely isolated into one that is open to the outside world across the board.
In an effort to accelerate socialist modernization, the Party led the people in promoting economic, political, cultural, and social development and made immense achievements. The Party continued to take economic development as the central task, stood by the conviction that development is of paramount importance, and put forward the notion that science and technology constitute the primary productive force. It implemented major strategies such as invigorating China through science and education, pursuing sustainable development, and developing a quality workforce. It advanced large-scale development of the western region, revitalized old industrial bases in the northeast and other regions, promoted the rise of the central region, and supported the trailblazing development of the eastern region in an effort to promote the coordinated development of urban and rural areas and different regions. The Party promoted the reform and development of state-owned enterprises, encouraged and supported the development of the non-public sector, and accelerated the transformation of the economic growth model. It stepped up environmental protection and promoted sustained and rapid economic development. All of this enabled China's composite national strength to increase by a large margin. Upholding the unity between the Party's leadership, the running of the country by the people, and law-based governance, the Party worked to develop socialist democracy and promote socialist political progress and advanced reform of the political system in a proactive and prudent manner. With a commitment to integrating the rule of law with the rule of virtue, a new Constitution of the People's Republic of China was formulated, China built itself into a socialist country under the rule of law, and a socialist system of laws with Chinese characteristics took shape. The Party made earnest efforts to respect and protect human rights and consolidated and developed the broadest possible patriotic united front. The Party stepped up education on ideals and convictions, advanced the development of the core socialist values, promoted cultural-ethical progress, and fostered an advanced socialist culture, thus pushing socialist culture to flourish. The Party accelerated social development with a focus on improving public wellbeing. It worked to improve people's living standards and rescinded taxes on agriculture. It devoted constant effort to ensuring access to education, employment, medical services, elderly care, and housing and to promoting social harmony and stability. The Party put forward the overall goal of building a strong, modern, and standardized revolutionary military, and it made winning local wars in the information age the focal point in preparation for military struggle. It advanced military transformation with Chinese characteristics by following an approach of having fewer but better troops.
Facing a rapidly changing international landscape, the Party upheld the Four Cardinal Principles, eliminated all kinds of interference, and calmly responded to a series of risks and trials related to China's overall reform, development, and stability. The late 1980s and early 1990s witnessed the demise of the Soviet Union and the drastic changes in Eastern European countries. In the late spring and early summer of 1989, a severe political disturbance took place in China as a result of the international and domestic climates at the time, and was egged on by hostile anti-communist and anti-socialist forces abroad. With the people's backing, the Party and the government took a clear stand against the turmoil, defending China's socialist state power and safeguarding the fundamental interests of the people. The Party led the people in successfully responding to the Asian financial crisis, the global financial crisis, and other economic risks. We successfully held the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Beijing. We overcame natural disasters, such as severe flooding on the Yangtze, Nenjiang, and Songhua rivers, the devastating earthquake in Wenchuan, and the SARS epidemic. All these victories demonstrated the Party's ability to withstand risks and cope with complicated situations.
Defining national reunification as a major historical task, the Party worked tirelessly to complete it. Comrade Deng Xiaoping introduced the creative and well-conceived concept of One Country, Two Systems, paving a new path for achieving reunification through peaceful means. Through arduous work and struggle, the Chinese government successively resumed its exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong and Macao, thus ending a century-long history of humiliation. Since Hong Kong and Macao's return to the motherland, the central government acted in strict compliance with China's Constitution and the basic laws of the special administrative regions and maintained lasting prosperity and stability in the two regions. Keeping in mind the big picture with regard to resolving the Taiwan question, the Party set forth the basic principles of peaceful reunification and One Country, Two Systems and facilitated agreement across the Taiwan Strait on the 1992 Consensus, which embodies the one-China principle. It advanced cross-Strait consultations and negotiations, established comprehensive and direct two-way mail, transport, and trade links across the Strait, and launched dialogues between political parties of the two sides. The Party pushed for the enactment of the Anti-Secession Law, resolutely deterred separatist forces seeking “Taiwan independence,” promoted national reunification, and thwarted attempts to create “two Chinas,” “one China, one Taiwan,” or “Taiwan independence.”
Based on a judicious assessment of global trends and the features of the era, the Party put forward the concept that peace and development are the themes of our times. In line with this concept, China upheld its fundamental foreign policy goal of preserving world peace and promoting shared development. It adjusted its relations with other major countries, developed friendly relations with neighboring countries, and deepened friendly cooperation with other developing countries. It actively participated in international and regional affairs and created a new comprehensive and multi-layered framework for foreign relations. The Party promoted the development of a multipolar world and the democratization of international relations and pushed economic globalization in a direction toward common prosperity. China took an unequivocal stand against hegemonism and power politics, endeavored to safeguard the interests of developing countries, worked for a new international political and economic order that would be fair and equitable, and promoted lasting peace and common prosperity in the world.
The Party has always stressed that to do a good job of governing the country, we must first do a good job of governing the Party, and that means governing it strictly. With this in mind, it focused its efforts on strengthening the Party and launched the great new project of Party building. The Party formulated the Code of Conduct for Intraparty Political Life, strengthened democratic centralism, promoted democracy within the Party, and normalized intraparty political activities. It launched a party-wide rectification campaign through a well-planned, step-by-step approach in order to address the problems of defects in terms of thinking, conduct, and organization within the Party. The Party also worked to fortify its ranks with the aim of cultivating younger, more revolutionary, better educated, and more specialized officials, and it made a strong point of promoting young and middle-aged officials and advancing the process of succession. With a view to addressing the two historical challenges of improving the Party's leadership and governance and bolstering its ability to resist corruption, prevent moral decline, and withstand risks, and with its focus on enhancing its governance capacity and advanced nature, the Party made a series of decisions on major issues including strengthening its ties with the people, its style of work, and its governance capacity. It also carried out education campaigns on the importance of study, political integrity, and rectitude, on the Theory of Three Represents, on preserving the advanced nature of Party members, and on studying and applying the Scientific Outlook on Development. The Party defined efforts to improve Party conduct, uphold integrity, and combat corruption as issues concerning the very survival of the Party and the country, and pushed forward the development of systems for preventing and punishing corruption.
On the 40th anniversary of the launch of reform and opening up, the Party held a grand ceremony to mark this important event. In his address at the ceremony, Comrade Xi Jinping reviewed the great achievements made and valuable experience accumulated over those four decades. He stressed that reform and opening up represented a great awakening for the Party and a great revolution in the history of the Chinese nation's development, and he called for continued efforts to see this process through. Our country's impressive achievements in reform, opening up, and modernization attracted the whole world's attention. China achieved the historic transformation from a country with relatively backward productive forces to the world's second largest economy, and made the historic strides of raising the living standards of its people from bare subsistence to moderate prosperity in general and then toward moderate prosperity in all respects. All these achievements marked the tremendous advance of the Chinese nation from standing up to growing prosperous.
Through tenacious struggle, the Party and the people showed the world that reform and opening up was a crucial move in making China what it is today, that socialism with Chinese characteristics is the correct road that has led the country toward development and prosperity, and that China has caught up with the times in great strides.
   三、进行改革开放和社会主义现代化建设
改革开放和社会主义现代化建设新时期,党面临的主要任务是,继续探索中国建设社会主义的正确道路,解放和发展社会生产力,使人民摆脱贫困、尽快富裕起来,为实现中华民族伟大复兴提供充满新的活力的体制保证和快速发展的物质条件。
“文化大革命”结束以后,在党和国家面临何去何从的重大历史关头,党深刻认识到,只有实行改革开放才是唯一出路,否则我们的现代化事业和社会主义事业就会被葬送。一九七八年十二月,党召开十一届三中全会,果断结束“以阶级斗争为纲”,实现党和国家工作中心战略转移,开启了改革开放和社会主义现代化建设新时期,实现了新中国成立以来党的历史上具有深远意义的伟大转折。党作出彻底否定“文化大革命”的重大决策。四十多年来,党始终不渝坚持这次全会确立的路线方针政策。
党的十一届三中全会以后,以邓小平同志为主要代表的中国共产党人,团结带领全党全国各族人民,深刻总结新中国成立以来正反两方面经验,围绕什么是社会主义、怎样建设社会主义这一根本问题,借鉴世界社会主义历史经验,创立了邓小平理论,解放思想,实事求是,作出把党和国家工作中心转移到经济建设上来、实行改革开放的历史性决策,深刻揭示社会主义本质,确立社会主义初级阶段基本路线,明确提出走自己的路、建设中国特色社会主义,科学回答了建设中国特色社会主义的一系列基本问题,制定了到二十一世纪中叶分三步走、基本实现社会主义现代化的发展战略,成功开创了中国特色社会主义。
党的十三届四中全会以后,以江泽民同志为主要代表的中国共产党人,团结带领全党全国各族人民,坚持党的基本理论、基本路线,加深了对什么是社会主义、怎样建设社会主义和建设什么样的党、怎样建设党的认识,形成了“三个代表”重要思想,在国内外形势十分复杂、世界社会主义出现严重曲折的严峻考验面前捍卫了中国特色社会主义,确立了社会主义市场经济体制的改革目标和基本框架,确立了社会主义初级阶段公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度和按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式并存的分配制度,开创全面改革开放新局面,推进党的建设新的伟大工程,成功把中国特色社会主义推向二十一世纪。
党的十六大以后,以胡锦涛同志为主要代表的中国共产党人,团结带领全党全国各族人民,在全面建设小康社会进程中推进实践创新、理论创新、制度创新,深刻认识和回答了新形势下实现什么样的发展、怎样发展等重大问题,形成了科学发展观,抓住重要战略机遇期,聚精会神搞建设,一心一意谋发展,强调坚持以人为本、全面协调可持续发展,着力保障和改善民生,促进社会公平正义,推进党的执政能力建设和先进性建设,成功在新形势下坚持和发展了中国特色社会主义。
为了推进改革开放,党重新确立马克思主义的思想路线、政治路线、组织路线,彻底否定“两个凡是”的错误方针,正确评价毛泽东同志的历史地位和毛泽东思想的科学体系。党明确我国社会的主要矛盾是人民日益增长的物质文化需要同落后的社会生产之间的矛盾,解决这个主要矛盾就是我们的中心任务,提出小康社会目标。党在各方面工作中恢复并制定一系列正确政策,调整国民经济。党领导全面开展思想、政治、组织等领域拨乱反正,大规模平反冤假错案和调整社会关系。党制定《关于建国以来党的若干历史问题的决议》,标志着党在指导思想上的拨乱反正胜利完成。
党深刻认识到,开创改革开放和社会主义现代化建设新局面,必须以理论创新引领事业发展。邓小平同志指出,一个党,一个国家,一个民族,如果一切从本本出发,思想僵化,迷信盛行,那它就不能前进,它的生机就停止了,就要亡党亡国。党领导和支持开展真理标准问题大讨论,从新的实践和时代特征出发坚持和发展马克思主义,科学回答了建设中国特色社会主义的发展道路、发展阶段、根本任务、发展动力、发展战略、政治保证、祖国统一、外交和国际战略、领导力量和依靠力量等一系列基本问题,形成中国特色社会主义理论体系,实现了马克思主义中国化新的飞跃。
党的十二大、十三大、十四大、十五大、十六大、十七大,根据国际国内形势发展变化,从我国发展新要求出发,一以贯之对推进改革开放和社会主义现代化建设作出全面部署,并召开多次中央全会专题研究部署改革发展稳定重大工作。我国改革从农村实行家庭联产承包责任制率先突破,逐步转向城市经济体制改革并全面铺开,确立社会主义市场经济的改革方向,更大程度更广范围发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用,坚持和完善基本经济制度和分配制度。党坚决推进经济体制改革,同时进行政治、文化、社会等各领域体制改革,推进党的建设制度改革,不断形成和发展符合当代中国国情、充满生机活力的体制机制。党把对外开放确立为基本国策,从兴办深圳等经济特区、开发开放浦东、推动沿海沿边沿江沿线和内陆中心城市对外开放到加入世界贸易组织,从“引进来”到“走出去”,充分利用国际国内两个市场、两种资源。经过持续推进改革开放,我国实现了从高度集中的计划经济体制到充满活力的社会主义市场经济体制、从封闭半封闭到全方位开放的历史性转变。
为了加快推进社会主义现代化,党领导人民进行经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设,取得一系列重大成就。党坚持以经济建设为中心,坚持发展是硬道理,提出科学技术是第一生产力,实施科教兴国、可持续发展、人才强国等重大战略,推进西部大开发,振兴东北地区等老工业基地,促进中部地区崛起,支持东部地区率先发展,促进城乡、区域协调发展,推进国有企业改革和发展,鼓励和支持发展非公有制经济,加快转变经济发展方式,加强生态环境保护,推动经济持续快速发展,综合国力大幅提升。党坚持党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一,发展社会主义民主政治,建设社会主义政治文明,积极稳妥推进政治体制改革,坚持依法治国和以德治国相结合,制定新宪法,建设社会主义法治国家,形成中国特色社会主义法律体系,尊重和保障人权,巩固和发展最广泛的爱国统一战线。党加强理想信念教育,推进社会主义核心价值体系建设,建设社会主义精神文明,发展社会主义先进文化,推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣。党加快推进以改善民生为重点的社会建设,改善人民生活,取消农业税,不断推进学有所教、劳有所得、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居,促进社会和谐稳定。党提出建设强大的现代化正规化革命军队的总目标,把军事斗争准备的基点放在打赢信息化条件下的局部战争上,推进中国特色军事变革,走中国特色精兵之路。
面对风云变幻的国际形势,党毫不动摇坚持四项基本原则,坚决排除各种干扰,从容应对关系我国改革发展稳定全局的一系列风险考验。二十世纪八十年代末九十年代初,苏联解体、东欧剧变。由于国际上反共反社会主义的敌对势力的支持和煽动,国际大气候和国内小气候导致一九八九年春夏之交我国发生严重政治风波。党和政府依靠人民,旗帜鲜明反对动乱,捍卫了社会主义国家政权,维护了人民根本利益。党领导人民成功应对亚洲金融危机、国际金融危机等经济风险,成功举办二〇〇八年北京奥运会、残奥会,战胜长江和嫩江、松花江流域严重洪涝、汶川特大地震等自然灾害,战胜非典疫情,彰显了党抵御风险和驾驭复杂局面的能力。
党把完成祖国统一大业作为历史重任,为此进行不懈努力。邓小平同志创造性提出“一个国家,两种制度”科学构想,开辟了以和平方式实现祖国统一的新途径。经过艰巨工作和斗争,我国政府相继对香港、澳门恢复行使主权,洗雪了中华民族百年耻辱。香港、澳门回归祖国后,中央政府严格按照宪法和特别行政区基本法办事,保持香港、澳门长期繁荣稳定。党把握解决台湾问题大局,确立“和平统一、一国两制”基本方针,推动两岸双方达成体现一个中国原则的“九二共识”,推进两岸协商谈判,实现全面直接双向“三通”,开启两岸政党交流。制定反分裂国家法,坚决遏制“台独”势力、促进祖国统一,有力挫败各种制造“两个中国”、“一中一台”、“台湾独立”的图谋。
党科学判断时代特征和国际形势,提出和平与发展是当今时代的主题。党坚持维护世界和平、促进共同发展的外交政策宗旨,调整同主要大国的关系,发展同周边国家的睦邻友好关系,深化同广大发展中国家的友好合作,积极参与国际和地区事务,建立起全方位多层次的对外关系新格局。党积极促进世界多极化和国际关系民主化,推动经济全球化朝着有利于共同繁荣的方向发展,旗帜鲜明反对霸权主义和强权政治,坚定维护广大发展中国家利益,推动建立公正合理的国际政治经济新秩序,促进世界持久和平、共同繁荣。
党始终强调,治国必先治党,治党务必从严,聚精会神抓好党的建设,开创和推进党的建设新的伟大工程。党制定关于党内政治生活的若干准则,健全民主集中制,发扬党内民主,实现党内政治生活正常化;有计划有步骤进行整党,着力解决党内思想不纯、作风不纯、组织不纯问题;按照革命化、年轻化、知识化、专业化方针加强干部队伍建设,大力选拔中青年干部,促进干部队伍新老交替。党围绕解决好提高党的领导水平和执政水平、提高拒腐防变和抵御风险能力这两大历史性课题,以执政能力建设和先进性建设为主线,先后就加强党同人民群众联系、加强和改进党的作风建设、加强党的执政能力建设等重大问题作出决定,组织开展“讲学习、讲政治、讲正气”教育、“三个代表”重要思想学习教育活动、保持共产党员先进性教育活动、学习实践科学发展观活动等集中性学习教育。党把党风廉政建设和反腐败斗争提高到关系党和国家生死存亡的高度,推进惩治和预防腐败体系建设。
改革开放四十周年之际,党中央隆重举行庆祝大会,习近平同志发表重要讲话,全面总结四十年改革开放取得的伟大成就和宝贵经验,强调改革开放是党的一次伟大觉醒,是中国人民和中华民族发展史上一次伟大革命,发出将改革开放进行到底的伟大号召。改革开放和社会主义现代化建设的伟大成就举世瞩目,我国实现了从生产力相对落后的状况到经济总量跃居世界第二的历史性突破,实现了人民生活从温饱不足到总体小康、奔向全面小康的历史性跨越,推进了中华民族从站起来到富起来的伟大飞跃。
中国共产党和中国人民以英勇顽强的奋斗向世界庄严宣告,改革开放是决定当代中国前途命运的关键一招,中国特色社会主义道路是指引中国发展繁荣的正确道路,中国大踏步赶上了时代。
IV. A New Era of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics
Following the Party's 18th National Congress, socialism with Chinese characteristics entered a new era. The main tasks facing the Party in this period are to fulfill the First Centenary Goal, embark on the new journey to accomplish the Second Centenary Goal, and continue striving toward the great goal of national rejuvenation.
The Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has implemented the national rejuvenation strategy within the wider context of once-in-a-century changes taking place in the world. It has stressed that the new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics is an era in which we will build on past successes to further advance our cause and continue to strive for the success of socialism with Chinese characteristics under new historical conditions; an era in which we will use the momentum of our decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects to fuel all-out efforts to build a great modern socialist country; an era in which Chinese people of all ethnic groups will work together to create a better life for themselves and gradually realize the goal of common prosperity; an era in which all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation will strive with one heart to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation; and an era in which China will make even greater contributions to humanity. This new era is a new historic juncture in China's development.
Chinese communists, with Comrade Xi Jinping as their chief representative, have established Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era on the basis of adapting the basic tenets of Marxism to China's specific realities and its fine traditional culture, upholding Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development, thoroughly reviewing and fully applying the historical experience gained since the founding of the Party, and proceeding from new realities. Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era makes the following clear: —The leadership of the Communist Party of China is the defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics and the greatest strength of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and that the Party is the highest force for political leadership. Therefore, all Party members must strengthen their consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment with the central Party leadership; stay confident in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics; and uphold Comrade Xi Jinping's core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole, and uphold the Central Committee's authority and its centralized, unified leadership. —The overarching task of upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics is to realize socialist modernization and national rejuvenation, and that on the basis of completing the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, a two-step approach should be taken to build China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful by the middle of the 21st century, and to promote national rejuvenation through a Chinese path to modernization.—The principal contradiction facing Chinese society in the new era is that between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people's ever-growing needs for a better life, and the Party must therefore remain committed to a people-centered philosophy of development, develop whole-process people's democracy, and make more notable and substantive progress toward achieving well-rounded human development and common prosperity for all.—The integrated plan for building socialism with Chinese characteristics covers five spheres, namely economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological advancement, and that the comprehensive strategy in this regard includes four prongs, namely building a modern socialist country, deepening reform, advancing law-based governance, and strengthening Party self-governance.—The overall objectives of comprehensively deepening reform are to develop and improve the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics and to modernize China's system and capacity for governance.—The overall goal of comprehensively advancing law-based governance is to establish a system of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics and to build a socialist rule of law country.—China must uphold and improve its basic socialist economic system, see that the market plays the decisive role in resource allocation and the government plays its role better, have an accurate understanding of this new stage of development, apply a new philosophy of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development, accelerate efforts to foster a new pattern of development that is focused on the domestic economy but features positive interplay between domestic and international economic flows, promote high-quality development, and balance development and security imperatives.—The Party's goal for military development in the new era is to build the people's armed forces into world-class forces that obey the Party's command, that are able to fight and to win, and that maintain excellent conduct.—Major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics aims to serve national rejuvenation, promote human progress, and facilitate efforts to foster a new type of international relations and build a human community with a shared future.—Full and rigorous self-governance is a policy of strategic importance for the Party, and the general requirements for Party building in the new era include making all-around efforts to strengthen the Party in political, ideological, and organizational terms and in terms of conduct and discipline, with institution building incorporated into every aspect of this process, continuing the fight against corruption, and ensuring that the political responsibility for governance over the Party is fulfilled. By engaging in great self-transformation, the Party can steer great social transformation. These strategic concepts and innovative ideas are the important outcomes of the Party's theoretical development based on a deeper understanding of the underlying laws of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
......
   四、开创中国特色社会主义新时代
党的十八大以来,中国特色社会主义进入新时代。党面临的主要任务是,实现第一个百年奋斗目标,开启实现第二个百年奋斗目标新征程,朝着实现中华民族伟大复兴的宏伟目标继续前进。
以习近平同志为核心的党中央统筹把握中华民族伟大复兴战略全局和世界百年未有之大变局,强调中国特色社会主义新时代是承前启后、继往开来、在新的历史条件下继续夺取中国特色社会主义伟大胜利的时代,是决胜全面建成小康社会、进而全面建设社会主义现代化强国的时代,是全国各族人民团结奋斗、不断创造美好生活、逐步实现全体人民共同富裕的时代,是全体中华儿女勠力同心、奋力实现中华民族伟大复兴中国梦的时代,是我国不断为人类作出更大贡献的时代。中国特色社会主义新时代是我国发展新的历史方位。
以习近平同志为主要代表的中国共产党人,坚持把马克思主义基本原理同中国具体实际相结合、同中华优秀传统文化相结合,坚持毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观,深刻总结并充分运用党成立以来的历史经验,从新的实际出发,创立了习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想,明确中国特色社会主义最本质的特征是中国共产党领导,中国特色社会主义制度的最大优势是中国共产党领导,中国共产党是最高政治领导力量,全党必须增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”;明确坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,总任务是实现社会主义现代化和中华民族伟大复兴,在全面建成小康社会的基础上,分两步走在本世纪中叶建成富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国,以中国式现代化推进中华民族伟大复兴;明确新时代我国社会主要矛盾是人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾,必须坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,发展全过程人民民主,推动人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕取得更为明显的实质性进展;明确中国特色社会主义事业总体布局是经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设五位一体,战略布局是全面建设社会主义现代化国家、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党四个全面;明确全面深化改革总目标是完善和发展中国特色社会主义制度、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化;明确全面推进依法治国总目标是建设中国特色社会主义法治体系、建设社会主义法治国家;明确必须坚持和完善社会主义基本经济制度,使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用,更好发挥政府作用,把握新发展阶段,贯彻创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,加快构建以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进的新发展格局,推动高质量发展,统筹发展和安全;明确党在新时代的强军目标是建设一支听党指挥、能打胜仗、作风优良的人民军队,把人民军队建设成为世界一流军队;明确中国特色大国外交要服务民族复兴、促进人类进步,推动建设新型国际关系,推动构建人类命运共同体;明确全面从严治党的战略方针,提出新时代党的建设总要求,全面推进党的政治建设、思想建设、组织建设、作风建设、纪律建设,把制度建设贯穿其中,深入推进反腐败斗争,落实管党治党政治责任,以伟大自我革命引领伟大社会革命。这些战略思想和创新理念,是党对中国特色社会主义建设规律认识深化和理论创新的重大成果。
习近平同志对关系新时代党和国家事业发展的一系列重大理论和实践问题进行了深邃思考和科学判断,就新时代坚持和发展什么样的中国特色社会主义、怎样坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,建设什么样的社会主义现代化强国、怎样建设社会主义现代化强国,建设什么样的长期执政的马克思主义政党、怎样建设长期执政的马克思主义政党等重大时代课题,提出一系列原创性的治国理政新理念新思想新战略,是习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的主要创立者。习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想是当代中国马克思主义、二十一世纪马克思主义,是中华文化和中国精神的时代精华,实现了马克思主义中国化新的飞跃。党确立习近平同志党中央的核心、全党的核心地位,确立习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的指导地位,反映了全党全军全国各族人民共同心愿,对新时代党和国家事业发展、对推进中华民族伟大复兴历史进程具有决定性意义。
......



Dear visitor,you are attempting to view a subscription-based section of lawinfochina.com. If you are already a subscriber, please login to enjoy access to our databases . If you are not a subscriber, please subscribe . You can purchase a single article through Online Pay to immediately view and download this document. Should you have any questions, please contact us at:
+86 (10) 8268-9699 or +86 (10) 8266-8266 (ext. 153)
Mobile: +86 133-1157-0713
Fax: +86 (10) 8266-8268
database@chinalawinfo.com


 


您好:您现在要进入的是北大法律英文网会员专区,如您是我们英文用户可直接 登录,进入会员专区查询您所需要的信息;如您还不是我们 的英文用户,请注册并交纳相应费用成为我们的英文会员 ;您也可通过网上支付进行单篇购买,支付成功后即可立即查看本篇法规。如有问题请来电咨询;
Tel: +86 (10) 82689699, +86 (10) 82668266 ext. 153
Mobile: +86 13311570713
Fax: +86 (10) 82668268
E-mail: database@chinalawinfo.com


     
     
【法宝引证码】        北大法宝www.lawinfochina.com
Message: Please kindly comment on the present translation.
Confirmation Code:
Click image to reset code!
 
  Translations are by lawinfochina.com, and we retain exclusive copyright over content found on our website except for content we publish as authorized by respective copyright owners or content that is publicly available from government sources.

Due to differences in language, legal systems, and culture, English translations of Chinese law are for reference purposes only. Please use the official Chinese-language versions as the final authority. lawinfochina.com and its staff will not be directly or indirectly liable for use of materials found on this website.

We welcome your comments and suggestions, which assist us in continuing to improve the quality of our materials.
 
Home | Products and Services | FAQ | Disclaimer | Chinese | Site Map
©2012 Chinalawinfo Co., Ltd.    database@chinalawinfo.com  Tel: +86 (10) 8268-9699  京ICP证010230-8