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Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China [Revised]
中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法 [已被修订]
【法宝引证码】
 
  

 

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
(Adopted at the Second Session of the Fifth National People's Congress on July 1,1979, promulgated by Order No. 6 of the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on July 7, 1979, and effective as of January 1, 1980)
 中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法
(一九七九年七月一日第五届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过 一九七九年七月七日全国人民代表大会常务委员会委员长令第六号公布 一九八0年一月一日起施行)


CONTENTS
 目  录
PART ONE GENERAL PROVISIONS
 第一编 总  则
CHAPTER I THE GUIDING IDEOLOGY, AIM AND BASIC PRINCIPLES
 第一章 指导思想、任务和基本原则
CHAPTER II JURISDICTION
 第二章 管辖
CHAPTER III WITHDRAWAL
 第三章 回避
CHAPTER IV DEFENCE
 第四章 辩护
CHAPTER V EVIDENCE
 第五章 证据
CHAPTER VI COMPULSORY MEASURES
 第六章 强制措施
CHAPTER VII INCIDENTAL CIVIL ACTIONS
 第七章 附带民事诉讼
CHAPTER VIII TIME PERIODS AND SERVICE
 第八章 期间、送达
CHAPTER IX OTHER PROVISIONS
 第九章 其他规定
PART TWO FILIING A CASE, INVESTIGATION AND INITIATION OF PUBLIC PROSECUTION
 第二编 立案、侦查和提起公诉
CHAPTER I FILING A CASE
 第一章 立案
CHAPTER II INVESTIGATION
 第二章 侦查
SECTION 1 INTERROGATION OF THE DEFENDANT
 第一节 讯问被告人
SECTION 2 QUESTIONING OF THE WITNESSES
 第二节 询问证人
SECTION 3 INQUEST AND EXAMINATION
 第三节 勘验、检查
SECTION 4 SEARCH
 第四节 搜查
SECTION 5 SEIZURE OF MATERIAL EVIDENCE AND DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE
 第五节 扣押物证、书证
SECTION 6 EXPERT EVALUATION
 第六节 鉴定
SECTION 7 WANTED ORDERS
 第七节 通缉
SECTION 8 CONCLUSION OF INVESTIGATION
 第八节 侦查终结
CHAPTER III INITIATION OF PUBLIC PROSECUTION
 第三章 提起公诉
PART THREE TRIAL
 第三编 审  判
CHAPTER I TRIAL ORGANIZATIONS
 第一章 审判组织
CHAPTER II PROCEDURE OF FIRST INSTANCE
 第二章 第一审程序
SECTION 1 CASES OF PUBLIC PROSECUTION
 第一节 公诉案件
SECTION 2 CASES OF PRIVATE PROSECUTION
 第二节 自诉案件
CHAPTER III PROCEDURE OF SECOND INSTANCE
 第三章 第二审程序
CHAPTER IV PROCEDURE FOR REVIEW OF DEATH SENTENCES
 第四章 死刑复核程序
CHAPTER V PROCEDURE FOR TRIAL SUPERVISION
 第五章 审判监督程序
PART FOUR EXECUTION
 第四编 执  行
PART ONE GENERAL PROVISIONS
 第一编  总  则
CHAPTER I THE GUIDING IDEOLOGY, AIM AND BASIC PRINCIPLES
 

第一章 指导思想、任务和基本原则


Article 1. The Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China, which takes Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought as its guide and the Constitution as its basis, is formulated in the light of the concrete experiences of the people of all China's nationalities in carrying out the people's democratic dictatorship, led by the proletariat and based on the worker-peasant alliance, that is, the dictatorship of the proletariat, and in accordance with the actual need to strike the enemy and protect the people.
  第一条 中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法,以马克思列宁主义毛泽东思想为指针,以宪法为根据,结合我国各族人民实行无产阶级领导的、工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政即无产阶级专政的具体经验和打击敌人、保护人民的实际需要制定。
Article 2. The aim of the Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China is to ensure that the facts of crimes shall be accurately and promptly ascertained, that the application of law shall be correct and that criminals shall be punished; to guarantee that innocent people shall not undergo criminal prosecution; to educate citizens to voluntarily observe the law and actively struggle against criminal acts, in order to uphold the socialist legal system; to protect the citizens rights of the person, democratic rights and other rights; and to guarantee the smooth progress of the cause of the socialist revolution and socialist construction.
  第二条 中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法的任务,是保证准确、及时地查明犯罪事实,正确应用法律,惩罚犯罪分子,保障无罪的人不受刑事追究,教育公民自觉遵守法律,积极同犯罪行为作斗争,以维护社会主义法制,保护公民的人身权利、民主权利和其它权利,保障社会主义革命和社会主义建设事业的顺利进行。
Article 3. The public security organs shall be responsible for investigation, detention and preliminary examination in criminal cases. The people's procuratorates shall be responsible for approving arrests, conducting procuratorial work (including investigation) and initiating public prosecution. The people's courts shall be responsible for adjudication. No other organ, organization or individual shall have the right to exercise such powers.
In conducting criminal proceedings, the people's courts, the people's procuratorates and the public security organs must strictly observe this Law and any relevant stipulations of other laws.
  第三条 对刑事案件的侦查、拘留、预审,由公安机关负责。批准逮捕和检察(包括侦查)、提起公诉,由人民检察院负责。审判由人民法院负责。其他任何机关、团体和个人都无权行使这些权力。
人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关进行刑事诉讼,必须严格遵守本法和其他法律的有关规定。
Article 4. In conducting criminal proceedings, the people's courts, the people's procuratorates and the public security organs must rely on the masses, base themselves on facts and take the law as the criterion. The law applies equally to all citizens and no privilege whatsoever is permissible before the law.
  第四条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关进行刑事诉讼,必须依靠群众,必须以事实为根据,以法律为准绳。对于一切公民,在适用法律上一律平等,在法律面前,不允许有任何特权。
Article 5. In conducting criminal proceedings, the people's courts, the people's procuratorates and the public security organs shall divide the responsibilities, coordinate their efforts and check each other to ensure the correct and effective enforcement of the law.
  第五条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关进行刑事诉讼,应当分工负责,互相配合,互相制约,以保证准确有效地执行法律。
Article 6. Citizens of all nationalities shall have the right to use their native spoken and written languages in court proceedings. The people's courts, the people's procuratorates and the public security organs shall provide translations for any party to the court proceedings who is not familiar with the spoken or written language commonly used in the locality.
Where people of a minority nationality live in a concentrated community or where a number of nationalities live together in one area, court hearings shall be conducted in the spoken language commonly used in the locality, and judgments, notices and other documents shall be issued in the written language commonly used in the locality.
  第六条 各民族公民都有用本民族语言文字进行诉讼的权利。人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关对于不通晓当地通用的语言文字的诉讼参与人,应当为他们翻译。
在少数民族聚居或者多民族杂居的地区,应当用当地通用的语言进行审讯,用当地通用的文字发布判决书、布告和其他文件。
Article 7. In trying cases, the people's courts shall apply the system whereby the second instance is final.
  第七条 人民法院审判案件,实行两审终审制。
Article 8. Cases in the people's courts shall be heard in public, unless otherwise provided by this Law. A defendant shall have the right to defence, and the people's courts shall have the duty to guarantee his defence.
  第八条 人民法院审判案件,除本法另有规定的以外,一律公开进行。被告人有权获得辩护,人民法院有义务保证被告人获得辩护。
Article 9. In trying cases, the people's courts shall apply the system of people's assessors taking part in trials in accordance with this Law.
  第九条 人民法院审判案件,依照本法实行人民陪审员陪审的制度。
Article 10. The people's courts, the people's procuratorates and the public security organs shall safeguard the procedural rights to which participants in proceedings are entitled according to law.
In cases where a minor under the age of 18 commits a crime, the legal representative of the defendant may be notified to be present at the time of interrogation and trial.
Participants in proceedings shall have the right to file charges against judicial, procuratorial and investigator personnel whose acts infringe on their citizens' procedural rights or subject their persons to indignities.
  第十条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关应当保障诉讼参与人依法享有的诉讼权利。
对于不满十八岁的未成年人犯罪的案件,在讯问和审判时,可以通知被告人的法定代理人到场。
诉讼参与人对于审判人员、 检察人员和侦查人员侵犯公民诉讼权利和人身侮辱的行为,有权提出控告。
Article 11. In any of the following circumstances, no criminal responsibility shall be investigated; if investigation has already been undertaken, the case shall be dismissed, or prosecution shall not be initiated, or innocence shall be declared:
  第十一条 有下列情形之一的,不追究刑事责任,已经追究的,应当撤销案件,或者不起诉,或者宣告无罪:
(1) If an act is obviously of minor importance, causing no serious harm, and is therefore not deemed a crime;
 (一)情节显著轻微、危害不大,不认为是犯罪的;
(2) If the limitation period for criminal prosecution has expired;
 (二)犯罪已过追诉时效期限的;
(3) If an exemption of criminal punishment has been granted in a special amnesty decree;
 (三)经特赦令免除刑罚的;
(4) If the crime is to be handled only upon complaint according to the Criminal Law, but there has been no complaint or the complaint has been withdrawn;
 (四)依照刑法告诉才处理的犯罪,没有告诉或者撤回告诉的;
(5) If the defendant is deceased; or
 (五)被告人死亡的;
(6) If other laws or decrees provide an exemption from investigation of criminal responsibility.
 (六)其他法律、法令规定免予追究刑事责任的。
Article 12. Provisions of this Law shall apply to foreigners who commit crimes for which criminal responsibility should be investigated.
If foreigners with diplomatic privileges and immunities commit crimes for which criminal responsibility should be investigated, those cases shall be resolved through diplomatic channels.
  第十二条 对于外国人犯罪应当追究刑事责任的,适用本法的规定。
对于享有外交特权和豁免权的外国人犯罪应当追究刑事责任的,通过外交途径解决。
CHAPTER II JURISDICTION
 

第二章 管  辖


Article 13. Minor criminal cases that are to be handled only upon complaint or do not require an investigation shall be directly accepted and may be mediated by the people's courts.
Cases involving crimes of corruption, violation of the citizens democratic rights and dereliction of duty, as well as other cases which the people's procuratorates consider necessary to handle directly themselves shall be placed on file by the people's procuratorates, which shall conduct investigation and decide whether or not to initiate a public prosecution.
All cases other than those provide in the two preceding paragraphs shall be investigated by the public security organs.
  第十三条  告诉才处理和其他不需要进行侦查的轻微的刑事案件, 由人民法院直接受理,并可以进行调解。
贪污罪、侵犯公民民主权利罪、渎职罪以及人民检察院认为需要自己直接受理的其他案件,由人民检察院立案侦查和决定是否提起公诉。
第一、二款规定以外的其他案件的侦查,都由公安机关进行。
Article 14. The basic people's courts shall have jurisdiction as courts of first instance over ordinary criminal cases; however, those cases which fall under the jurisdiction of the people's courts at higher levels as stipulated by this Law shall be exceptions.
  第十四条 基层人民法院管辖第一审普通刑事案件,但是依照本法由上级人民法院管辖的除外。
Article 15. The intermediate people's courts shall have jurisdiction as courts of first instance over the following criminal cases:
  第十五条 中级人民法院管辖下列第一审刑事案件:
(1) counterrevolutionary cases;
 (一)反革命案件;
(2) ordinary criminal cases punishable by life imprisonment or the death penalty; and
 (二)判处无期徒刑、死刑的普通刑事案件;
(3) criminal cases in which the offenders are foreigners or in which Chinese citizens have infringed upon the lawful rights of foreigners.
 (三)外国人犯罪或者我国公民侵犯外国人合法权利的刑事案件。
Article 16. The higher people's courts shall have jurisdiction as courts of first instance over major criminal cases that pertain to an entire province (or municipality directly under the Central Government, or autonomous region).
  第十六条 高级人民法院管辖的第一审刑事案件,是全省(直辖市、自治区)性的重大刑事案件。
Article 17. The Supreme People's Court shall have jurisdiction as the court of first instance over major criminal cases that pertain to the whole nation.
  第十七条 最高人民法院管辖的第一审刑事案件,是全国性的重大刑事案件。
Article 18. When necessary, people's courts at higher levels may try criminal cases over which people's courts at lower levels have jurisdiction as courts of first instance; they may also transfer criminal cases over which they themselves have jurisdiction as courts of first instance to people's courts at lower levels for trial. If a people's court at a lower level considers the circumstances of a criminal case in the first instance to be major or complex and to necessitate a trial by a people's court at a higher level, it may request that the case be transferred to the people's court at the next higher level for trial.
  第十八条 上级人民法院在必要的时候, 可以审判下级人民法院管辖的第一审刑事案件,也可以把自己管辖的第一审刑事案件交由下级人民法院审判;下级人民法院认为案情重大、复杂需要由上级人民法院审判的第一审刑事案件,可以请求移送上一级人民法院审判。
Article 19. A criminal case shall be under the jurisdiction of the people's court in the place where the crime was committed.If it is more appropriate for the case to be tried by the people's court in the place where the defendant resides, then that court may have jurisdiction over the case.
  第十九条 刑事案件由犯罪地的人民法院管辖。如果由被告人居住地的人民法院审判更为适宜的,可以由被告人居住地的人民法院管辖。
Article 20. When two or more people's courts at the same level have jurisdiction over a case, it shall be tried by the people's court that first accepted it. When necessary the case may be transferred for trial to the people's court in the principal place where the crime was committed.
  第二十条 几个同级人民法院都有权管辖的案件,由最初受理的人民法院审判。在必要的时候,可以移送主要犯罪地的人民法院审判。
Article 21. A people's court at a higher level may instruct a people's court at a lower level to try a case over which jurisdiction is unclear and may also instruct a people's court at a lower level to transfer the case to another people's court for trial.
  第二十一条 上级人民法院可以指定下级人民法院审判管辖不明的案件,也可以指定下级人民法院将案件移送其他人民法院审判。
Article 22. The jurisdiction over cases in special people's courts shall be stipulated separately.
  第二十二条 专门人民法院案件的管辖另行规定。
CHAPTER III WITHDRAWAL
 

第三章 回  避


Article 23. In any of the following situations, a member of the judicial, procuratorial or investigator personnel shall voluntarily withdraw, and the parties to the case and their legal representatives shall have the right to demand his withdrawal:
  第二十三条 审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员有下列情形之一的,应当自行回避,当事人及其法定代理人也有权要求他们回避:
(1) if he is a party or a near relative of a party to the case;
 (一)是本案的当事人或者是当事人的近亲属的;
(2) if he or a near relative of his has an interest in the case;
 (二)本人或者他的近亲属和本案有利害关系的;
(3) if he has served as a witness, expert witness or defender in the current case or has represented a party in an incidental civil action; or
 (三)担任过本案的证人、鉴定人、辩护人或者附带民事诉讼当事人的代理人的;
(4) if he has any other relations with a party to the case that could affect the impartial handling of the case.
 (四)与本案当事人有其他关系,可能影响公正处理案件的。
Article 24. The withdrawal of judicial, procuratorial and investigator personnel shall be determined respectively by the president of the court, the chief procurator, and the head of a public security organ; the withdrawal of the president of the court shall be determined by the court's judicial committee; and the withdrawal of the chief procurator or the head of a public security organ shall be determined by the procuratorial committee of the people's procuratorate at the corresponding level.
A member of the investigatory personnel may not suspend investigation of a case before a decision is made on his withdrawal.
If a decision has been made to reject and application for withdrawal, a party may apply for one reconsideration.
  第二十四条 审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员的回避,应当分别由院长、检察长、公安机关负责人决定; 院长的回避,由本院审判委员会决定; 检察长和公安机关负责人的回避,由同级人民检察院检察委员会决定。
对侦查人员的回避作出决定前,侦查人员不能停止对案件的侦查。
对驳回申请回避的决定,当事人可以申请复议一次。
Article 25. The provisions of Articles 23 and 24 of this Law shall also apply to court clerks, interpreters and expert witnesses.
  第二十五条 本法第二十三条、 第二十四条的规定也适用于书记员、 翻译人员和鉴定人。
CHAPTER IV DEFENCE
 

第四章 辩  护


Article 26. In addition to exercising the right to defend himself, the defendant may entrust the following persons to defend him:
  第二十六条 被告人除自己行使辩护权以外,还可以委托下列的人辩护:
(1) lawyers;
 (一)律师;
(2) citizens recommended by a people's organization or the unit to which the defendant belongs, or other citizens permitted by the people's court; and
 (二)人民团体或者被告人所在单位推荐的,或者经人民法院许可的公民;
(3) near relatives or guardians of the defendant.
 (三)被告人的近亲属、监护人。
Article 27. If a public prosecutor appears in court to conduct a public prosecution and the defendant has not entrusted anyone to be his defender, the people's court may designate a defender for him.
If the defendant is deaf or mute, or he is a minor, and thus has not entrusted anyone to be his defender, the people's court shall designate a defender for him.
  第二十七条 公诉人出庭公诉的案件,被告人没有委托辩护人的,人民法院可以为他指定辩护人。
被告人是聋、哑或者未成年人而没有委托辩护人的,人民法院应当为他指定辩护人。
Article 28. The responsibility of a defender shall be to present, according to the facts and the law, materials and opinions proving the innocence of the defendant, the pettiness of his crime and the need for a mitigated punishment or exemption from criminal responsibility, thus safeguarding the lawful rights and interests of the defendant.
  第二十八条 辩护人的责任是根据事实和法律,提出证明被告人无罪、罪轻或者减轻、免除其刑事责任的材料和意见,维护被告人的合法权益。
Article 29. Defence lawyers may consult the file record of the current case, acquaint themselves with the circumstances of the case, and meet and correspond with the defendant in custody. Other defenders, when permitted by the people's court, may also acquaint themselves with the circumstances of the case and meet and correspond with the defendant in custody.
  第二十九条 辩护律师可以查阅本案材料, 了解案情, 可以同在押的被告人会见和通信;其他的辩护人经过人民法院许可,也可以了解案情,同在押的被告人会见和通信。
Article 30. During a trial, the defendant may refuse to have his defender continue to defend him and may entrust his defence to another defender.
  第三十条 在审判过程中,被告人可以拒绝辩护人继续为他辩护,也可以另行委托辩护人辩护。
CHAPTER V EVIDENCE
 

第五章 证  据


Article 31. All facts that prove the true circumstances of a case shall be evidence. There shall be the following six categories of evidence:
  第三十一条 证明案件真实情况的一切事实,都是证据。证据有下列六种:
(1) material evidence and documentary evidence;
 (一)物证、书证;
(2) testimony of witnesses;
 (二)证人证言;
(3) statements of victims;
 (三)被害人陈述;
(4) statements and exculpations of defendants;
 (四)被告人供述和辩解;
(5) expert conclusions; and
 (五)鉴定结论;
(6) records of inquests and examination.
Any of the above evidence must be verified before it can be used as the basis for deciding cases.
 (六)勘验、检查笔录。
以上证据必须经过查证属实,才能作为定案的根据。
Article 32. Judicial, procuratorial and investigatory personnel must, in accordance with the legally prescribed process, collect various kinds of evidence that can prove the defendant's guilt or innocence and the gravity of his crime. It shall be strictly forbidden to extort confessions by torture and to collect evidence by threat, enticement, deceit or other unlawful means. Conditions must be guaranteed for all citizens who are involved in a case or who have information about the circumstances of a case to objectively and fully furnish evidence and, except in special circumstances, they may be brought in to help the investigation.
  第三十二条 审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员必须依照法定程序,收集能够证实被告人有罪或者无罪、犯罪情节轻重的各种证据。严禁刑讯逼供和以威胁、引诱、欺骗以及其他非法的方法收集证据。必须保证一切与案件有关或者了解案情的公民,有客观地充分地提供证据的条件,除特殊情况外,并且可以吸收他们协助调查。
Article 33. The public security organ's requests for approval of arrest, the people's procuratorate's bills of prosecution and the people's court's written judgments must be faithful to the facts.The responsibility of anyone who intentionally conceals the facts shall be investigated.
  第三十三条 公安机关提请批准逮捕书、人民检察院起诉书、人民法院判决书,必须忠实于事实真象。故意隐瞒事实真象的,应当追究责任。
Article 34. The people's courts, the people's procuratorates and the public security organs shall have the authority to collect or obtain evidence from the relevant state organs, enterprises, institutions, people's communes, people's organizations and citizens.
Evidence involving state secrets shall be kept confidential.
Anyone that falsifies, conceals or destroys evidence, regardless of which side of a case he belongs to, must be investigated under the law.
  第三十四条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关有权向有关的国家机关、企业、事业单位、人民公社、人民团体和公民收集、调取证据。
对于涉及国家机密的证据,应当保密。
凡是伪造证据、隐匿证据或者毁灭证据的,无论属于何方,必须受法律追究。
Article 35. In the decision of all cases, stress shall be laid on evidence, investigation and study; credence shall not be readily given to oral statements. A defendant cannot be found guilty and sentenced to a criminal punishment if there is only his statement but no evidence; the defendant may be found guilty and sentenced to a criminal punishment if evidence is sufficient and reliable, even without his statement.
  第三十五条 对一切案件的判处都要重证据,重调查研究,不轻信口供。只有被告人供述,没有其他证据的,不能认定被告人有罪和处以刑罚;没有被告人供述,证据充分确实的,可以认定被告人有罪和处以刑罚。
Article 36. The testimony of a witness may be used as a basis in deciding a case only after the witness has been questioned and cross-examined in the courtroom by both sides, that is, the public prosecutor and victim as well as the defendant and defenders, and after the testimonies of the witnesses on all sides have been heard and verified. If a court discovers through investigation that a witness has intentionally given false testimony or concealed criminal evidence, it shall handle the matter in accordance with the law.
  第三十六条 证人证言必须在法庭上经过公诉人、被害人和被告人、辩护人双方讯问、质证,听取各方证人的证言并经过查实以后,才能作为定案的根据。法庭查明证人有意作伪证或者隐匿罪证时,应当依法处理。
Article 37. All those who have information about a case shall have the duty to testify.
Physically or mentally handicapped persons or minors who cannot distinguish right from wrong or cannot properly express themselves shall not be qualified as witnesses.
  第三十七条 凡是知道案件情况的人,都有作证的义务。
生理上、精神上有缺陷或者年幼,不能辩别是非、不能正确表达的人,不能作证人。
CHAPTER VI COMPULSORY MEASURES
 

第六章 强制措施


Article 38. The people's courts, the people's procuratorates and the public security organs may, according to the circumstances of a case, issue a warrant to compel the appearance of the defendant, order him to obtain a guarantor pending trial or subject him to residential surveillance.
A defendant under residential surveillance may not leave a designated area.Residential surveillance shall be carried out by the local public security station or by the people's commune or defendant's unit entrusted with the task.
If a new development occurs in a case where a defendant has obtained a guarantor pending trial or is placed under residential surveillance, these measures shall be revoked or altered.
  第三十八条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关根据案件情况,对被告人可以拘传、取保候审或者监视居住。
被监视居住的被告人不得离开指定的区域。监视居住由当地公安派出所执行,或者由受委托的人民公社、被告人的所在单位执行。
对被告人采取取保候审、监视居住的,如果情况发生变化,应当撤销或者变更。
Article 39. Arrests must be approved by a people's procuratorate or decided by a people's court and must be carried out by a public security organ.
  第三十九条 逮捕人犯, 必须经过人民检察院批准或者人民法院决定, 由公安机关执行。
Article 40. When the main facts of a crime have been already ascertained and the offender could be sentenced to a punishment of not less than imprisonment, and if such measures as allowing him to obtain a guarantor pending trial or placing him under residential surveillance would be insufficient to prevent the occurrence of danger to society, thus necessitating arrest, the offender shall be immediately arrested according to law.
If an offender who should be arrested is seriously ill or is a pregnant woman or a woman breast-feeding her own baby, the offender may be allowed to obtain a guarantor pending trial or be placed under residential surveillance.
  第四十条 对主要犯罪事实已经查清,可能判处徒刑以上刑罚的人犯,采取取保候审、监视居住等方法,尚不足以防止发生社会危险性,而有逮捕必要的,应即依法逮捕。
对应当逮捕的人犯,如果患有严重疾病,或者是正在怀孕、哺乳自己婴儿的妇女,可以采用取保候审或者监视居住的办法。
Article 41. Public security organs may initially detain an active criminal deserving arrest or a major suspect under any of the following conditions:
  第四十一条 公安机关对于罪该逮捕的现行犯或者重大嫌疑分子,如果有下列情形之一的,可以先行拘留:
(1) if he is preparing to commit a crime, is in the process of committing a crime or is discovered immediately after committing a crime;
 (一)正在预备犯罪、实行犯罪或者在犯罪后即时被发觉的;
(2) if he is identified as having committed a crime by a victim or an eyewitness;
 (二)被害人或者在场亲眼看见的人指认他犯罪的;
(3) if criminal evidence is found on his body or at his residence;
 (三)在身边或者住处发现有犯罪证据的;
(4) if he attempts to commit suicide or escape after committing the crime, or he is a fugitive;
 (四)犯罪后企图自杀、逃跑或者在逃的;
(5) if there is likelihood of his destroying or falsifying evidence or colluding with others to give false statements;
 (五)有毁灭、伪造证据或者串供可能的;
(6) if his identity is unknown and he is strongly suspected of committing crimes going from one place to another; and
 (六)身份不明有流窜作案重大嫌疑的;
(7) if he is engaged in "beating, smashing and looting"and is seriously undermining work, production and public order.
 (七)正在进行“打砸抢”和严重破坏工作、生产、社会秩序的。
Article 42. The offenders listed below may be seized outright by any citizen and delivered to a public security organ, a people's procuratorate or a people's court for handling:
  第四十二条 对于下列人犯,任何公民都可以立即扭送公安机关、人民检察院或者人民法院处理:
(1) any person who is committing a crime or is discovered immediately after committing a crime;
 (一)正在实行犯罪或者在犯罪后即时被发觉的;
(2) any person who is wanted for arrest;
 (二)通缉在案的;
(3) any person who has escaped from prison; and
 (三)越狱逃跑的;
(4) any person who is being pursued for arrest.
 (四)正在被追捕的。
Article 43. When detaining a person, a public security organ must produce a detention warrant.
Within 24 hours after a person has been detained, his family or the unit to which he belongs shall be notified of the reasons for detention and the place of custody, except in circumstances where such notification would hinder the investigation or there is no way of notifying them.
  第四十三条 公安机关拘留人的时候,必须出示拘留证。
拘留后,除有碍侦查或者无法通知的情形以外,应当把拘留的原因和羁押的处所,在二十四小时以内,通知被拘留人的家属或者他的所在单位。
Article 44. A public security organ shall interrogate a detainee within 24 hours after detention. If it is found that the person should not have been detained, he must be immediately released and issued a release certificate. If the public security organ finds it necessary to arrest a detainee when sufficient evidence is still lacking, it may allow the detainee to obtain a guarantor pending trial or place him under residential surveillance.
  第四十四条 公安机关对于被拘留的人,应当在拘留后的二十四小时以内进行讯问。在发现不应当拘留的时候,必须立即释放,发给释放证明。对需要逮捕而证据还不充足的,可以取保候审或者监视居住。
Article 45. When a public security organ wishes to arrest an offender, it shall submit a written request for approval of arrest together with the case file and evidence to the people's procuratorate at the same level for examination and approval. When necessary, the people's procuratorate may send its personnel to participate in the public security organ's discussion of a major case.
  第四十五条 公安机关要求逮捕人犯的时候, 应当写出提请批准逮捕书, 连同案卷材料、证据,一并移送同级人民检察院审查批准。必要时,人民检察院可以派人参加公安机关对于重大案件的讨论。
Article 46. The chief procurator shall make the decision in a people's procuratorate's examination and approval of a arrest. Major cases shall be submitted to the procuratorial committee for discussion and decision.
  第四十六条 人民检察院审查批准逮捕人犯由检察长决定。重大案件应当提交检察委员会讨论决定。
Article 47. After a people's procuratorate has examined a case with respect to which a public security organ has submitted a request for approval of arrest, it shall decide according to the circumstances either to approve the arrest, disapprove the arrest, or request a supplementary investigation.
  第四十七条 人民检察院对于公安机关提请批准逮捕的案件进行审查后,应当根据情况分别作出批准逮捕,不批准逮捕或者补充侦查的决定。
Article 48. If the public security organ deems it necessary to arrest a detainee, it shall, within three days after the detention, submit a request to the people's procuratorate for examination and approval. Under special circumstances, the time limit for submitting the request may be extended by one to four days. The people's procuratorate shall decide either to approve or disapprove the arrest within three days after receiving the request for approval of arrest from a public security organ. If the people's procuratorate disapproves the arrest, the public security organ shall, upon receiving notification of the decision, immediately release the detainee and issue him a release certificate.
If the public security organ or the people's procuratorate fails to act in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the detainee and his family shall have the right to demand his release, and the public security organ or the people's procuratorate shall immediately release him.
  第四十八条 公安机关对被拘留的人,认为需要逮捕的,应当在拘留后的三日以内,提请人民检察院审查批准。在特殊情况下,提请审查批准的时间可以延长一日至四日。人民检察院应当在接到公安机关提请批准逮捕书后的三日以内,作出批准逮捕或者不批准逮捕的决定。 人民检察院不批准逮捕的, 公安机关应当在接到通知后立即释放,发给释放证明。
公安机关或者人民检察院如果没有按照前款规定办理,被拘留的人或者他的家属有权要求释放,公安机关或者人民检察院应当立即释放。
Article 49. If the public security organ considers the people's procuratorate's decision to disapprove an arrest to be incorrect, it may request a reconsideration but must immediately release the detainee. If the public security organ's opinion is not accepted, it may request a review by the people's procuratorate at the next higher level. The higher people's procuratorate shall immediately review the matter, decide whether or not to make a change and notify the lower people's procuratorate and the public security organ to implement its decision.
  第四十九条 公安机关对人民检察院不批准逮捕的决定,认为有错误的时候,可以要求复议,但是必须将被拘留的人立即释放。如果意见不被接受,可以向上一级人民检察院提请复核。上级人民检察院应当立即复核,作出是否变更的决定,通知下级人民检察院和公安机关执行。
Article 50. When making an arrest, a public security organ must produce an arrest warrant.
Within 24 hours after an arrest, the family of the arrested person or the unit to which he belongs shall be notified of the reasons for arrest and the place of detention, except in circumstances where such notification would hinder the investigation or there is no way of notifying them.
  第五十条 公安机关逮捕人的时候,必须出示逮捕证。
逮捕后,除有碍侦查或者无法通知的情形以外,应当把逮捕的原因和羁押的处所,在二十四小时以内通知被逮捕人的家属或者他的所在单位。
Article 51. Interrogation must be conducted within 24 hours after the arrest, by a people's court or people's procuratorate with respect to a person it has decided to arrest, and by a public security organ with respect to a person it has arrested with the approval of the people's procuratorate. If it is found that the person should not have been arrested, he must be immediately released and issued a release certificate.
  第五十一条 人民法院、人民检察院对于各自决定逮捕的人,公安机关对于经人民检察院批准逮捕的人, 都必须在逮捕后的二十四小时以内进行讯问。 在发现不应当逮捕的时候,必须立即释放,发给释放证明。
Article 52. If in the process of examining and approving arrests, a people's procuratorate discovers illegalities in the investigatory activities of the public security organ, it shall notify the public security organ to make corrections, and the public security organ shall notify the people's procuratorate of what corrections have been made.
  第五十二条 人民检察院在审查批准逮捕工作中,如果发现公安机关的侦查活动有违法情况,应当通知公安机关予以纠正,公安机关应当将纠正情况通知人民检察院。
CHAPTER VII INCIDENTAL CIVIL ACTIONS
 

第七章 附带民事诉讼


Article 53. If a victim has suffered material losses as a result of the defendant's criminal act, he shall have the right to file an incidental civil action during the course of the criminal proceeding.
If losses have been caused to state property or collective property, the people's procuratorate may file an incidental civil action while initiating a public prosecution.
When necessary, the people's court may seal up or distrain upon the property of defendant.
  第五十三条 被害人由于被告人的犯罪行为而遭受物质损失的,在刑事诉讼过程中,有权提起附带民事诉讼。
如果是国家财产、集体财产遭受损失的,人民检察院在提起公诉的时候,可以提起附带民事诉讼。
人民法院在必要的时候,可以查封或者扣押被告人的财产。
Article 54. An incidental civil action shall be heard together with the criminal case. Only for the purpose of preventing excessive delay in a trial of the criminal case may the same judicial organization, after completing the trial of the criminal case, continue to hear the incidental civil action.
  第五十四条 附带民事诉讼应当同刑事案件一并审判,只有为了防止刑事案件审判的过分迟延,才可以在刑事案件审判后,由同一审判组织继续审理附带民事诉讼。
CHAPTER VIII TIME PERIODS AND SERVICE
 

第八章 期间、送达


Article 55. Time periods shall be calculated by the hour, the day and the month.
The hour and day from which a time period begins shall not be counted as within the time period.
A legally prescribed time period shall not include travelling time. Appeals or other documents that have been mailed before the expiration of the time period shall not be regarded as overdue.
  第五十五条 期间以时、日、月计算。
期间开始的时和日不算在期间以内。
法定期间不包括路途上的时间。 上诉状或者其他文件在期满前已经交邮的,不算过期。
Article 56. When a party cannot meet a deadline due to irresistible causes or for other legitimate reasons, he may, within five days after the obstacle is removed, apply to continue the proceedings that should have been completed before the expiration of the time period.
A people's court shall decide whether or not to approve the application described in the preceding paragraph.
  第五十六条 当事人由于不能抗拒的原因或者有其他正当理由而耽误期限的,在障碍消除后五日以内,可以申请继续进行应当在期满以前完成的诉讼活动。
前款申请是否准许,由人民法院裁定。
Article 57. Summons, notices and other court documents shall be delivered to the addressee himself; if the addressee is absent, the documents may be received on his behalf by an adult member of his family or a responsible person of his unit.
If the addressee or a recipient on his behalf refuses to accept the documents or refuses to sign and affix his seal to the receipt, the person serving the documents may ask the addressee's neighbours or other witnesses to the scene, explain the situation to them, leave the documents at the addressee's residence, record on the service certificate the particulars of the refusal and the date of service and sign his name to it; the service shall thus be deemed to have been completed.
  第五十七条 送达传票、通知书和其他诉讼文件应当交给收件人本人;如果本人不在,可以交给他的成年家属或者所在单位的负责人员代收。
收件人本人或者代收人拒绝接收或者拒绝签名、盖章的时候,送达人可以邀请他的邻居或者其他见证人到场,说明情况,把文件留在他的住处,在送达证上记明拒绝的事由、送达的日期,由送达人签名,即认为已经送达。
CHAPTER IX OTHER PROVISIONS
 

第九章 其他规定


Article 58. For the purpose of this Law, the definitions of the following terms are:
  第五十八条 本法下列用语的含意是:
(1) "Investigation" means the specialized investigatory work and related compulsory measures carried out according to law by public security organs and people's procuratorates in the process of handling cases.
 (一)侦查是指公安机关、人民检察院在办理案件过程中,依照法律进行的专门调查工作和有关的强制性措施;
(2) "Parties" means private prosecutors, defendants and the plaintiffs and defendants in incidental civil actions.
 (二)“当事人”是指自诉人、被告人、附带民事诉讼的原告人和被告人;
(3) "Legal representatives" means the parents, foster parents or guardians of a person being represented and representatives of the government organ or people's organization responsible for that person's protection.
 (三)“法定代理人”是指被代理人的父母、 养父母、 监护人和负有保护责任的机关、团体的代表;
(4) "Participants in the proceedings"means the parties, victims, legal representatives, defenders, witnesses, expert witnesses and interpreters.
 (四)“诉讼参与人”是指当事人、被害人、法定代理人、辩护人、证人、鉴定人和翻译人员;
(5) "Near relatives"means a person's husband or wife, father, mother, sons, daughters, and brothers and sisters born of the same parents.
 (五)“近亲属”是指夫、妻、父、母、子、女、同胞兄弟姊妹。
PART TWO FILING A CASE, INVESTIGATION AND INITIATION OF PUBLIC PROSECUTION
 第二编 立案、侦查和提起公诉
CHAPTER I FILING A CASE
 

第一章 立  案


Article 59. State organs, people's organizations, enterprises, institutions and citizens upon discovering facts of a crime or a criminal suspect shall have the right and duty to bring a complaint or accusation to a public security organ, people's procuratorate or people's court, as proper to the scopes of jurisdiction provided for in Article 13 of this Law.
Public security organs, people's procuratorates and people's courts shall accept all complaints, accusations and the voluntary surrender of offenders. If a matter does not fall under the receiving organ's jurisdiction, it shall refer the matter to the competent organ and notify the complainant or the accuser. If the matter does not fall under the receiving organ's jurisdiction but calls for emergency measures, it shall take emergency measures first and then refer the matter to the competent organ.
  第五十九条 机关、团体、企业、事业单位和公民发现有犯罪事实或者犯罪嫌疑人,有权利也有义务按照本法第十三条规定的管辖范围,向公安机关、人民检察院或者人民法院提出控告和检举。
公安机关、人民检察院或者人民法院对于控告、检举和犯罪人的自首,都应当接受。对于不属于自己管辖的,应当移送主管机关处理,并且通知控告人、检举人;对于不属于自己管辖而又必须采取紧急措施的,应当先采取紧急措施,然后移送主管机关。
Article 60. Complaints and accusations may be filed in writing or orally. The person receiving an oral complaint or accusation shall make a written record of it, which, after being read to the complainant or accuser and found free of error, shall be signed or sealed by the complainant or accuser.
The person receiving a complaint or an accusation shall clearly explain to the complainant or accuser the legal responsibility that shall be incurred for making a false accusation. However, a complaint or accusation that does not accord with the facts, or even a mistaken complaint shall be strictly distinguished from a false accusation, as long as no fabrication of facts or falsification of evidence is involved.
If the complainant or accuser wishes to remain anonymous, his name shall be kept confidential during the period of investigation.
  第六十条 控告、检举可以用书面或者口头提出。接受口头控告、检举的工作人员,应当写成笔录,经宣读无误后,由控告人、检举人签名或者盖章。
接受控告、 检举的工作人员, 应当向控告人、检举人说明诬告应负的法律责任。但是,只要不是捏造事实,伪造证据,即使控告、检举的事实有出入,甚至是错告的,也要和诬告严格加以区别。
控告人、检举人如果不愿公开自己的姓名,在侦查期间,应当为他保守秘密。
Article 61. A people's court, people's procuratorate or public security organ shall, within the scope of its jurisdiction, promptly examine the materials provided by a complainant or accuser and the confession of an offender who has voluntarily surrendered. If it believes that there are facts of a crime and criminal responsibility should be investigated, it shall file a case. If it believes that there are no facts of a crime or that the facts are obviously incidental and do not require investigation of criminal responsibility, it shall not file a case and shall notify the complainant of the reason. If the complainant does not agree with the decision, he may ask for reconsideration.
  第六十一条 人民法院、人民检察院或者公安机关对于控告、检举和自首的材料,应当按照管辖范围,迅速进行审查,认为有犯罪事实需要追究刑事责任的时候,应当立案;认为没有犯罪事实,或者犯罪事实显著轻微,不需要追究刑事责任的时候,不予立案,并且将不立案的原因通知控告人。控告人如果不服,可以申请复议。
CHAPTER II INVESTIGATION
 

第二章 侦  查


SECTION 1 INTERROGATION OF THE DEFENDANT
 第一节 讯问被告人
Article 62. Interrogation of a defendant must be conducted by the investigatory personnel of a people's procuratorate or public security organ. During an interrogation, there must be no fewer than members of the investigatory personnel participating.
  第六十二条 讯问被告人必须由人民检察院或者公安机关的侦查人员负责进行。讯问的时候,侦查人员不得少于二人。
Article 63. A defendant who does not need to be arrested or detained may be summoned to a designated place for interrogation, or he may be interrogated at his residence or his unit, but in all cases the investigatory personnel shall produce a certificate issued by a people's procuratorate or public security organ.
  第六十三条 对于不需要逮捕、 拘留的被告人, 可以传唤到指定的地点或者到他的住处、所在单位进行讯问,但是应当出示人民检察院或者公安机关的证明文件。
Article 64. When interrogating a defendant, the investigatory personnel shall first ask the defendant whether or not he has committed any criminal act, and let him state the circumstances of his guilt or explain his innocence; then they may ask him other questions. The defendant shall answer the investigatory personnel's questions truthfully, but he shall have the right to refuse to answer any questions that are irrelevant to the case.
  第六十四条 侦查人员在讯问被告人的时候,应当首先讯问被告人是否有犯罪行为,让他陈述有罪的情节或者无罪的辩解,然后向他提出问题。被告人对侦查人员的提问,应当如实回答。但是对与本案无关的问题,有拒绝回答的权利。
Article 65. During the interrogation of a defendant who is deaf or must, a person who has a good command of sign language shall participate, and such circumstances shall be noted in the record.
  第六十五条 讯问聋、哑的被告人,应当有通晓聋、哑手势的人参加,并且将这种情况记明笔录。
Article 66. The record of an interrogation shall be shown to the defendant for checking; if the defendant cannot read, the record shall be read to him. If there are omissions or errors in the record, the defendant may make additions or corrections. When the defendant acknowledges that the record is free from error, he shall sign or affix his seal to it. The investigatory personnel shall also sign the record. If the defendant requests to write a personal statement, he shall be permitted to do so. When necessary, the investigatory personnel may also ask the defendant to write a personal statement.
  第六十六条 讯问笔录应当交被告人核对,对于没有阅读能力的,应当向他宣读。如果记载有遗漏或者差错,被告人可以提出补充或者改正。被告人承认笔录没有错误后,应当签名或者盖章。侦查人员也应当在笔录上签名。被告人请求自行书写供述的,应当准许。必要的时候,侦查人员也可以要被告人亲笔书写供词。
SECTION 2 QUESTIONING OF THE WITNESSES
 第二节 询问证人
Article 67. Investigatory personnel may question a witness at his unit or residence, but they must produce a certificate issued by a people's procuratorate or public security organ. When necessary, they may also notify the witness to give testimony at the people's procuratorate or public security organ.
Witnesses shall be questioned individually.
  第六十七条 侦查人员询问证人,可以到证人的所在单位或者住处进行,但是必须出示人民检察院或者公安机关的证明文件。在必要的时候,也可以通知证人到人民检察院或者公安机关提供证言。
询问证人应当个别进行。
Article 68. When a witness is questioned, he shall be instructed to provide evidence and give testimony truthfully and shall be informed of the legal responsibility that shall be incurred for intentionally giving false testimony or concealing criminal evidence.
  第六十八条 询问证人,应当告知他应当如实地提供证据、证言和有意作伪证或者隐匿罪证要负的法律责任。
Article 69. The provisions of Article 66 of this Law shall also apply to the questioning of witnesses.
  第六十九条 本法第六十六条的规定,也适用于询问证人。
Article 70. The provisions of all articles in this Section shall apply to the questioning of victims.
  第七十条 询问被害人,适用本节各条规定。
SECTION 3 INQUEST AND EXAMINATION
 第三节 勘验、检查
Article 71. Investigatory personnel shall conduct an inquest or examination of the sites, objects, people and corpses relevant to a crime. When necessary, experts may be assigned or invited to conduct an inquest or examination under the direction of the investigatory personnel.
  第七十一条 侦查人员对于与犯罪有关的场所、物品、人身、尸体应当进行勘验或者检查。在必要的时候,可以指派或者聘请具有专门知识的人,在侦查人员的主持下进行勘验、检查。
Article 72. Each and every unit and individual shall have the duty to preserve the scene of a crime and to immediately notify a public security organ to send personnel to hold an inquest.
  第七十二条 任何单位和个人,都有义务保护犯罪现场,并且立即通知公安机关派员勘验。
Article 73. Investigatory personnel must carry a certificate issued by a public security organ while conducting an inquest or examination.
  第七十三条 侦查人员执行勘验、检查,必须持有公安机关的证明文件。
Article 74. If the cause of a death is unclear, a public security organ shall have the power to order an autopsy and shall notify the family members of the deceased to be present.
  第七十四条 对于死因不明的尸体,公安机关有权决定解剖,并通知死者家属到场。
Article 75. An examination may be conducted of the person of the victim or defendant in order to ascertain some of his characteristics or physiological condition, or the circumstances of the injury.
If a defendant refuses to be examined, the investigatory personnel, when they deem it necessary, may conduct a compulsory examination.
Examination of the persons of women shall be conducted by female personnel or doctors.
  第七十五条 为了确定被害人、被告人的某些特征、伤害情况或者生理状态,可以对人身进行检查。
被告人如果拒绝检查,侦查人员认为必要的时候,可以强制检查。
检查妇女的身体,应当由女工作人员或者医师进行。
Article 76. A record shall be made of the circumstances of an inquest or examination, and it shall be signed or sealed by the participants in the inquest or examination and the eyewitnesses.
  第七十六条 勘验、检查和情况应当写成笔录,由参加勘验、检查的人和见证人签名或者盖章。
Article 77. If, in reviewing a case, a people's procuratorate deems it necessary to repeat an inquest or examination that has been done by a public security organ, it may ask the latter to conduct another inquest or examination and may send procuratorial personnel to participate in it.
  第七十七条 人民检察院审查案件时,对公安机关的勘验、检查,认为需要复验、复查时,可以要求公安机关复验、复查,并且可以派检察人员参加。
Article 78. When necessary and with the approval of the director of a public security bureau, investigative experiments may be conducted in order to clarify the circumstances of a case.
In conducting investigative experiments, it shall be forbidden to take any action which is hazardous, humiliating to anyone, or offensive to public morals.
  第七十八条 为了查明案情,在必要的时候,经公安局长批准,可以进行侦查实验。
侦查实验,禁止一切足以造成危险、侮辱人格或者有伤风化的行为。
SECTION 4 SEARCH
 第四节 搜  查
Article 79. In order to collect criminal evidence and track down an offender, investigatory personnel may search the person, belongings and residence of the defendant and anyone who might be hiding a criminal or criminal evidence, as well as other relevant places.
  第七十九条 为了收集犯罪证据、查获犯罪人,侦查人员可以对被告人以及可能隐藏罪犯或者犯罪证据的人的身体、物品、住处和其他有关的地方进行搜查。
Article 80. Every unit and individual shall have the duty to surrender, at the request of a people's procuratorate or public security organ, any material or documentary evidence that may prove a defendant's guilt or innocence.
  第八十条 任何单位和个人,有义务按照人民检察院和公安机关的要求,交出可以证明被告人有罪或者无罪的物证、书证。
Article 81. When a search is to be conducted, a search warrant must be shown to the person to be searched.
If an emergency occurs when an arrest or detention is being made, a search may be conducted without a search warrant.
  第八十一条 进行搜查,必须向被搜查人出示搜查证。
在执行逮捕、拘留的时候,遇有紧急情况,不另用搜查证也可以进行搜查。
Article 82. During a search, the person to be searched or his family members, neighbours or other eyewitnesses shall be present at the scene.
Searches of the persons of women shall be conducted by female personnel.
  第八十二条 在搜查的时候, 应当有被搜查人或者他的家属, 邻居或者其他见证人在场。
搜查妇女的身体,应当由女工作人员进行。
Article 83. A record shall be made of the circumstances of a search, and it shall be signed or sealed by the investigatory personnel and the person searched or his family members, neighbours or other eyewitnesses. If the person searched or his family members have become fugitives or refuse to sign or affix their seals to the record, this shall be noted in the record.
  第八十三条 搜查的情况应当写成笔录,由侦查人员和被搜查人或者他的家属,邻居或者其他见证人签名或者盖章。如果被搜查人或者他的家属在逃或者拒绝签名、盖章,应当在笔录上注明。
SECTION 5 SEIZURE OF MATERIAL EVIDENCE AND DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE
 第五节 扣押物证、书证
Article 84. Any articles and documents discovered during an inquest or search that may be used to prove a defendant's guilt or innocence shall be seized. Objects and documents which are irrelevant to the case may not be seized.
Seized articles and documents shall be properly kept or sealed for safekeeping and may not be utilized or damaged.
  第八十四条  在勘验、 搜查中发现的可用以证明被告人有罪或者无罪的各种物品和文件,应当扣押;与案件无关的物品、文件,不得扣押。
对于扣押的物品、文件,要妥善保管或者封存,不得使用或者损毁。
Article 85. All seized articles and documents shall be carefully checked by the investigatory personnel jointly with the eyewitnesses and the holder of the articles; a detailed list shall be made in duplicate on the spot and shall be signed or sealed by the investigatory personnel, the eyewitnesses and the holder. One copy of the list shall be given to the holder, and the other copy shall be kept on file for reference.
  第八十五条 对于扣押的物品和文件,应当会同在场见证人和被扣押物品持有人查点清楚,当场开列清单一式二份,由侦查人员、见证人和持有人签名或者盖章,一份交给持有人,另一份附卷备查。
Article 86. If the investigatory personnel deem it necessary to seize the mail or telegrams of a defendant, they may, upon approval of a public security organ or a people's procuratorate, notify the post and telecommunications offices to hand over the relevant mail and telegrams for seizure.
When it becomes unnecessary to continue a seizure, the post and telecommunications offices shall be immediately notified.
  第八十六条 侦查人员认为需要扣押被告人的邮件、电报的时候,经公安机关或者人民检察院批准,即可通知邮电机关将有关的邮件、电报检交扣押。
不需要继续扣押的时候,应即通知邮电机关。
Article 87. If any seized articles, documents, mail or telegrams are proved through investigation to be irrelevant to a case, they shall be promptly returned to their original owners or the original post and telecommunications offices.
  第八十七条 对于扣押的物品、文件、邮件、电报,经查明确实与案件无关的,应当迅速退还原主或者原邮电机关。
SECTION 6 EXPERT EVALUATION
 第六节 鉴  定
Article 88. When certain special problems relating to a case need to be solved in order to clarify the circumstances of the case, experts shall be assigned or invited to give their evaluations.
  第八十八条 为了查明案情,需要解决案件中某些专门性问题的时候,应当指派、聘请有专门知识的人进行鉴定。
Article 89. After evaluating a matter, the expert shall write a conclusion of expert evaluation and affix his signature to it.
  第八十九条 鉴定人进行鉴定后,应当写出鉴定结论,并签名。
Article 90. A defendant shall be notified of any expert conclusion which will be used as evidence in his case. A supplementary expert evaluation or a new expert evaluation may be conducted at the defendant's request.
  第九十条 用作证据的鉴定结论应当告知被告人。如果被告人提出申请,可以补充鉴定或者重新鉴定。
SECTION 7 WANTED ORDERS
 第七节 通  缉
Article 91. If a defendant who should be arrested is a fugitive, a public security organ may issue a wanted order and take effective measures to pursue him for arrest and bring him to justice.
Public security organs at any level may directly issue wanted orders within the areas under their jurisdiction; they shall request a higher-level organ with the proper authority to issue orders for areas beyond their jurisdiction.
  第九十一条 应当逮捕的被告人如果在逃,公安机关可以发布通缉令,采取有效措施,追捕归案。
各级公安机关在自己管辖的地区以内,可以直接发布通缉令;超出自己管辖的地区,应当报请有权决定的上级机关发布。
SECTION 8 CONCLUSION OF INVESTIGATION
 第八节 侦查终结
Article 92. The time limit for holding a defendant in custody during investigation shall not exceed two months. If the circumstances of a case are complex and the case cannot be concluded within that time limit, an extension of one month may be allowed with the approval of the people's procuratorate at the next higher level.
In the event of a particularly grave and complex case which still cannot be concluded within the extension period as provided in the preceding paragraph, the Supreme People's Procuratorate shall request the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress to approve a postponement of the hearing of the case.
  第九十二条 对被告人在侦查中的羁押期限不得超过二个月。案情复杂、期限届满不能终结的案件,可以经上一级人民检察院批准延长一个月。
特别重大、复杂的案件,依照前款规定延长后仍不能终结的,由最高人民检察院报请全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准延期审理。
Article 93. After a people's procuratorate has concluded its investigation of a case, it shall make a decision whether to initiate a public prosecution, exempt from prosecution or dismiss the case.
After a public security organ has concluded its investigation of a case, it shall make a written recommendation to initiate prosecution or exempt from prosecution, and the written recommendation shall be transferred together with the case file and evidence to the people's procuratorate at the same level for examination and decision.
  第九十三条 人民检察院侦查的案件,侦查终结后,应当作出提起公诉、免予起诉或者撤销案件的决定。
公安机关侦查的案件,侦查终结后,应当写出起诉意见书或者免予起诉意见书,连同案卷材料、证据一并移送同级人民检察院审查决定。
Article 94. If it is discovered during an investigation that a defendant's criminal responsibility should not have been investigated, the case shall be dismissed; if the defendant is under arrest, he shall be released immediately and issued a release certificate, and the people's procuratorate which originally approved the arrest shall be notified.
  第九十四条 在侦查过程中,发现不应对被告人追究刑事责任的,应当撤销案件;被告人已被逮捕的,应当立即释放,发给释放证明,并且通知原批准逮捕的人民检察院。
CHAPTER III INITIATION OF PUBLIC PROSECUTION
 

第三章 提起公诉


Article 95. All cases requiring initiation of a public prosecution or exemption from prosecution shall be examined and decided by the people's procuratorates.
  第九十五条 凡需要提起公诉或者免予起诉的案件,一律由人民检察院审查决定。
Article 96. In examining a case, a people's procuratorate shall ascertain:
  第九十六条 人民检察院审查案件的时候,必须查明:
(1) whether the facts and circumstances of the crime are clear, whether the evidence is reliable and sufficient and whether the charge and the nature of the crime has been correctly determined;
 (一)犯罪事实、情节是否清楚,证据是否确实、充分,犯罪性质和罪名的认定是否正确;
(2) whether there are any crimes that have omitted or other persons whose criminal responsibility should be investigated;
 (二)有无遗漏罪行和其他应当追究刑事责任的人;
(3) whether it is a case in which criminal responsibility should not be investigated;
 (三)是否属于不应追究刑事责任的;
(4) whether the case has an incidental action;and
 (四)有无附带民事诉讼;
(5) whether the investigation of the case is being lawfully conducted.
 (五)侦查活动是否合法。
Article 97. A people's procuratorate shall make a decision within one month on a case that a public security organ has transferred to it with a recommendation to initiate a public prosecution or exempt from prosecution; an extension of a half month may be allowed for major or complex cases.
  第九十七条 人民检察院对于公安机关移送起诉或者免予起诉的案件,应当在一个月以内作出决定,重大、复杂的案件,可以延长半个月。
Article 98. When examining a case,a people's procuratorate shall interrogate the defendant.
  第九十八条 人民检察院审查案件,应当讯问被告人。
Article 99. In examining a case requiring supplementary investigation, a people's procuratorate may conduct the investigation itself or remand the case to a public security organ for supplementary investigation.
In cases where supplementary investigation is to be conducted, it shall be completed within a month.
  第九十九条 人民检察院审查案件,对于需要补充侦查的,可以自行侦查,也可以退回公安机关补充侦查。
对于补充侦查的案件,应当在一个月以内补充侦查完毕。
Article 100. When a people's procuratorate considers that the facts of a defendant's crime have been ascertained,that the evidence is reliable and sufficient and that criminal responsibility should be investigated according to law. it shall make a decision to initiate prosecution and shall, in accordance with the provisions for trial jurisdiction, initiate a public prosecution in a people's court.
  第一百条 人民检察院认为被告人的犯罪事实已经查清,证据确实、充分,依法应当追究刑事责任的,应当作出起诉决定,按照审判管辖的规定,向人民法院提起公诉。
Article 101. The people's procuratorate may exempt from prosecution any case that, according to the provisions of the Criminal Law, does not require criminal punishment or for which exemption from criminal punishment may be granted.
  第一百零一条 依照刑法规定不需要判处刑罚或者免除刑罚的,人民检察院可以免予起诉。
Article 102. A decision to exempt from prosecution shall be announced publicly, and a written decision to exempt from prosecution shall to be delivered to the defendant and to his unit. If the defendant is in custody, he shall be released immediately.
When a people's procuratorate decides to exempt from prosecution a case transferred by a public security organ with a recommendation to initiate a prosecution, it shall deliver a written decision to exempt from prosecution to the public security organ. If the public security organ considers the decision to be mistaken, it may demand reconsideration, and if the demand is rejected, it may request the people's procuratorate at the next higher level to review the case.
If the people's procuratorate decides to exempt from prosecution a case that involves a victim, it shall send a written decision to exempt from prosecution to the victim. If the victim does not accept the decision, he may present a petition to the people's procuratorate within seven days after receiving the written decision. The people's procuratorate shall notify the victim of the result of its re-examination.
  第一百零二条 免予起诉的决定,应当公开宣布,并且将免予起诉决定书交给被告人和他的所在单位。如果被告人在押,应当立即释放。
对于公安机关移送起诉的案件,人民检察院决定免予起诉的,应当将免予起诉决定书送公安机关。公安机关认为免予起诉的决定有错误的时候,可以要求复议,如果意见不被接受,可以向上一级人民检察院提请复核。
对于有被害人的案件, 决定免予起诉的, 人民检察院应当将免予起诉决定书送被害人。被害人如果不服,可以在收到后七日内向人民检察院申诉。人民检察院应当将复查结果告知被害人。
Article 103. If a defendant does not accept a decision to exempt from prosecution, he may present a petition to the people's procuratorate within seven days. The people's procuratorate shall make a decision to conduct a re-examination, notify the defendant of the decision and at the same time send a copy of it to the public security organ.
  第一百零三条 对于免予起诉的决定,被告人如果不服,可以在七日内向人民检察院申诉。人民检察院应当作出复查决定,通知被告人,同时抄送公安机关。
Article 104. If a defendant is under any one of the circumstances provided in Article 11 of this Law, the people's procuratorate shall make a decision not to prosecute.
The provisions of Article 102 of this Law shall apply to a decision not to prosecute.
  第一百零四条 被告人有本法第十一条规定的情形之一的,人民检察院应当作出不起诉决定。
本法第一百零二条的规定适用于不起诉的决定。
PART THREE TRIAL
 第三编 审  判
CHAPTER I TRIAL ORGANIZATIONS
 

第一章 审判组织


Article 105. Trials of cases of first instance in the basic and intermediate people's, courts shall be conducted by a collegial panel composed of one judge and two people's assessors, except for cases of private prosecution and other minor criminal cases which may be tried by a single judge alone.
Trials of cases of first instance in the higher people's courts or the Supreme People's Court shall be conducted by a collegial panel composed of one to three judges and two to four people's assessors.
When performing their functions in the people's courts, the people's assessors shall enjoy equal rights with the judges.
Trials of appealed and protested cases in the people's courts shall be conducted by a collegial panel composed of three to five judges.
The president of the people's court or the chief judge of a division shall designate one judge to be the presiding judge of the collegial panel. If the president of the court or the chief judge of a division participates in a trial, he himself shall serve as the presiding judge.
  第一百零五条 基层人民法院、中级人民法院审判第一审案件,除自诉案件和其他轻微的刑事案件可以由审判员一人独任审判以外,应当由审判员一人、人民陪审员二人组成合议庭进行。
高级人民法院、最高人民法院审判第一审案件,应当由审判员一人至三人、人民陪审员二人至四人组成合议庭进行。
人民陪审员在人民法院执行职务,同审判员有同等的权利。
人民法院审判上诉和抗诉案件,由审判员三人至五人组成合议庭进行。
合议庭由院长或者庭长指定审判员一人担任审判长。院长或者庭长参加审判案件的时候,自己担任审判长。
Article 106. If opinions differ when a collegial panel conducts its deliberations, the minority should yield to the majority, but the opinion of the minority shall be entered in the records. The records of the deliberations shall be signed by the members of the collegial panel.
  第一百零六条 合议庭进行评议的时候,如果意见分歧,应当少数服从多数,但是少数人的意见应当写入笔录。评议笔录由合议庭的组成人员签名。
Article 107. All major or difficult cases that the president of the court believes should be referred to the judicial committee shall be submitted by him to the judicial committee for discussion and decision. The collegial panel shall execute the decisions of the judicial committee.
  第一百零七条 凡是重大的或者疑难的案件,院长认为需要提交审判委员会讨论的,由院长提交审判委员会讨论决定。审判委员会的决定,合议庭应当执行。
CHAPTER II PROCEDURE OF FIRST INSTANC
 

第二章 第一审程序


SECTION 1 CASES OF PUBLIC PROSECUTION
 第一节 公诉案件
Article 108. After a people's court has examined a case in which public prosecution was initiated, it shall decide to open the court session and try the case, if the facts of the crime are clear and the evidence sufficient; it may remand the case to the people's procuratorate for supplementary investigation, if the main facts are not clear and the evidence insufficient; it may ask the people's procuratorate to withdraw its prosecution, if no criminal punishment is necessary.
  第一百零八条 人民法院对提起公诉的案件进行审查后,对于犯罪事实清楚、证据充分的, 应当决定开庭审判; 对于主要事实不清、证据不足的,可以退回人民检察院补充侦查; 对于不需要判刑的,可以要求人民检察院撤回起诉。
Article 109. When necessary, a people's court may conduct inquests, examination, searches, seizures and expert evaluations.
  第一百零九条 人民法院在必要的时候,可以进行勘验、检查、搜查、扣押和鉴定。
Article 110. After a people's court has decided to open a court session, it shall proceed with the following work:
  第一百一十条 人民法院决定开庭审判后,应当进行下列工作:
(1) to determine the members of the collegial panel;
 (一)确定合议庭的组成人员;
(2) to deliver to the defendant a copy of the bill of prosecution of the people's procuratorate no later than seven days before the opening of the court session and inform the defendant that he may appoint a defender or, when necessary, designate a defender for him;
 (二)将人民检察院的起诉书副本至迟在开庭七日以前送达被告人,并且告知被告人可以委托辩护人,或者在必要时为被告人指定辩护人;
(3) to notify the people's procuratorate of the time and place of the court session three days before the opening of the session;
 (三)将开庭的时间、地点在开庭三日以前通知人民检察院;
(4) to summon the parties and notify the defenders, witnesses, expert witnesses and interpreters, and deliver the summons and notices no later than three days before the opening of the court session; and
 (四)传唤当事人,通知辩护人、证人、鉴定人和翻译人员,传票和通知书至迟在开庭三日以前送达;
(5) to announce in advance the subject matter of any case to be heard in public, the name of the defendant and the time and place of the court session.
The circumstances of the above mentioned proceedings shall be entered in the written record, which shall be signed by the judicial personnel and the court clerk.
 (五)公开审判的案件,先期公布案由、被告人姓名、开庭时间和地点。
上述活动情形应当写入笔录,由审判人员和书记员签名。
Article 111. Cases of first instance in a people's court shall be heard in public. However, cases involving state secrets or the private affairs of individuals shall not be heard in public.
No cases involving crimes committed by minors who have reached the age of 14 but not the age of 16 shall be heard in public.Generally, cases involving crimes committed by minors who have reached the age of 16 but not the age of 18 shall also not be heard in public.
The reason for not hearing a case in public shall be announced in court.
  第一百一十一条 人民法院审判第一审案件应当公开进行。但是有关国家机密或者个人阴私的案件,不公开审理。
十四岁以上不满十六岁未成年人犯罪的案件,一律不公开审理。十六岁以上不满十八岁未成年人犯罪的案件,一般也不公开审理。
对于不公开审理的案件,应当当庭宣布不公开审理的理由。
Article 112. When a case of public prosecution is being tried in a people's court, the people's procuratorate shall send its personnel to the court to support the public prosecution, unless the criminal act is relatively minor and the people's court has agreed to forgo such personnel.
If a member of the procuratorial personnel attending a court session discovers any illegalities during the proceedings, he shall have the right to suggest corrections to the court.
  第一百一十二条 人民法院审判公诉案件,除罪行较轻经人民法院同意的以外,人民检察院应当派员出席法庭支持公诉。
出庭的检察人员发现审判活动有违法情况,有权向法庭提出纠正意见。
Article 113. When a court session opens, the presiding judge shall ascertain if all the parties have appeared in court and announce the subject matter of the case. He shall announce the roll, naming the members of the collegial panel, the court clerk, the public prosecutor, the defender, the expert witnesses and the interpreter; he shall inform the parties of their right to ask any member of the collegial panel, the court clerk, the public prosecutor, any expert witnesses or the interpreter to withdraw; and he shall inform the defendant of his right to defence.
  第一百一十三条 开庭时,审判长查明当事人是否到庭,宣布案由;宣布合议庭的组成人员、书记员、公诉人、辩护人、鉴定人和翻译人员的名单;告知当事人有权对合议庭组成人员、书记员、公诉人、鉴定人和翻译人员申请回避;告知被告人享有辩护权利。
Article 114. After the public prosecutor has read out the bill of prosecution in court, the judicial personnel shall begin to question the defendant.
With the permission of the presiding judge, the public prosecutor may interrogate the defendant.
After the judicial personnel have questioned the defendant and with the permission of the presiding judge, the victim as well as the plaintiff and defender in an incidental civil action may put questions to the defendant.
  第一百一十四条 公诉人在审判庭上宣读起诉书后,审判人员开始审问被告人。
公诉人经审判长许可,可以讯问被告人。
被害人、附带民事诉讼的原告人和辩护人, 在审判人员审问被告人后, 经审判长许可,可以向被告人发问。
Article 115. When questioning a witness, the judicial personnel and the public prosecutor shall instruct the witness to give testimony truthfully and explain to him the legal responsibility that shall be incurred for intentionally giving false testimony or concealing criminal evidence. The parties and the defenders may request the presiding judge to question the witnesses or expert witnesses, or ask the presiding judge's permission to put their own questions directly. If the presiding judge considers any questioning irrelevant to the case, he shall put a stop to it.
  第一百一十五条 审判人员、公诉人询问证人,应当告知他要如实地提供证言和有意作伪证或者隐匿罪证要负的法律责任。 当事人和辩护人可以申请审判长对证人、 鉴定人发问,或者请求审判长许可直接发问。 审判长认为发问的内容与案件无关的时候, 应当制止。
Article 116. The judicial personnel shall show the material evidence to the defendant for him to identify. The records of testimony of witnesses who are not present in court,the conclusions of the expert witnesses, the records of inquests and other documents serving as evidence shall be read out in court,and the opinions of the parties and the defenders shall be heard.
  第一百一十六条 审判人员应当向被告人出示物证,让他辨认;对未到庭的证人的证言笔录、鉴定人的鉴定结论、勘验笔录和其他作为证据的文书,应当当庭宣读,并且听取当事人和辩护人的意见。
Article 117. During a court hearing, the parties and the defenders shall have the right to request new witnesses to be summoned, new material evidence to be collected, a new expert evaluation to be made, and another inquest to be held.
The court shall make a decision whether to grant the above mentioned requests.
  第一百一十七条 法庭审理过程中,当事人和辩护人有权申请通知新的证人到庭,调取新的物证,申请重新鉴定或者勘验。
法庭对于上述申请,应当作出是否同意的决定。
Article 118. After an inquiry has been held in the courtroom, the public prosecutor and the victim shall speak; then the defendant shall make a statement and defend himself, and the defender shall conduct the defence; in addition, the participants may debate with each other. After the presiding judge has declared the conclusion of the debate, the defendant shall have the right to present a final statement.
  第一百一十八条 法庭调查后,应当由公诉人发言,被害人发言,然后由被告人陈述和辩护,辩护人进行辩护,并且可以互相辩论。审判长在宣布辩论终结后,被告人有最后陈述的权利。
Article 119. If any participant in the proceedings of a trial violates the order of the courtroom, the presiding judge shall warn him to desist; if the circumstances are serious, the presiding judge may order him to leave the courtroom or investigate their criminal responsibility according to law.
  第一百一十九条 在法庭审判过程中,如果诉讼参与人违反法庭秩序,审判长应当警告制止;情节严重的,可以责令退出法庭或者依法追究刑事责任。
Article 120. After a defendant makes his final statement, the presiding judge shall announce an adjournment; the collegial panel shall conduct its deliberations and, on the basis of the established facts and evidence and in accordance with the relevant provisions of the law, render a judgment on the defendant's guilt or innocence, specifying the crime committed and the criminal punishment to be applied or exemption from criminal punishment as appropriate.
  第一百二十条 在被告人最后陈述后,审判长宣布休庭,合议庭进行评议,根据已经查明的事实、证据和有关的法律规定,作出被告人有罪或者无罪、犯的什么罪、适用什么刑罚或者免除刑罚的判决。
Article 121. In all cases, judgments shall be pronounced publicly.
If the judgment on a case is pronounced in court, a written judgment shall be delivered within five days to the parties and the people's procuratorate that initiated the public prosecution. In cases where the judgment is pronounced later on a fixed date, the written judgment shall be delivered immediately after the pronouncement to the parties and the people's procuratorate that initiated the public prosecution.
  第一百二十一条 宣告判决,一律公开进行。
当庭宣告判决的,应当在五日以内将判决书送达当事人和提起公诉的人民检察院;定期宣告判决的,应当在宣告后立即将判决书送达当事人和提起公诉的人民检察院。
Article 122. The written judgment shall be signed by the members of the collegial panel and by the court clerk, and the time limit for appeal and the name of the appellate court shall be clearly indicated therein.
  第一百二十二条 判决书应当由合议庭的组成人员和书记员署名,并且写明上诉的期限和上诉的法院。
Article 123. A hearing may be postponed if during a trial one of the following circumstances affecting the conduct of a trial occurs:
  第一百二十三条 在法庭审判过程中,遇有下列情形之一影响审判进行的,可以延期审理:
(1) if it is necessary to summon new witnesses,collect new material evidence, make a new expert evaluation or hold another inquest;
 (一)需要通知新的证人到庭,调取新的物证,重新鉴定或者勘验的;
(2) if members of the procuratorial personnel find that a case for which public prosecution has been initiated requires supplementary investigation, and they make a proposal to that effect;
 (二)检察人员发现提起公诉的案件需要补充侦查,提出建议的;
(3) if the collegial panel considers the evidence of a case insufficient or discovers new facts, requiring it to either remand the case to the people's procuratorate for supplementary investigation or conduct its own inquiry; or
 (三)合议庭认为案件证据不充分,或者发现新的事实,需要退回人民检察院补充侦查或者自行调查的;
(4) if the trial cannot proceed because a party applies for the withdrawal of a judicial functionary.
 (四)由于当事人申请回避而不能进行审判的。
Article 124. The court clerk shall make a written record of the entire court proceedings, which shall be examined by the presiding judge and then signed by him and the court clerk.
That portion of the courtroom record comprising the testimony of witnesses shall be read out in court or given to the witnesses to read. After the witnesses acknowledge that the record is free of error, they shall sign or affix their seals to it.
The courtroom record shall be given to the parties to read or shall be read out to them. If a party considers that there are omissions or errors in the record, he may request additions or corrections to be made. After the parties acknowledge that the record is free of error, they shall sign or affix their seals to it.
  第一百二十四条 法庭审判的全部活动,应当由书记员写成笔录,经审判长审阅后,由审判长和书记员签名。
法庭笔录中的证人证言部分,应当当庭宣读或者交给证人阅读。证人在承认没有错误后,应当签名或者盖章。
法庭笔录应当交给当事人阅读或者向他宣读。当事人认为记载有遗漏或者差错的,可以请求补充或者改正。当事人承认没有错误后,应当签名或者盖章。
Article 125. A people's court shall pronounce judgment on a case of public prosecution within one mother or, one and a half months at the latest, after accepting it for trial.
  第一百二十五条 人民法院审理公诉案件,应当在受理后一个月内宣判,至迟不得超过一个半月。
SECTION 2 CASES OF PRIVATE PROSECUTION
 第二节 自诉案件
Article 126. After examining a case of private prosecution, the people's court may handle it according to the conditions set forth below.
  第一百二十六条 人民法院对于自诉案件进行审查后,可以按照下列情形分别处理:
(1) If the facts of the crime are clear and the evidence sufficient, the case shall be tried at a court session.
 (一)犯罪事实清楚,有足够证据的案件,应当开庭审判;
(2) If the case requires public prosecution by a people's procuratorate, it shall be transferred to a people's procuratorate.
 (二)必须由人民检察院提起公诉的案件,应当移送人民检察院;
(3) In a case of private prosecution where criminal evidence is lacking, if the private prosecutor fails to present supplementary evidence and the people's court is unable to obtain the necessary evidence through investigation, the court shall persuade the private prosecutor to withdraw his prosecution or order its rejection.
 (三)缺乏罪证的自诉案件,如果自诉人提不出补充证据,经人民法院调查又未能收集到必要的证据,应当说服自诉人撤回自诉,或者裁定驳回;
(4) If the defendant's act does not constitute a crime,the people's court shall persuade the private prosecutor to withdraw his prosecution or order its rejection.
 (四)被告人的行为不构成犯罪的案件,应当说服自诉人撤回自诉,或者裁定驳回。
Article 127. A people's court may conduct mediation in a case of private prosecution; the private prosecutor may arrange a settlement with the defendant or withdraw his prosecution before a judgment is pronounced.
  第一百二十七条 人民法院对自诉案件,可以进行调解;自诉人在宣告判决前,可以同被告人自行和解或者撤回自诉。
Article 128. In the process of the proceedings, the defendant in a case of private prosecution may raise a counterclaim against the private prosecutor. The provisions governing private prosecutions shall apply to counterclaims.
  第一百二十八条 自诉案件的被告人在诉讼过程中,可以对自诉人提起反诉。反诉适用自诉的规定。
CHAPTER III PROCEDURE OF SECOND INSTANCE
 

第三章 第二审程序


Article 129. If a party or his legal representative refuses to accept a judgment or order of first instance of a local people's court at any level, he shall have the right to appeal in writing or orally to the people's court at the next higher level. Defenders or a defendant's near relatives may file appeals with the consent of the defendant.
A party to an incidental civil action or his legal representative may file an appeal against the portion of a judgment or order of first instance of the local people's courts that deals with the incidents civil action.
A defendant shall not be deprived on any pretext of his right to appeal.
  第一百二十九条  当事人或者他们的法定代理人, 不服地方各级人民法院第一审的判决、裁定,有权用书状或者口头向上一级人民法院上诉。被告人的辩护人和近亲属,经被告人同意,可以提出上诉。
附带民事诉讼的当事人和他们的法定代理人 , 可以对地方各级人民法院第一审的判决、裁定中的附带民事诉讼部分,提出上诉。
对被告人的上诉权,不得以任何借口加以剥夺。
Article 130. If a local people's procuratorate considers that there is some definite error in a judgment or order of first instance of a people's court at the same level, it shall present a protest to the people's court at the next higher level.
  第一百三十条 地方各级人民检察院认为本级人民法院第一审的判决、裁定确有错误的时候,应当向上一级人民法院提出抗诉。
Article 131. The time limit for an appeal or a protest against a judgment shall be ten days and the time limit for an appeal or a protest against an order shall be five days; the time limit shall be counted from the day after the written judgment or order is received.
  第一百三十一条 不服判决的上诉和抗诉的期限为十日,不服裁定的上诉和抗诉的期限为五日,从接到判决书、裁定书的第二日起算。
Article 132. If a party files an appeal through the people's court which originally tried a case, the people's court shall within three days transfer the petition of appeal together with the case file and the evidence to the people's court at the next higher level; at the same time it shall deliver duplicates of the petition of appeal to the people's procuratorate at the same level and to the other parties.
If a party files an appeal directly to the people's court of second instance, that people's court shall within three days transfer the petition of appeal to the people's court which originally tried the case, for delivery to the people's procuratorate at the same level and to the other parties.
  第一百三十二条 当事人通过原审人民法院提出上诉的,原审人民法院应当在三日以内将上诉状连同案卷、证据移送上一级人民法院,同时将上诉状副本送交同级人民检察院和对方当事人。
当事人直接向第二审人民法院提出上诉的,第二审人民法院应当在三日以内将上诉状交原审人民法院送交同级人民检察院和对方当事人。
Article 133. If a local people's procuratorate protests against a judgment or order of first instance of the people's court at the same level, it shall present a written protest through the people's court which originally tried the case and send a copy of the written protest to the people's procuratorate at the next higher level. The people's court which originally tried the case shall transfer the written protest together with the case file and evidence to the people's court at the next higher level and shall deliver duplicates of the written protest to the parties.
If the people's procuratorate at the next higher level considers the protest inappropriate, it may withdraw the protest from the people's court at the same level and notify the people's procuratorate at the next lower level.
  第一百三十三条 地方各级人民检察院对同级人民法院第一审判决、裁定的抗诉,应当通过原审人民法院提出抗诉书,并且将抗诉书抄送上一级人民检察院。原审人民法院应当将抗诉书连同案卷、证据移送上一级人民法院,并且将抗诉书副本送交当事人。
上级人民检察院如果认为抗诉不当,可以向同级人民法院撤回抗诉,并且通知下级人民检察院。
Article 134. A people's court of second instance shall conduct a complete review of the facts determined and the application of law in the judgment of first instance and shall not be limited by the scope of appeal or protest.
If an appeal is filed by only some of the defendants in a case of joint crime, the case shall still be reviewed and handled as a whole.
  第一百三十四条 第二审人民法院应当就第一审判决认定的事实和适用法律进行全面审查,不受上诉或者抗诉范围的限制。
共同犯罪的案件只有部分被告人上诉的,应当对全案进行审查,一并处理。
Article 135. In cases where a people's procuratorate files a protest or a people's court of second instance requests personnel from a people's procuratorate to be in court, the people's procuratorate at the same level shall send personnel to the court. The people's court of second instance must notify the people's procuratorate ten days before the opening of a court session to examine the case files.
  第一百三十五条 人民检察院提出抗诉的案件或者第二审人民法院要求人民检察院派员出庭的案件,同级人民检察院都应当派员出庭。第二审人民法院必须在开庭十日以前通知人民检察院查阅案卷。
Article 136. After hearing a case of appeal or protest against a judgment of first instance, the people's court of second instance shall handle it according to the conditions set forth below.
  第一百三十六条 第二审人民法院对不服第一审判决的上诉、抗诉案件,经过审理后,应当按照下列情形分别处理:
(1) If the original judgment was correct in the determination of facts and the application of law and appropriate in the meting out of punishment, the people's court shall order rejection of the appeal or protest and affirm the original judgment.
 (一)原判决认定事实和适用法律正确、量刑适当的,应当裁定驳回上诉或者抗诉,维持原判;
(2) If the original judgment contained no error in the determination of facts but the application of law was incorrect or the punishment was inappropriately decided, the people's court shall revise the judgment.
 (二)原判决认定事实没有错误,但适用法律有错误,或者量刑不当的,应当改判;
(3) If the facts in the original judgment are unclear or the evidence insufficient, the people's court may revise the judgment after ascertaining the facts, or it may rescind the original judgment and remand the case to the people's court which originally tried the case for retrial.
 (三)原判决事实不清楚或者证据不足的,可以在查清事实后改判;也可以裁定撤销原判,发回原审人民法院重新审判。
Article 137. In the trial of a case appealed by a defendant, or his legal representative, defender or near relative, the people's court of second instance may not increase the criminal punishment on the defendant.
The restriction laid down in the preceding paragraph shall not apply to cases protested by a people's procuratorate or cases appealed by private prosecutors.
  第一百三十七条 第二审人民法院审判被告人或者他的法定代理人、辩护人、近亲属上诉的案件,不得加重被告人的刑罚。
人民检察院提出抗诉或者自诉人提出上诉的,不受前款规定的限制。
Article 138. If a people's court of second instance discovers that a people's court of first instance has violated the litigation procedures stipulated by law, and the correct rendering of judgment may have thus been affected, it shall rescind the original judgment and remand the case to the people's court which originally tried the case for retrial.
  第一百三十八条 第二审人民法院发现第一审人民法院违反法律规定的诉讼程序,可能影响正确判决的时候,应当撤销原判,发回原审人民法院重新审判。
Article 139. The people's court which originally tried a case shall conduct a retrial of the case remanded to it in accordance with the procedure of first instance. The parties may appeal and the people's procuratorate at the same level may protest against the judgment rendered after the retrial.
  第一百三十九条 原审人民法院对于发回重新审判的案件,应当依照第一审程序进行审判。对于重新审判后的判决,当事人可以上诉,同级人民检察院可以抗诉。
Article 140. After a people's court of second instance has reviewed an appeal or protest against an order of first instance, it shall order rejection of the appeal or protest or quash or revise the original order respectively with reference to the provisions of Articles 136, 138 and 139 of this Law.
  第一百四十条 第二审人民法院对不服第一审裁定的上诉或者抗诉,经过审查后,应当参照本法第一百三十六条、第一百三十八条和第一百三十九条的规定,分别情形用裁定驳回上诉、抗诉,或者撤销、变更原裁定。
Article 141. A people's court of second instance shall try cases of appeal or protest with reference to the procedure of first instance unless otherwise stipulated in this Chapter.
  第一百四十一条 第二审人民法院审判上诉或者抗诉案件的程序,除本章已有规定的以外,参照第一审程序的规定进行。
Article 142. A people's court of second instance shall conclude the trial of a case of appeal or protest within one month or , one and a half months at the latest, after accepting it for trial.
  第一百四十二条 第二审人民法院受理上诉、抗诉案件后,应当在一个月以内审结,至迟不得超过一个半月。
Article 143. All judgments and orders of second instance and all judgments and orders of the Supreme People's Court shall be final.
  第一百四十三条 第二审的判决、裁定和最高人民法院 的判决、裁定,都是终审的判决、裁定。
CHAPTER IV PROCEDURE FOR REVIEW OF DEATH SENTENCES
 

第四章 死刑复核程序


Article 144. Death sentences shall be approved by the Supreme People's Court.
  第一百四十四条 死刑由最高人民法院核准。
Article 145. A case of first instance where an intermediate people's court has imposed a death sentence and the defendant does not appeal shall be reviewed by a higher people's court and reported to the Supreme People's Court for approval. If the higher people's court does not agree with the death sentence, it may bring the case up for trial or remand the case for retrial.
Cases of first instance where a higher people's court has imposed a death sentence and the defendant does not appeal, and cases of second instance where a death sentence has been imposed shall all be submitted to the Supreme People's Court for approval.
  第一百四十五条 中级人民法院判处死刑的第一审案件,被告人不上诉的,应由高级人民法院复核后,报请最高人民法院核准。高级人民法院不同意判处死刑的,可以提审或者发回重新审判。
高级人民法院判处死刑的第一审案件被告人不上诉的,和判处死刑的第二审案件,都应当报请最高人民法院核准。
Article 146. A case where an intermediate people's court has imposed a death sentence with a two-year suspension of execution, shall be approved by a higher people's court.
  第一百四十六条 中级人民法院判处死刑缓期二年执行的案件,由高级人民法院核准。
Article 147. Reviews by the Supreme People's Court of cases involving death sentences and reviews by a higher people's court of cases involving death sentences with a suspension of execution shall be conducted by collegial panels composed of three judges.
  第一百四十七条  最高人民法院复核死刑案件, 高级人民法院复核死刑缓期执行的案件,应当由审判员三人组成合议庭进行。
CHAPTER V PROCEDURE FOR TRIAL SUPERVISION
 

第五章 审判监督程序


Article 148. A party or a victim and his family or other citizens may present a petition to a people's court or people's procuratorate regarding a legally effective judgment or order, but the execution of the judgment or order cannot be suspended.
  第一百四十八条 当事人、 被害人及其家属或者其他公民, 对已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,可以向人民法院或者人民检察院提出申诉,但不能停止判决、裁定的执行。
Article 149. If the president of a people's court at any level finds some definite error in a legally effective judgment or order of his court as to the determination of facts or application of law, he shall refer the matter to the judicial committee for handling.
If the Supreme People's Court finds some definite error in a legally effective judgment or order of a people's court at any lower level, or if a people's court at a higher level finds some definite error in a legally effective judgment or order of a people's court at a lower level, it shall have the power to bring the case up for trial itself or may direct a people's court at a lower level to conduct a retrial.
If the Supreme People's Procuratorate finds some definite error in a legally effective judgment or order of a people's court at any level, or if a people's procuratorate at a higher level finds some definite error in a legally effective judgment or order of a people's court at a lower level, it shall have the power to protest against the judgment or order in accordance with the procedure for trial supervision.
  第一百四十九条 各级人民法院院长对本院已经发生法津效力的判决和裁定,如果发现在认定事实上或者在适用法律上确有错误,必须提交审判委员会处理。
最高人民法院对各级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决和裁定,上级人民法院对下级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决和裁定,如果发现确有错误,有权提审或者指令下级人民法院再审。
最高人民检察院对各级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决和裁定,上级人民检察院对下级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决和裁定,如果发现确有错误,有权按照审判监督程序提出抗诉。
Article 150. A new collegial panel shall be formed for the retrial of a case by a people's court in accordance with the procedure for trial supervision. If the case was originally one of first instance, it shall be tried in accordance with the procedure of first instance and the new judgment or order may be appealed or protested. If the case was originally one of second instance or was brought up for trial by a people's court at a higher level, it shall be tried in accordance with the procedure of second instance and the judgment or order rendered shall be final.
  第一百五十条  人民法院按照审判监督程序重新审判的案件, 应当另行组成合议庭进行。如果原来是第一审案件,应当依照第一审程序进行审判,所作的判决、裁定,可以上诉、抗诉;如果原来是第二审案件,或者是上级人民法院提审的案件,应当依照第二审程序进行审判,所作的判决、裁定,是终审的判决、裁定。
PART FOUR EXECUTION
 第四编 执  行
Article 151. Judgments and orders shall be executed after they become legally effective.
The following judgments and orders are legally effective:
  第一百五十一条 判决和裁定在发生法律效力后执行。
下列判决和裁定是发生法律效力的判决和裁定:
(1) judgments and orders against which no appeal or protest has been filed within the legally prescribed time limit;
 (一)已过法定期限没有上诉、抗诉的判决和裁定;
(2) judgments and orders of final instance; and
 (二)终审的判决和裁定;
(3) judgments of the death penalty approved by the Supreme People's Court and judgments of the death penalty with a two-year suspension of execution approved by a higher people's court.
 (三)最高人民法院核准的死刑的判决和高级人民法院核准的死刑缓期二年执行的判决。
Article 152. If a defendant in custody is given the verdict of not guilty or exempted from criminal punishment by a people's court of first instance, he shall be released immediately after the judgment is pronounced.
  第一百五十二条 第一审人民法院判决被告人无罪、 免除刑事处罚的, 如果被告人在押,在宣判后应当立即释放。
Article 153. When a judgment of the death penalty with immediate execution is pronounced or approved by the Supreme People's Court, the President of the Supreme People's Court shall sign and issue an order to execute the death sentence.
If a criminal sentenced to death with a two-year suspension of execution shows true repentance or renders meritorious service during the period of suspension of the sentence, and his punishment should therefore be commuted according to law, the executing organ shall submit a written recommendation to the higher people's court in the locality for an order; if there is verified evidence that a criminal has resisted reform in a flagrant way and his death sentence should therefore be executed, the higher people's court must submit the matter to the Supreme People's Court for approval.
  第一百五十三条 最高人民法院判处和核准的死刑立即执行的判决,应当由最高人民法院院长签发执行死刑的命令。
被判处死刑缓期二年执行的罪犯,在死刑缓期执行期间,如果确有悔改或者有立功表现应当依法予以减刑的,由执行机关提出书面意见,报请当地高级人民法院裁定;如果抗拒改造情节恶劣、查证属实, 应当执行死刑的, 高级人民法院必须报请最高人民法院核准。
Article 154. After receiving an order from the Supreme People's Court to execute a death sentence, the people's court at a lower level shall cause the sentence to be executed within seven days. However, under either of the following conditions the people's court at a lower level shall suspend execution and immediately submit a report to the Supreme People's Court for an order:
  第一百五十四条 下级人民法院接到最高人民法院执行死刑的命令后,应当在七日以内交付执行。但是发现有下列情形之一的,应当停止执行,并且立即报告最高人民法院,由最高人民法院作出裁定:
(1) if it is discovered before the execution of the sentence that the judgment may contain an error; or
 (一)在执行前发现判决可能有错误的;
(2) if the criminal is pregnant.
If the first reason in the preceding paragraph which caused the suspension of a sentence, has disappeared, the sentence may be executed only after a report is submitted to the President of the Supreme People's Court for him to sign and issue another order to execute the death sentence. If execution is suspended for the second reason in the preceding paragraph, the matter shall be reported to the Supreme People's Court, requesting it to revise the sentence according to law.
 (二)罪犯正在怀孕。
前款第一项停止执行的原因消失后,必须报请最高人民法院院长再签发执行死刑的命令才能执行;由于前款第二项原因停止执行的,应当报请最高人民法院依法改判。
Article 155. Before a people's court causes a death sentence to be executed, it shall notify the people's procuratorate at the same level to send an official to supervise the execution.
The judicial personnel directing the execution shall verify the identity of the criminal, ask him if he has any last words or letters and then deliver him to the executioner for execution of the death sentence. If it is discovered before the execution that there may be an error, the execution shall be suspended and a report submitted to the Supreme People's Court for an order.
Executions of death sentences shall be announced but shall not be held in public.
After a death sentence is executed, the attending court clerk shall prepare a written record of it. The people's court that caused the death sentence to be executed shall submit a report on the execution to the Supreme People's Court.
After a death sentence is executed, the people's court that caused the sentence to be executed shall notify the family of the criminal.
  第一百五十五条  人民法院在交付执行死刑前, 应当通知同级人民检察院派员临场监督。
指挥执行的审判人员,对罪犯应当验明正身,讯问有无遗言、信札,然后交付执行人员执行死刑。在执行前,如果发现可能有错误,应当暂停执行,报请最高人民法院裁定。
执行死刑应当公布,不应示众。
执行死刑后,在场书记员应当写成笔录。交付执行的人民法院应当将执行死刑情况报告最高人民法院。
执行死刑后,交付执行的人民法院应当通知罪犯家属。
Article 156. If cases of criminals who are sentenced to death with a two-year suspension of execution, or to life imprisonment, fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention, the people's court that caused the sentence to be executed shall deliver the notice of execution of the sentence and the written judgment to the prison or other place of reform through labour for the sentence to be executed; the executing organ shall notify the family of the criminal.
A criminal sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention, upon completion of the execution of his sentence, shall be issued a certificate of completion of sentence and release by the executing organ.
  第一百五十六条 对于被判处死刑缓期二年执行、 无期徒刑、 有期徒刑或者拘役的罪犯,应当由交付执行的人民法院将执行通知书、判决书送达监狱或者其他劳动改造场所执行,并且由执行机关通知罪犯家属。
判处有期徒刑、拘役的罪犯,执行期满,应当由执行机关发给刑满释放证。
Article 157. A criminal sentenced to life imprisonment, fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention may be permitted to temporarily serve his term outside prison under either of the following conditions:
  第一百五十七条 对于被判处无期徒刑、 有期徒刑或者拘役的罪犯, 有下列情形之一的,可以暂予监外执行:
(1) if the criminal is seriously ill and needs to be released on parole for medical treatment; or
 (一)有严重疾病需要保外就医的;
(2) if the criminal is a pregnant woman or a woman breast-feeding her own baby.
In cases where a criminal serves his sentence outside prison, the public security organ may entrust the execution of his sentence to the public security station at the criminal's original place of residence, and the local grass-roots organization or the criminal's original unit shall assist in the supervision.
 (二)怀孕或者正在哺乳自己婴儿的妇女。
对于监外执行的罪犯,可以由公安机关委托罪犯原居住地的公安派出所执行,基层组织或者原所在单位协助进行监督。
Article 158. A criminal who has been sentenced to imprisonment with a suspension of execution shall be delivered by the public security organ to his unit or a grass-roots organization for observation.
A criminal released on parole shall be supervised by a public security organ during the probation period for parole.
  第一百五十八条 对于被判处徒刑缓刑的罪犯,由公安机关交所在单位或者基层组织予以考察。
对于被假释的罪犯,在假释考验期限内,由公安机关予以监督。
Article 159. Sentences of public surveillance or deprivation or political rights that have been imposed on criminals shall be executed by the public security organs.
When such a sentence has been completed, the executing organ shall notify the criminal himself and publicly announce to the masses concerned the ending of public surveillance or the restoration of political rights.
  第一百五十九条 对于被判处管制、剥夺政治权利的罪犯, 由公安机关执行。
执行期满,应当由执行机关通知本人,交向有关群众公开宣布解除管制或者恢复政治权利。
Article 160. If a criminal sentenced to a fine fails to pay the fine within the time limit, the people's court shall compel him to pay. If he has true difficulties in paying because he has suffered an unavoidable disaster, an order may be made to reduce the fine or exempt him from payment.
  第一百六十条 被判处罚金的罪犯,期满不缴纳的,人民法院应当强制缴纳;如果由于遭遇不能抗拒的灾祸缴纳确实有困难的,可以裁定减少或者免除。
Article 161. All sentences of confiscation of property, whether imposed as a supplementary punishment or independently, shall be executed by the people's courts; when necessary, the people's courts may execute such judgments jointly with the public security organs.
  第一百六十一条 没收财产的判决,无论附加适用或者独立适用,都由人民法院执行;在必要的时候,可以会同公安机关执行。
Article 162. If a criminal commits a new crime while serving his sentence, or if a criminal act is discovered that was not known at the time of judgment, the prison or the organ in charge of reform through labour shall transfer his case to the people's procuratorate for handling.
If a criminal sentenced to public surveillance, criminal detention, fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment shows true repentance or renders meritorious service while serving his sentence and should be granted a commutation of sentence or be released on parole according to law, the executing organ shall submit a written recommendation to the people's court for examination and an order.
  第一百六十二条 罪犯在服刑期间又犯罪的,或者发现了判决时所没有发现的罪行,监狱和劳动改造机关应当移送人民检察院处理。
被判处管制、拘役、有期徒刑或者无期徒刑的罪犯,在执行期间确有悔改或者立功表现, 应当依法予以减刑、假释的时候, 由执行机关提出书面意见,报请人民法院审核裁定。
Article 163. If during the execution of a punishment, if the prison or the organ in charge of reform through labour believes that there is an error in the judgment, or the criminal makes a petition, it shall refer the matter to the people's procuratorate or people's court that pronounced the original judgment.
  第一百六十三条 监狱和劳动改造机关在刑罚执行中,如果认为判决有错误或者罪犯提出申诉,应当转请人民检察院或者原判人民法院处理。
Article 164. The people's procuratorates shall supervise the execution of judgments and orders in criminal cases and the activities of prisons, detention houses and organs in charge of reform through labour to see that such executions and activities conform to the law. If they discover any illegalities, they shall notify the executing organs to correct them.

  第一百六十四条 人民检察院对刑事案件的判决、裁定的执行和监狱、看守所、劳动改造机关的活动是否合法,实行监督。如果发现有违法的情况,应当通知执行机关纠正。
     
     
【法宝引证码】        北大法宝www.lawinfochina.com
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