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Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China (2020 Amendment) [Effective]
中华人民共和国刑法(2020修正) [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】
  • Issuing authority: National People's Congress
  • Document Number: Order No. 66 of the President of the People's Republic of China
  • Date issued: 12-26-2020
  • Effective date: 03-01-2021
  • Level of Authority: Laws
  • Area of Law:Criminal Law
 
  
  

Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China

 

中华人民共和国刑法

(Adopted by the Second Session of the Fifth National People's Congress on July 1, 1979, revised by the Fifth Session of the Eighth National People's Congress on March 14, 1997, and amended according to the NPC Standing Committee's Decision Concerning Punishment of Criminal Offenses Involving Fraudulent Purchase adopted at the Sixth Session of the Standing Committee of the Ninth Ntional People's Congress on December 29, 1998, Amendment to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 13rd Session of the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People's Congress on December 25,1999, Amendment (II) to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 23rd Session of the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People's Congress on August 31, 2001, Amendment (III) to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 25th Session of the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People's Congress on December 29, 2001; Amendment (IV) to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 31st Session of the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People's Congress on December 28, 2002, Amendment (V) to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 14th Session of the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People's Congress on February 28, 2005, Amendment (VI) to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 22nd Session of the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People's Congress on June 29, 2006, Amendment (VII) to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 7th Session of the Standing Committee of the 11st National People's Congress on February 28, 2009, Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on Amending Some Laws adopted at the Tenth Session of the Standing Committee of the 11st National People's Congress on Augest 27, 2009, Amendment (VIII) to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 19th Session of the Standing Committee of the 11st National People's Congress on February 25, 2011, Amendment (IX) to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 16th Session of the Standing Committee of the 12nd National People's Congress on August 29, 2015, Amendment (X) to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 30th Session of the Standing Committee of the 12nd National People's Congress on November 4, 2017, and Amendment (XI) to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 24th Session of the Standing Committee of the 13rd National People's Congress on December 26, 2020)① (1979年7月1日第五届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过 1997年3月14日第八届全国人民代表大会第五次会议修订 根据1998年12月29日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第六次会议通过的《全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于惩治骗购外汇、逃汇和非法买卖外汇犯罪的决定》、1999年12月25日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十三次会议通过的《中华人民共和国刑法修正案》、2001年8月31日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十三次会议通过的《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(二)》、2001年12月29日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十五次会议通过的《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(三)》、2002年12月28日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第三十一次会议通过的《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(四)》、2005年2月28日第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十四次会议通过的《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(五)》、2006年6月29日第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十二次会议通过的《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(六)》、2009年2月28日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第七次会议通过的《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(七)》、2009年8月27日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十次会议通过的《全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于修改部分法律的决定》、2011年2月25日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十九次会议通过的《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(八)》、2015年8月29日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十六次会议通过的《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(九)》、2017年11月4日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第三十次会议通过的《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(十)》、2020年12月26日第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十四次会议通过的《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(十一)》修正)
 

Table of Contents: 目录
 

Part I General Provisions 第一编 总则
Chapter I Tasks, Basic Principles, and Scope of Application of the Criminal Law 第一章 刑法的任务、基本原则和适用范围
Chapter II Crimes 第二章 犯罪
Section 1 . Crime and Criminal Responsibility 第一节 犯罪和刑事责任
Section 2 . Preparation for a Crime, Criminal Attempt, and Discontinuation of a Crime 第二节 犯罪的预备、未遂和中止
Section 3 . Joint Crimes 第三节 共同犯罪
Section 4 . Unit Crimes 第四节 单位犯罪
Chapter III Punishments 第三章 刑罚
Section 1 . Types of Punishments 第一节 刑罚的种类
Section 2 . Probation 第二节 管制
Section 3 . Limited Incarceration 第三节 拘役
Section 4 . Fixed-Term Imprisonment and Life Imprisonment 第四节 有期徒刑、无期徒刑
Section 5 . Death Penalty 第五节 死刑
Section 6 . Fines 第六节 罚金
Section 7 . Deprivation of Political Rights 第七节 剥夺政治权利
Section 8 . Confiscation of Property 第八节 没收财产
Chapter IV The Concrete Application Of Punishments 第四章 刑罚的具体运用
Section 1 . Sentencing 第一节 量刑
Section 2 . Recidivists 第二节 累犯
Section 3 . Voluntary Surrender and Meritorious Service 第三节 自首和立功
Section 4 . Combined Punishment for More Than One Crime 第四节 数罪并罚
Section 5 . Suspension of Sentence 第五节 缓刑
Section 6 . Reduction of Sentence 第六节 减刑
Section 7 . Parole 第七节 假释
Section 8 . Limitation 第八节 时效
Chapter V Other Provisions 第五章 其他规定
PART II Special Provisions 第二编 分则
Chapter I Crimes of Endangering National Security 第一章 危害国家安全罪
Chapter II Crimes of Endangering Public Security 第二章 危害公共安全罪
Chapter III Crimes of Undermining the Order of Socialist Market Economy 第三章 破坏社会主义市场经济秩序罪
Section 1 . Crimes of Manufacturing and Selling Fake and Shoddy Goods 第一节 生产、销售伪劣商品罪
Section 2 . Crimes of Smuggling 第二节 走私罪
Section 3 . Crimes of Disrupting the Order of Company and Enterprise Administration 第三节 妨害对公司、企业的管理秩序罪
Section 4 . Crimes of Undermining the Order of Financial Management 第四节 破坏金融管理秩序罪
Section 5 . Crimes of Financial Fraud 第五节 金融诈骗罪
Section 6 . Crimes of Endangering Collection and Management of Taxes 第六节 危害税收征管罪
Section 7 . Crimes of Infringing Upon Intellectual Property Rights 第七节 侵犯知识产权罪
Section 8 . Crimes of Disrupting Market Order 第八节 扰乱市场秩序罪
Chapter IV Crimes of Infringing Upon the Rights of the Person and the Democratic Rights of Citizens 第四章 侵犯公民人身权利、民主权利罪
Chapter V The Crime of Encroaching on Property 第五章 侵犯财产罪
Chapter VI Crimes of Disrupting the Order of Social Administration 第六章 妨害社会管理秩序罪
Section 1 . Crimes of Disrupting Public Order 第一节 扰乱公共秩序罪
Section 2 . Crimes of Disrupting Justice 第二节 妨害司法罪
Section 3 . Crimes of Disrupting Administration of the Territory (Border) 第三节 妨害国(边)境管理罪
Section 4 . Crimes of Disrupting Administration of Cultural Relics 第四节 妨害文物管理罪
Section 5 . Crimes of Endangering Public Health 第五节 危害公共卫生罪
Section 6 . Crimes of Undermining Protection of Environmental Resources 第六节 破坏环境资源保护罪
Section 7 . Crimes of Smuggling, Trafficking, Transporting, and Manufacturing Drugs. 第七节 走私、贩卖、运输、制造毒品罪
Section 8 . Crimes of Organizing, Forcing, Inducing, Housing, and Introducing Prostitutes 第八节 组织、强迫、引诱、容留、介绍卖淫罪
Section 9 . Crimes of Manufacturing, Selling, and Spreading Obscene Publications 第九节 制作、贩卖、传播淫秽物品罪
Chapter VII Crimes of Endangering the Interests of National Defense 第七章 危害国防利益罪
Chapter VIII Graft and Bribery 第八章 贪污贿赂罪
Chapter IX Crimes of Dereliction of Duty 第九章 渎职罪
Chapter X Crimes of Violation of Duty by Military Personnel 第十章 军人违反职责罪
Supplementary Articles 附则
Part I General Provisions 

第一编 总则

Chapter I Tasks, Basic Principles, and Scope of Application of the Criminal Law 

第一章 刑法的任务、基本原则和适用范围

Article 1 . This law is formulated in accordance with the Constitution and in light of the concrete experience of China launching a struggle against crime and the realities in the country, with a view to punishing crime and protecting the people.   第一条 【立法宗旨】为了惩罚犯罪,保护人民,根据宪法,结合我国同犯罪作斗争的具体 经验及实际情况,制定本法。
Article 2 . The tasks of the PRC Criminal Law are to use punishment struggle against all criminal acts to defend national security, the political power of the people's democratic dictatorship, and the socialist system; to protect state-owned property and property collectively owned by the laboring masses; to protect citizens' privately owned property; to protect citizens' right of the person, democratic rights, and other rights; to maintain social and economic order; and to safeguard the smooth progress of the cause of socialist construction.   第二条 【本法任务】中华人民共和国刑法的任务,是用刑罚同一切犯罪行为作斗争,以保卫国家安全,保卫人民民主专政的政权和社会主义制度,保护国有财产和劳动群众集体所有的财产,保护公民私人所有的财产,保护公民的人身权利、民主权利和其他权利,维护社会秩序、经济秩序,保障社会主义建设事业的顺利进行。
Article 3 . Any act deemed by explicit stipulations of law as a crime is to be convicted and given punishment by law and any act that no explicit stipulations of law deems a crime is not to be convicted or given punishment.   第三条 【罪刑法定】法律明文规定为犯罪行为的,依照法律定罪处刑;法律没有明文规定为犯罪行为的,不得定罪处刑。
Article 4 . Every one is equal before the law in committing crime. No one is permitted to have privileges to transgress the law.   第四条 【适用刑法人人平等】对任何人犯罪,在适用法律上一律平等。不允许任何人有超越法律的特权。
Article 5 . The severity of punishments must be commensurate with the crime committed by an offender and the criminal responsibility he bears.   第五条 【罪责刑相适应】刑罚的轻重,应当与犯罪分子所犯罪行和承担的刑事责任相适应。
Article 6 . This law is applicable to all who commit crimes within the territory of the PRC except as specially stipulated by law.   第六条 【属地管辖权】凡在中华人民共和国领域内犯罪的,除法律有特别规定的以外,都适用本法。
This law is also applicable to all who commit crimes aboard a ship or aircraft of the PRC. 凡在中华人民共和国船舶或者航空器内犯罪的,也适用本法。
When either the act or consequence of a crime takes place within PRC territory, a crime is deemed to have been committed within PRC territory. 犯罪的行为或者结果有一项发生在中华人民共和国领域内的,就认为是在中华人民共和国领域内犯罪。
Article 7 . This law is applicable to PRC citizens who commit the crimes specified in this law outside the territory of the PRC; but those who commit the crimes carrying a maximum sentence of less than three-year imprisonment as stipulated in this law may be exempt from prosecution.   第七条 【属人管辖权】中华人民共和国公民在中华人民共和国领域外犯本法规定之罪的,适用本法,但是按本法规定的最高刑为三年以下有期徒刑的,可以不予追究。
This law is applicable to PRC state personnel and military personnel who commit the crimes specified in this law outside PRC territory. 中华人民共和国国家工作人员和军人在中华人民共和国领域外犯本法规定之罪的,适用本法。
Article 8 . This law may be applicable to foreigners, who outside PRC territory, commit crimes against the PRC state or against its citizens, provided that this law stipulates a minimum sentence of not less than a three-year fixed term of imprisonment for such crimes; but an exception is to be made if a crime is not punishable according the law of the place where it was committed.   第八条 【保护管辖权】外国人在中华人民共和国领域外对中华人民共和国国家或者公民犯罪,而按本法规定的最低刑为三年以上有期徒刑的,可以适用本法,但是按照犯罪地的法律不受处罚的除外。
Article 9 . This law is applicable to the crimes specified in international treaties to which the PRC is a signatory state or with which it is a member and the PRC exercises criminal jurisdiction over such crimes within its treaty obligations.   第九条 【普遍管辖权】对于中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约所规定的罪行,中华人民共和国在所承担条约义务的范围内行使刑事管辖权的,适用本法。
Article 10 . Any person who commits a crime outside PRC territory and according to this law bear criminal responsibility may still be dealt with according to this law even if he has been tried in a foreign country; however, a person who has already received criminal punishment in a foreign country may be exempted from punishment or given a mitigated punishment.   第十条 【对外国刑事判决的消极承认】凡在中华人民共和国领域外犯罪,依照本法应当负刑事责任的,虽然经过外国审判,仍然可以依照本法追究,但是在外国已经受过刑罚处罚的,可以免除或者减轻处罚。
Article 11 . The problem of criminal responsibility of foreigners who enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunity is to be resolved through diplomatic channels.   第十一条 【外交代表刑事管辖豁免】享有外交特权和豁免权的外国人的刑事责任,通过外交途径解决。
Article 12 . If an act committed after the founding of the PRC and before the implementation of this law was not deemed a crime under the laws at that time, the laws at that time are to be applicable. If the act was deemed a crime under the laws at that time, and if under the provisions of Chapter IV, Section 8 of the general provisions of this law it should be prosecuted, criminal responsibility is to be investigated according to the laws at that time. However, if this law does not deem it a crime or imposes a lesser punishment, this law is to be applicable.   第十二条 【刑法溯及力】中华人民共和国成立以后本法施行以前的行为,如果当时的法律不认为是犯罪的,适用当时的法律;如果当时的法律认为是犯罪的,依照本法总则第四章第八节的规定应当追诉的,按照当时的法律追究刑事责任,但是如果本法不认为是犯罪或者处刑较轻的,适用本法。
The effective judgments that were made according to the laws at that time before the implementation of this law will continue to be in force. 本法施行以前,依照当时的法律已经作出的生效判决,继续有效。
Chapter II Crimes 

第二章 犯罪

Section 1 . Crimes and Criminal Responsibility 

第一节 犯罪和刑事责任

Article 13 . All acts that endanger the sovereignty, territorial integrity, and security of the state; split the state; subvert the political power of the people's democratic dictatorship and overthrow the socialist system; undermine social and economic order; violate property owned by the state or property collectively owned by the laboring masses; violate citizens' privately owned property; infringe upon citizens' rights of the person, democratic rights. and other rights; and other acts that endanger society, are crimes if according to law they should be criminally punished. However, if the circumstances are clearly minor and the harm is not great, they are not to be deemed crimes.   第十三条 【犯罪概念】一切危害国家主权、领土完整和安全,分裂国家、颠覆人民民主专政的政权和推翻社会主义制度,破坏社会秩序和经济秩序,侵犯国有财产或者劳动群众集体所有的财产,侵犯公民私人所有的财产,侵犯公民的人身权利、民主权利和其他权利,以及其他危害社会的行为,依照法律应当受刑罚处罚的,都是犯罪,但是情节显著轻微危害不大的,不认为是犯罪。
Article 14 . An intentional crime is a crime constituted as a result of clear knowledge that one's own act will cause socially dangerous consequences, and of hope for or indifference to the occurrence of those consequences.   第十四条 【故意犯罪】明知自己的行为会发生危害社会的结果,并且希望或者放任这种结果发生,因而构成犯罪的,是故意犯罪。
Criminal responsibility shall be borne for intentional crimes. 故意犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
Article 15 . A negligent crime occurs when one should foresee that one's act may cause socially dangerous consequences but fails to do so because of carelessness or, having foreseen the consequences, readily assumes he can prevent them, with the result that these consequences occur.   第十五条 【过失犯罪】应当预见自己的行为可能发生危害社会的结果,因为疏忽大意而没有预见,或者已经预见而轻信能够避免,以致发生这种结果的,是过失犯罪。
Criminal responsibility is to be borne for negligent crimes only when the law so stipulates. 过失犯罪,法律有规定的才负刑事责任。
Article 16 . Although an act objectively creates harmful consequences, if it does not result from intent or negligence but rather stems from irresistible or unforeseeable causes, it is not a crime.   第十六条 【不可抗力和意外事件】行为在客观上虽然造成了损害结果,但是不是出于故意或者过失,而是由于不能抗拒或者不能预见的原因所引起的,不是犯罪。
Article 17 . Where a person who has attained the age of 16 commits a crime, the person shall assume criminal liability.   第十七条 【刑事责任年龄】已满十六周岁的人犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
Where a person who has attained the age of 14 but under the age of 16 commits a crime of intentional homicide, intentional infliction of bodily harm which has resulted in a serious injury to or death of another person, rape, robbery, drug trafficking, arson, explosion, or adding or releasing hazardous substances, the person shall assume criminal liability. 已满十四周岁不满十六周岁的人,犯故意杀人、故意伤害致人重伤或者死亡、强奸、抢劫、贩卖毒品、放火、爆炸、投放危险物质罪的,应当负刑事责任。
Where a person who has attained the age of 12 but under the age of 14 commits a crime of intentional homicide or intentional infliction of bodily harm, which has resulted in the death of another person or the serious disability of another person for the serious injury inflicted by especially cruel means, and the circumstances are execrable, the person shall assume criminal liability with the Supreme People's Procuratorate's affirmation of prosecution. 已满十二周岁不满十四周岁的人,犯故意杀人、故意伤害罪,致人死亡或者以特别残忍手段致人重伤造成严重残疾,情节恶劣,经最高人民检察院核准追诉的,应当负刑事责任。
A person under the age of 18 who is held criminally liable in accordance with the provisions of the preceding three paragraphs shall be given a lighter or mitigated punishment. 对依照前三款规定追究刑事责任的不满十八周岁的人,应当从轻或者减轻处罚。
Where a person is not given a criminal punishment because he or she has not attained the age of 16, his or her parents or any other guardian shall be ordered to discipline him or her; and when necessary, the person shall be subjected to specialized correctional education in accordance with the law. 因不满十六周岁不予刑事处罚的,责令其父母或者其他监护人加以管教;在必要的时候,依法进行专门矫治教育。
Article 17 (I) :A person attaining the age of 75 may be given a lighter or mitigated penalty if he commits an intentional crime; or shall be given a lighter or mitigated penalty if he commits a negligent crime.   第十七条之一 【刑事责任年龄】已满七十五周岁的人故意犯罪的,可以从轻或者减轻处罚;过失犯罪的,应当从轻或者减轻处罚。
Article 18 . A mentally ill person who causes dangerous consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or unable to control his own conduct is not to bear criminal responsibility after being established through accreditation of legal procedures; but his family or guardian shall be ordered to subject him to strict surveillance and arrange for his medical treatment. When necessary, he will be given compulsory medical treatment by the government.   第十八条 【特殊人员的刑事责任能力】精神病人在不能辨认或者不能控制自己行为的时候造成危害结果,经法定程序鉴定确认的,不负刑事责任,但是应当责令他的家属或者监护人严加看管和医疗;在必要的时候,由政府强制医疗。
A person whose mental illness is of an intermittent nature shall bear criminal responsibility if he commits a crime during a period of mental normality. 间歇性的精神病人在精神正常的时候犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
A mentally ill person who commits a crime at a time when he has not yet completely lost his ability to recognize or control his own conduct shall bear criminal responsibility but he may be given a lesser or a mitigated punishment. 尚未完全丧失辨认或者控制自己行为能力的精神病人犯罪的,应当负刑事责任,但是可以从轻或者减轻处罚。
An intoxicated person who commits a crime shall bear criminal responsibility. 醉酒的人犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
Article 19 . A deaf-mute or a blind person who commits a crime may be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.   第十九条 【又聋又哑的人或盲人犯罪的刑事责任】又聋又哑的人或者盲人犯罪,可以从轻、减轻或者免除处罚。
Article 20 . Criminal responsibility is not to be borne for an act of legitimate defense that is under taken to stop present unlawful infringement of the state's and public interest or the rights of the person, property or other rights of the actor or of other people and that causes harm to the unlawful infringer.   第二十条 【正当防卫】为了使国家、公共利益、本人或者他人的人身、财产和其他权利免受正在进行的不法侵害,而采取的制止不法侵害的行为,对不法侵害人造成损害的,属于正当防卫,不负刑事责任。
Criminal responsibility shall be borne where legitimate defense noticeably exceeds the necessary limits and causes great harm. However, consideration shall be given to imposing a mitigated punishment or to granting exemption from punishment. 正当防卫明显超过必要限度造成重大损害的,应当负刑事责任,但是应当减轻或者免除处罚。
Criminal responsibility is not to be borne for a defensive act undertaken against ongoing physical assault, murder, robbery, rape, kidnap, and other violent crimes that seriously endanger personal safety that causes injury or death to the unlawful infringer since such an act is not an excessive defense. 对正在进行行凶、杀人、抢劫、强奸、绑架以及其他严重危及人身安全的暴力犯罪,采取防卫行为,造成不法侵害人伤亡的,不属于防卫过当,不负刑事责任。
Article 21 . Criminal responsibility is not to be borne for damage resulting from an act of urgent danger prevention that must be undertaken in order to avert the occurrence of present danger to the state or public interest or the rights of the person, property rights, or other rights of the actor or of other people.   第二十一条 【紧急避险】为了使国家、公共利益、本人或者他人的人身、财产和其他权利免受正在发生的危险,不得已采取的紧急避险行为,造成损害的,不负刑事责任。
Criminal responsibility shall be borne where urgent danger prevention exceeds the necessary limits and causes undue harm. However, consideration shall be given according to the circumstances to imposing a mitigated punishment or to granting exemption from punishment. 紧急避险超过必要限度造成不应有的损害的,应当负刑事责任,但是应当减轻或者免除处罚。
The provisions of the first paragraph with respect to preventing danger to oneself do not apply to a person who bears specific responsibility in his post or profession. 第一款中关于避免本人危险的规定,不适用于职务上、业务上负有特定责任的人。
Section 2 . Preparation for a Crime, Criminal Attempt and Discontinuation of a Crime 

第二节 犯罪的预备、未遂和中止

Article 22 . Preparation for a crime is preparation of the instruments or creation of the conditions for the commission of a crime.   第二十二条 【犯罪预备】为了犯罪,准备工具、制造条件的,是犯罪预备。
One who prepares for a crime may, in comparison with one who consummates the crime, be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment. 对于预备犯,可以比照既遂犯从轻、减轻处罚或者免除处罚。
Article 23 . Criminal attempt occurs when a crime has already begun to be carried out but is not consummated because of factors independent of the will of the criminal element.   第二十三条 【犯罪未遂】已经着手实行犯罪,由于犯罪分子意志以外的原因而未得逞的,是犯罪未遂。
One who attempts to commit a crime may, in comparison with one who consummates the crime, be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment. 对于未遂犯,可以比照既遂犯从轻或者减轻处罚。
Article 24 . Discontinuation of a crime occurs when, during the process of committing a crime, the actor voluntarily discontinues the crime or voluntarily and effectively prevents the consequences of the crime from occurring.   第二十四条 【犯罪中止】在犯罪过程中,自动放弃犯罪或者自动有效地防止犯罪结果发生的,是犯罪中止。
One who discontinues a crime shall be exempted from punishment when there is no harm done or be given a mitigated punishment when there is harm done. 对于中止犯,没有造成损害的,应当免除处罚;造成损害的,应当减轻处罚。
Section 3 . Joint Crimes 

第三节 共同犯罪

Article 25 . A joint crime is an intentional crime committed by two or more persons jointly.   第二十五条 【共同犯罪的概念】共同犯罪是指二人以上共同故意犯罪。
A negligent crime committed by two or more persons jointly is not to be punished as a joint crime; those who should bear criminal responsibility are to be punished separately according to the crimes they have committed. 二人以上共同过失犯罪,不以共同犯罪论处;应当负刑事责任的,按照他们所犯的罪分别处罚。
Article 26 . A principal offender is one who organizes and leads a criminal group in conducting criminal activities or plays a principal role in a joint crime.   第二十六条 【主犯】组织、领导犯罪集团进行犯罪活动的或者在共同犯罪中起主要作用的,是主犯。
A crime syndicate is a more or less permanent crime organization composed of three or more persons for the purpose of jointly committing crimes. 三人以上为共同实施犯罪而组成的较为固定的犯罪组织,是犯罪集团。
The head who organizes or leads a crime syndicate shall bear criminal responsibility for all the crimes committed by the syndicate. 对组织、领导犯罪集团的首要分子,按照集团所犯的全部罪行处罚。
A principal offender other that the one stipulated in the third paragraph shall bear criminal responsibility for all the crimes he participated in, organized, or directed. 对于第三款规定以外的主犯,应当按照其所参与的或者组织、指挥的全部犯罪处罚。
Article 27 . An accomplice is one who plays a secondary or supplementary role in a joint crime.   第二十七条 【从犯】在共同犯罪中起次要或者辅助作用的,是从犯。
An accomplice shall, in comparison with a principal offender, be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment. 对于从犯,应当从轻、减轻处罚或者免除处罚。
Article 28 . One who is coerced to participate in a crime shall, according to the circumstances of his crime, be given a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.   第二十八条 【胁从犯】对于被胁迫参加犯罪的,应当按照他的犯罪情节减轻处罚或者免除处罚。
Article 29 . One who instigates others to commit a crime shall be punished according to the role he plays in the joint crime. One who instigates a person under the age of eighteen to commit a crime shall be given a heavier punishment.   第二十九条 【教唆犯】教唆他人犯罪的,应当按照他在共同犯罪中所起的作用处罚。教唆不满十八周岁的人犯罪的,应当从重处罚。
If the instigated person does not commit the instigated crime, the instigator may be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment. 如果被教唆的人没有犯被教唆的罪,对于教唆犯,可以从轻或者减轻处罚。
Section 4 . Crimes Committed by a Unit 

第四节 单位犯罪

Article 30 . A company, enterprise, institution, organization, or group which commits an act endangering society that is considered a crime under the law shall bear criminal responsibility.   第三十条 【单位负刑事责任的范围】公司、企业、事业单位、机关、团体实施的危害社会的行为,法律规定为单位犯罪的,应当负刑事责任。
Article 31 . A unit responsible for a criminal act shall be fined. The person in charge and other personnel who are directly responsible shall also bear criminal responsibility. Where there are other stipulations in the Special Provisions of this Law or other laws, those stipulations shall apply.   第三十一条 【单位犯罪的处罚原则】单位犯罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员判处刑罚。本法分则和其他法律另有规定的,依照规定。
Chapter III Punishments 

第三章 刑罚

Section 1 . Types of Punishments 

第一节 刑罚的种类

Article 32 . Punishments are divided into principal punishments and supplementary punishments.   第三十二条 【主刑和附加刑】刑罚分为主刑和附加刑。
Article 33 . The types of principal punishments are:   第三十三条 【主刑种类】主刑的种类如下:
(1) probation; (一)管制;
(2) limited incarceration; (二)拘役;
(3) fixed-term imprisonment; (三)有期徒刑;
(4) life imprisonment; and (四)无期徒刑;
(5) death penalty. (五)死刑。
Article 34 . The types of supplementary punishments are:   第三十四条 【附加刑种类】附加刑的种类如下:
(1) Fines; (一)罚金;
(2) Deprivation of political rights; and (二)剥夺政治权利;
(3) Confiscation of property. (三)没收财产。
Supplementary punishments may also be applied independently. 附加刑也可以独立适用。
Article 35 . Deportation may be applied in an independent or supplementary manner to a foreigner who commits a crime.   第三十五条 【驱逐出境】对于犯罪的外国人,可以独立适用或者附加适用驱逐出境。
Article 36 . Where the victim has suffered economic loss as a result of a criminal act, the criminal element, in addition to receiving criminal sanctions according to law, shall in accordance with the circumstances be sentenced to make compensation for the economic loss.   第三十六条 【赔偿经济损失与民事优先原则】由于犯罪行为而使被害人遭受经济损失的,对犯罪分子除依法给予刑事处罚外,并应根据情况判处赔偿经济损失。
Where the criminal element bears responsibility for civil compensation and is also imposed a fine, if his property is not enough to pay the compensation and fine in full or if he has also been sentenced to confiscation of property, he shall first pay civil compensation to the victim. 承担民事赔偿责任的犯罪分子,同时被判处罚金,其财产不足以全部支付的,或者被判处没收财产的,应当先承担对被害人的民事赔偿责任。
Article 37 . Where the circumstances of a person's crime are minor and do not require sentencing for punishment, an exemption from criminal sanctions may be granted him, but he may, according to the different circumstances of each case, be reprimanded or ordered to make a statement of repentance or formal apology or make compensation for losses, or be subjected to administrative sanctions by the competent department.   第三十七条 【非刑罚性处置措施】对于犯罪情节轻微不需要判处刑罚的,可以免予刑事处罚,但是可以根据案件的不同情况,予以训诫或者责令具结悔过、赔礼道歉、赔偿损失,或者由主管部门予以行政处罚或者行政处分。
Article 37 (I): Whoever is given a penalty due to a crime committed by taking advantage of his or her profession or a crime committed in violation of the specific obligations required by his or her profession may be prohibited by the people's court from engaging in the relevant profession for three to five years from the date when the penalty ends or the date when the person is released on parole in light of the circumstances of the crime committed and the need for preventing the commission of any other crime.   第三十七条之一 【禁业规定】因利用职业便利实施犯罪,或者实施违背职业要求的特定义务的犯罪被判处刑罚的,人民法院可以根据犯罪情况和预防再犯罪的需要,禁止其自刑罚执行完毕之日或者假释之日起从事相关职业,期限为三年至五年。
Where a person who is prohibited from engaging in the relevant profession violates the decision made by a people's court in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the person shall be given a penalty by the public security authority in accordance with the law and, if the circumstances are serious, be convicted and punished in accordance with the provisions of Article 313 of this Law. 被禁止从事相关职业的人违反人民法院依照前款规定作出的决定的,由公安机关依法给予处罚;情节严重的,依照本法第三百一十三条的规定定罪处罚。
Where there are other prohibitive or restrictive provisions in any other law or administrative regulation on the person's engagement in the relevant profession, such provisions shall prevail. 其他法律、行政法规对其从事相关职业另有禁止或者限制性规定的,从其规定。
Section 2 . Probation 

第二节 管制

Article 38 . The term of probation is not less than three months and not more than two years.   第三十八条 【管制的期限与执行机关】管制的期限,为三个月以上二年以下。
In light of the crime committed, a convict sentenced to probation may also be prohibited from engaging in certain activities, entering certain areas or places or contacting certain persons during the term of execution. 判处管制,可以根据犯罪情况,同时禁止犯罪分子在执行期间从事特定活动,进入特定区域、场所,接触特定的人。
Criminals sentenced to probation shall be subject to community correction. 对判处管制的犯罪分子,依法实行社区矫正。
Whoever violates a restraining order as provided for in paragraph 2 shall be punished in accordance with the Public Security Administrative Punishments Law of the People's Republic of China . 违反第二款规定的禁止令的,由公安机关依照《中华人民共和国治安管理处罚法》的规定处罚。
Article 39 . A criminal element who is sentenced to probation must abide by the following rules during the term in which his probation is being carried out:   第三十九条 【被管制罪犯的义务与权利】被判处管制的犯罪分子,在执行期间,应当遵守下列规定:
(1) abide by laws and administrative regulations, submit himself to supervision; (一)遵守法律、行政法规,服从监督;
(2) shall not exercise the rights to freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession, and of demonstration without the approval of the organ executing the probation; (二)未经执行机关批准,不得行使言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威自由的权利;
(3) report on his own activities pursuant to the rules of the organ executing the probation; (三)按照执行机关规定报告自己的活动情况;
(4) abide by the rules of the organ executing the probation for meeting visitors; (四)遵守执行机关关于会客的规定;
(5) report and obtain approval from the organ executing the probation for a change in residence or departure from the city or county. (五)离开所居住的市、县或者迁居,应当报经执行机关批准。
A criminal element who is sentenced to probation shall, while engaged in labor, receive equal pay for equal work. 对于被判处管制的犯罪分子,在劳动中应当同工同酬。
Article 40 . Upon the expiration of the term of the probation, the organ executing the probation shall announce the termination of probation to the criminal element sentenced to probation and to the masses concerned.   第四十条 【管制期满解除】被判处管制的犯罪分子,管制期满,执行机关应即向本人和其所在单位或者居住地的群众宣布解除管制。
Article 41 . The term of probation is counted as commencing on the date the judgment begins to be executed; where custody has been employed before the judgment begins to be executed, the term is to be shortened by two days for each day spent in custody.   第四十一条 【管制刑期的计算和折抵】管制的刑期,从判决执行之日起计算;判决执行以前先行羁押的,羁押一日折抵刑期二日。
Section 3 . Limited incarceration 

第三节 拘役

Article 42 . The term of limited incarceration is not less a month and not more than six months.   第四十二条 【拘役的期限】拘役的期限,为一个月以上六个月以下。
Article 43 . A criminal element sentenced to limited incarceration is to have his sentence executed by the public security organ in the vicinity.   第四十三条 【拘役的执行】被判处拘役的犯罪分子,由公安机关就近执行。
During the period of execution, a criminal element sentenced to limited incarceration may go home for one or two days each month; consideration may be given according to the circumstances to granting compensation to those who participate in labor. 在执行期间,被判处拘役的犯罪分子每月可以回家一天至两天;参加劳动的,可以酌量发给报酬。
Article 44 . The term of limited incarceration is counted as commencing on the date the judgment begins to be executed; where custody has been employed before the judgment, the term is to be shortened by one day for each day spent in custody.   第四十四条 【拘役刑期的计算和折抵】拘役的刑期,从判决执行之日起计算;判决执行以前先行羁押的,羁押一日折抵刑期一日。
Section 4 . Fixed-Term Imprisonment And Life Imprisonment 

第四节 有期徒刑、无期徒刑

Article 45 . Except as otherwise provided in Articles 50 and 69 of this Law, the term of fixed-term imprisonment is not less than six months and not more than fifteen years.   第四十五条 【有期徒刑的期限】有期徒刑的期限,除本法第五十条、第六十九条规定外,为六个月以上十五年以下。
Article 46 . A criminal element sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment is to have his sentence executed in prison or in another organ executing the sentence; anyone with the ability to labor shall take part in labor, receive education, and undergo reform.   第四十六条 【有期徒刑与无期徒刑的执行】被判处有期徒刑、无期徒刑的犯罪分子,在监狱或者其他执行场所执行;凡有劳动能力的,都应当参加劳动,接受教育和改造。
Article 47 . The term of fixed-term imprisonment is counted as commencing on the date the judgment begins to be executed; where custody has been employed before the judgment begins to be executed, the term is to be shortened by one day for each day spent in custody.   第四十七条 【有期徒刑刑期的计算与折抵】有期徒刑的刑期,从判决执行之日起计算;判决执行以前先行羁押的,羁押一日折抵刑期一日。
Section 5 . Death Penalty 

第五节 死刑

Article 48 . The death penalty is only to be applied to criminal elements who commit the most heinous crimes. In the case of a criminal element who should be sentenced to death, if immediate execution is not essential, a two-year suspension of execution may be announced at the same time the sentence of death is imposed.   第四十八条 【死刑、死缓的适用对象及核准程序】死刑只适用于罪行极其严重的犯罪分子。对于应当判处死刑的犯罪分子,如果不是必须立即执行的,可以判处死刑同时宣告缓期二年执行。
Except for judgments made by the Supreme People's Court according to law, all sentences of death shall be submitted to the Supreme People's Court for approval. Sentences of death with suspension of execution may be decided or approved by a high people's court. 死刑除依法由最高人民法院判决的以外,都应当报请最高人民法院核准。死刑缓期执行的,可以由高级人民法院判决或者核准。
Article 49 . The death penalty is not to be applied to persons who have not reached the age of eighteen at the time the crime is committed or to women who are pregnant at the time of adjudication.   第四十九条 【死刑适用对象的限制】犯罪的时候不满十八周岁的人和审判的时候怀孕的妇女,不适用死刑。
The death penalty shall not be given to a person attaining the age of 75 at the time of trial, unless he has caused the death of another person by especially cruel means. 审判的时候已满七十五周岁的人,不适用死刑,但以特别残忍手段致人死亡的除外。
Article 50 . Where a convict is sentenced to death with a reprieve, if he or she does not commit any intentional crime during the period of reprieve, the sentence shall be commuted to life imprisonment upon expiration of the two-year period; if he or she has any major meritorious performance, the sentence shall be commuted to imprisonment of 25 years upon expiration of the two-year period; if the criminal has committed an intentional crime with execrable circumstances, the death penalty shall be executed with the approval of the Supreme People's Court. If the crime is committed intentionally but the death penalty is not executed, the period of the death penalty with a reprieve shall be recalculated and be reported to the Supreme People's Court for recordation.   第五十条 【死缓变更】判处死刑缓期执行的,在死刑缓期执行期间,如果没有故意犯罪,二年期满以后,减为无期徒刑;如果确有重大立功表现,二年期满以后,减为二十五年有期徒刑;如果故意犯罪,情节恶劣的,报请最高人民法院核准后执行死刑;对于故意犯罪未执行死刑的,死刑缓期执行的期间重新计算,并报最高人民法院备案。
For a recidivist or a convict of murder, rape, robbery, abduction, arson, explosion, dissemination of hazardous substances or organized violence who is sentenced to death with a reprieve, the people's court may, in sentencing, decide to put restrictions on commutation of his sentence in light of the circumstances of the crime committed. 对被判处死刑缓期执行的累犯以及因故意杀人、强奸、抢劫、绑架、放火、爆炸、投放危险物质或者有组织的暴力性犯罪被判处死刑缓期执行的犯罪分子,人民法院根据犯罪情节等情况可以同时决定对其限制减刑。
Article 51 . The term for suspending execution of a sentence of death is counted as commencing on the date the judgment becomes final. The term of a sentence that is reduced from the death penalty with suspension of execution to fixed-term imprisonment is counted as commencing on the date the suspension of execution expires.   第五十一条 【死缓期间及减为有期徒刑的刑期计算】死刑缓期执行的期间,从判决确定之日起计算。死刑缓期执行减为有期徒刑的刑期,从死刑缓期执行期满之日起计算。
Section 6 . Fines 

第六节 罚金

Article 52 . In imposing a fine, the amount of the fine shall be determined according to the circumstances of the crime.   第五十二条 【罚金数额的裁量】判处罚金,应当根据犯罪情节决定罚金数额。
Article 53 . A fine shall be paid in a lump sum or in installments within the period specified in the judgment. The person who fails to pay the fine in full upon the expiration of the period shall be compelled to pay. If the person sentenced is unable to pay the fine in full, the people's court may collect whenever the person is found in possession of executable property.   第五十三条 【罚金的缴纳】罚金在判决指定的期限内一次或者分期缴纳。期满不缴纳的,强制缴纳。对于不能全部缴纳罚金的,人民法院在任何时候发现被执行人有可以执行的财产,应当随时追缴。
Where a person truly has difficulties in paying the fine because he or she due to irresistible calamity or any other reason, the people's court may render a ruling to postpone the payment of the fine, or grant a reduction or even exemption in light of the actual circumstances. 由于遭遇不能抗拒的灾祸等原因缴纳确实有困难的,经人民法院裁定,可以延期缴纳、酌情减少或者免除。
Section 7 . Deprivation of Political Rights 

第七节 剥夺政治权利

Article 54 . Deprivation of political rights is deprivation of the following rights:   第五十四条 【剥夺政治权利的含义】剥夺政治权利是剥夺下列权利:
(1) The right to elect and the right to be elected; (一)选举权和被选举权;
(2) the right to freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession, and of demonstration; (二)言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威自由的权利;
(3) the right to hold a position in state organs; and (三)担任国家机关职务的权利;
(4) the right to hold a leading position in a state-owned company, enterprise, or institution or people's organization. (四)担任国有公司、企业、事业单位和人民团体领导职务的权利。
Article 55 . The term of deprivation of political rights is not less than one year and not more than five years, except as otherwise stipulated in Article 57 of this Law.   第五十五条 【剥夺政治权利的期限】剥夺政治权利的期限,除本法第五十七条规定外,为一年以上五年以下。
In situations where a person is sentenced to probation and to deprivation of political rights as a supplementary punishment, the term of deprivation of political rights is to be the same as the term of probation, and the punishments are to be executed at the same time. 判处管制附加剥夺政治权利的,剥夺政治权利的期限与管制的期限相等,同时执行。
Article 56 . A criminal element endangering state security shall be sentenced to deprivation of political rights as a supplementary punishment; a criminal element guilty of murder, rape, arson, explosion, spreading poison, or robbery who seriously undermines social order may also be sentenced to deprivation of political rights as a supplementary punishment.   第五十六条 【剥夺政治权利的附加、独立适用】对于危害国家安全的犯罪分子应当附加剥夺政治权利;对于故意杀人、强奸、放火、爆炸、投毒、抢劫等严重破坏社会秩序的犯罪分子,可以附加剥夺政治权利。
Where deprivation of political rights is applied independently, stipulations in the Special Provisions of this Law shall be followed. 独立适用剥夺政治权利的,依照本法分则的规定。
Article 57 . A criminal element who is sentenced to death or to life imprisonment shall be deprived of political rights for life.   第五十七条 【对死刑、无期徒刑罪犯剥夺政治权利的适用】对于被判处死刑、无期徒刑的犯罪分子,应当剥夺政治权利终身。
When the death penalty with a suspension of execution is reduced to fixed-term imprisonment, or life imprisonment is reduced to fixed-term imprisonment, the term of the supplementary punishment of deprivation of political rights shall be changed to not less than three years and not more than ten years. 在死刑缓期执行减为有期徒刑或者无期徒刑减为有期徒刑的时候,应当把附加剥夺政治权利的期限改为三年以上十年以下。
Article 58 . The term of the supplementary punishment of deprivation of political rights is counted as commencing on the date that imprisonment or limited incarceration ends or on the date that parole begins; the deprivation of political rights is naturally to be effective during the period in which the principal punishment is being executed.   第五十八条 【剥夺政治权利的刑期计算、效力与执行】附加剥夺政治权利的刑期,从徒刑、拘役执行完毕之日或者从假释之日起计算;剥夺政治权利的效力当然施用于主刑执行期间。
A criminal element who is deprived of political rights shall abide by laws, administrative regulations, and relevant regulations on supervision and administration promulgated by public security departments under the State Council; submit to supervision; and is forbidden from exercising rights stipulated in Article 54 of this Law. 被剥夺政治权利的犯罪分子,在执行期间,应当遵守法律、行政法规和国务院公安部门有关监督管理的规定,服从监督;不得行使本法第五十四条规定的各项权利。
Section 8 . Confiscation of Property 

第八节 没收财产

Article 59 . Confiscation of property is the confiscation of part or all of the property personally owned by the criminal element. Where all of the property personally owned by the criminal element is confiscated, living expenses shall be set aside for the criminal element himself and the dependents he supports.   第五十九条 【没收财产的范围】没收财产是没收犯罪分子个人所有财产的一部或者全部。没收全部财产的,应当对犯罪分子个人及其扶养的家属保留必需的生活费用。
When a sentence of confiscation of property is imposed, property that belongs to or should belong to family members of the criminal element may not be confiscated. 在判处没收财产的时候,不得没收属于犯罪分子家属所有或者应有的财产。
Article 60 . Where it is necessary to use the confiscated property to repay legitimate debts incurred by the criminal element before the property was confiscated, the debts shall be paid at the request of the creditors.   第六十条 【以没收的财产偿还债务】没收财产以前犯罪分子所负的正当债务,需要以没收的财产偿还的,经债权人请求,应当偿还。
Chapter IV The Concrete Application Of Punishments 

第四章 刑罚的具体运用

Section 1 . Sentencing 

第一节 量刑

Article 61 . When deciding the punishment of a criminal element, the sentence shall be imposed on the basis of the facts of the crime, the nature and circumstances of the crime, and the degree of harm to society, in accordance with the relevant stipulations of this law.   第六十一条 【量刑的一般原则】对于犯罪分子决定刑罚的时候,应当根据犯罪的事实、犯罪的性质、情节和对于社会的危害程度,依照本法的有关规定判处。
Article 62 . Where the circumstances of a criminal element are such as to give him a heavier punishment or a lesser punishment under the stipulations of this law, he shall be sentenced to a punishment within the legally prescribed limits of punishment.   第六十二条 【从重处罚与从轻处罚】犯罪分子具有本法规定的从重处罚、从轻处罚情节的,应当在法定刑的限度以内判处刑罚。
Article 63 . Where there is any circumstance of mitigation of penalty, a convict shall be given a penalty below the statutory penalty; and if there are two or more ranges of sentencing under this Law, the penalty shall be given within the range next lower to the statutory range.   第六十三条 【减轻处罚】犯罪分子具有本法规定的减轻处罚情节的,应当在法定刑以下判处刑罚;本法规定有数个量刑幅度的,应当在法定量刑幅度的下一个量刑幅度内判处刑罚。
Although the circumstances of a criminal element do not warrant giving him a mitigated punishment under the stipulations of this law, he too may be sentenced to a punishment below the legally prescribed punishment based on the special situation of the case and with the approval of the Supreme People's Court. 犯罪分子虽然不具有本法规定的减轻处罚情节,但是根据案件的特殊情况,经最高人民法院核准,也可以在法定刑以下判处刑罚。
Article 64 . All articles of property illegally obtained by the criminal element shall be recovered or he shall be ordered to make restitution or pay compensation for them. The legitimate property of the victims shall be promptly returned. Contraband and articles of the criminal's own property used for committing the crime shall be confiscated. Articles of confiscated property and fines shall be handed over to the national treasury and shall not be diverted or otherwise disposed of.   第六十四条 【犯罪物品的处理】犯罪分子违法所得的一切财物,应当予以追缴或者责令退赔;对被害人的合法财产,应当及时返还;违禁品和供犯罪所用的本人财物,应当予以没收。没收的财物和罚金,一律上缴国库,不得挪用和自行处理。
Section 2 . Recidivists 

第二节 累犯

Article 65 . Where a convict sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment or a heavier penalty commits again a crime for which a fixed-term imprisonment or a heavier penalty shall be given within five years after finishing serving his sentence or being pardoned, he shall be a recidivist and be given a heavier penalty, unless it is a negligent crime or he commits the crime under the age of 18.   第六十五条 【一般累犯】被判处有期徒刑以上刑罚的犯罪分子,刑罚执行完毕或者赦免以后,在五年以内再犯应当判处有期徒刑以上刑罚之罪的,是累犯,应当从重处罚,但是过失犯罪和不满十八周岁的人犯罪的除外。
In situations where a criminal element is granted a parole, the period stipulated in the preceding paragraph is to be counted as commencing on the date of expiration of the parole. 前款规定的期限,对于被假释的犯罪分子,从假释期满之日起计算。
Article 66 . A convict of jeopardizing the national security, terrorist activities or organized crime of a gangland nature shall be punished as a recidivist for any of such crimes committed again by him at any time after he finishes serving his sentence or is pardoned.   第六十六条 【特别累犯】危害国家安全犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪、黑社会性质的组织犯罪的犯罪分子,在刑罚执行完毕或者赦免以后,在任何时候再犯上述任一类罪的,都以累犯论处。
Section 3 . Voluntary Surrender and Meritorious Service 

第三节 自首和立功

Article 67 . The act of voluntarily giving oneself up to the police and giving a true account of one's crime after committing it is an act of voluntary surrender. Criminal elements who voluntarily surrender may be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment. Those among them whose crimes are relatively minor may be exempted from punishment.   第六十七条 【自首】犯罪以后自动投案,如实供述自己的罪行的,是自首。对于自首的犯罪分子,可以从轻或者减轻处罚。其中,犯罪较轻的,可以免除处罚。
Where criminal suspects, defendants, and criminals serving sentences give a true account of their other crimes which are not known to the judicial organ, their actions are regarded as an act of voluntary surrender. 被采取强制措施的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人和正在服刑的罪犯,如实供述司法机关还未掌握的本人其他罪行的,以自首论。
A criminal suspect who truthfully confesses to his crime may be given a lighter penalty although there is no voluntary surrender as mentioned in the preceding two paragraphs; and may be given a mitigated penalty if any especially serious consequence is avoided for his truthful confession. 犯罪嫌疑人虽不具有前两款规定的自首情节,但是如实供述自己罪行的,可以从轻处罚;因其如实供述自己罪行,避免特别严重后果发生的,可以减轻处罚。
Article 68 . Criminal elements who perform meritorious service by exposing other people's crimes that can be verified or who provide important clues leading the cracking of other cases may be given a lesser punishment or a mitigated punishment. Those who performed major meritorious service may be given a mitigated punishment or may be exempted from punishment.   第六十八条 【立功】犯罪分子有揭发他人犯罪行为,查证属实的,或者提供重要线索,从而得以侦破其他案件等立功表现的,可以从轻或者减轻处罚;有重大立功表现的,可以减轻或者免除处罚。
Section 4 . Combined Punishment For More Than One Crime 

第四节 数罪并罚

Article 69 . Where a person is convicted of more than one crime before a sentence is pronounced, except for the death penalty or life imprisonment, the term of criminal penalty to be executed shall be decided in light of the actual circumstances below the sum of terms but above the highest term of the imposed criminal penalties; however, the decided term of probation shall not exceed three years, the decided term of limited incarceration shall not exceed one year, and the decided fixed-term imprisonment shall not exceed 20 years if the sum of terms of fixed-term imprisonment is less than 35 years or shall not exceed 25 years if the sum of terms is 35 years or more.   第六十九条 【数罪并罚的一般原则】判决宣告以前一人犯数罪的,除判处死刑和无期徒刑的以外,应当在总和刑期以下、数刑中最高刑期以上,酌情决定执行的刑期,但是管制最高不能超过三年,拘役最高不能超过一年,有期徒刑总和刑期不满三十五年的,最高不能超过二十年,总和刑期在三十五年以上的,最高不能超过二十五年。
If, for the plural crimes, imprisonment and limited incarceration shall be imposed, the imprisonment shall be executed. If imprisonment and surveillance, or limited incarceration and surveillance, shall be imposed for the plural crimes, surveillance shall still be executed after imprisonment or limited incarceration is executed. 数罪中有判处有期徒刑和拘役的,执行有期徒刑。数罪中有判处有期徒刑和管制,或者拘役和管制的,有期徒刑、拘役执行完毕后,管制仍须执行。
If there are accessory penalties imposed for the crimes, the accessory penalties must still be executed. Accessory penalties of the same kind shall be executed on a consolidated basis, while those of different kinds shall be executed separately. 数罪中有判处附加刑的,附加刑仍须执行,其中附加刑种类相同的,合并执行,种类不同的,分别执行。
Article 70 . If, after judgment has been pronounced but before the punishment has been completely executed, it is discovered that, before judgment was pronounced, the sentenced criminal element committed another crime for which he has not been sentenced, a judgment shall be rendered for the newly-discovered crime, and the punishment to be executed for the punishments sentenced in the two, former and latter, judgments decided according to the stipulations of Article 69 of this law. The term that has already been executed shall be counted in the term decided by the new judgment.   第七十条 【判决宣告后发现漏罪的并罚】判决宣告以后,刑罚执行完毕以前,发现被判刑的犯罪分子在判决宣告以前还有其他罪没有判决的,应当对新发现的罪作出判决,把前后两个判决所判处的刑罚,依照本法第六十九条的规定,决定执行的刑罚。已经执行的刑期,应当计算在新判决决定的刑期以内。
Article 71 . If after judgment has been pronounced but before the punishment has been completely executed the sentenced criminal element again commits a crime, a judgment shall be rendered for the newly-committed crime, and the punishment to be executed for the punishment that has not been executed for the former crime and the punishment imposed for the latter crime decided according to the stipulations of Article 69 of this law.   第七十一条 【判决宣告后又犯新罪的并罚】判决宣告以后,刑罚执行完毕以前,被判刑的犯罪分子又犯罪的,应当对新犯的罪作出判决,把前罪没有执行的刑罚和后罪所判处的刑罚,依照本法第六十九条的规定,决定执行的刑罚。
Section 5 . Suspension of Sentence 

第五节 缓刑

Article 72 . Where a convict sentenced to limited incarceration or imprisonment of not more than 3 years meets the following conditions, a probation may be announced, and a probation shall be announced if he is under the age of 18, is pregnant or attains the age of 75:   第七十二条 【适用条件】对于被判处拘役、三年以下有期徒刑的犯罪分子,同时符合下列条件的,可以宣告缓刑,对其中不满十八周岁的人、怀孕的妇女和已满七十五周岁的人,应当宣告缓刑:
(1) The circumstances of the crime are minor; (一)犯罪情节较轻;
(2) He shows repentance; (二)有悔罪表现;
(3) He is not likely to commit any offense again; and (三)没有再犯罪的危险;
(4) Announcing the probation will not have any major adverse impact on the community where he lives. (四)宣告缓刑对所居住社区没有重大不良影响。
When probation is announced, in light of the crime committed, the convict may also be prohibited from engaging in certain activities, entering certain areas or places or contacting certain persons during probation. 宣告缓刑,可以根据犯罪情况,同时禁止犯罪分子在缓刑考验期限内从事特定活动,进入特定区域、场所,接触特定的人。
If there is any accessory penalty imposed on a convict on probation, the accessory penalty must still be executed. 被宣告缓刑的犯罪分子,如果被判处附加刑,附加刑仍须执行。
Article 73 . The probation period for suspension of limited incarceration is to be not less than the term originally decided and not more than one year, but it may not be less than two months.   第七十三条 【考验期限】拘役的缓刑考验期限为原判刑期以上一年以下,但是不能少于二个月。
The probation period for suspension of fixed-term imprisonment is to be not less than the term originally decided and not more than five years, but it may not be less than one year. 有期徒刑的缓刑考验期限为原判刑期以上五年以下,但是不能少于一年。
The probation period for suspension is to be counted as commencing on the date the judgment becomes final. 缓刑考验期限,从判决确定之日起计算。
Article 74 . Probation shall not apply to recidivists and ringleaders of criminal gangs.   第七十四条 【累犯不适用缓刑】对于累犯和犯罪集团的首要分子,不适用缓刑。
Article 75 . A criminal element for whom a suspension of sentence has been pronounced shall observe the following stipulations:   第七十五条 【缓刑犯应遵守的规定】被宣告缓刑的犯罪分子,应当遵守下列规定:
(1) observing the law and administrative statutes and accepting supervision; (一)遵守法律、行政法规,服从监督;
(2) reporting his activities in accordance with the stipulation of the observing organ; (二)按照考察机关的规定报告自己的活动情况;
(3) following the observing organ's stipulation on meeting visitors; (三)遵守考察机关关于会客的规定;
(4) reporting and applying to the observing organ for approval before leaving or moving from the city or county of residence. (四)离开所居住的市、县或者迁居,应当报经考察机关批准。
Article 76 . A convict on probation shall be subject to community correction during probation, and if none of the circumstances as set out in Article 77 of this Law occurs, the original sentence shall no longer be executed upon expiration of probation, which shall be announced to the public.   第七十六条 【缓刑的考验及其积极后果】对宣告缓刑的犯罪分子,在缓刑考验期限内,依法实行社区矫正,如果没有本法第七十七条规定的情形,缓刑考验期满,原判的刑罚就不再执行,并公开予以宣告。
Article 77 . If a criminal element for whom a suspension of sentence has been pronounced commits new crimes during the probation period for suspension or is discovered that, before judgment was pronounced, the sentenced criminal element committed another crime for which he has not been sentenced, the suspension is to be revoked and the punishment to be executed for the punishments imposed for the former and latter crimes is to be decided according to the stipulations of Article 69 of this law.   第七十七条 【缓刑的撤销及其处理】被宣告缓刑的犯罪分子,在缓刑考验期限内犯新罪或者发现判决宣告以前还有其他罪没有判决的,应当撤销缓刑,对新犯的罪或者新发现的罪作出判决,把前罪和后罪所判处的刑罚,依照本法第六十九条的规定,决定执行的刑罚。
Where a convict on probation violates any provision of laws, administrative regulations or the relevant department of the State Council on probation supervision and management or violates any restraining order in the judgment of the people's court during probation, if the circumstances are serious, the probation shall be revoked and the original sentence shall be executed. 被宣告缓刑的犯罪分子,在缓刑考验期限内,违反法律、行政法规或者国务院有关部门关于缓刑的监督管理规定,或者违反人民法院判决中的禁止令,情节严重的,应当撤销缓刑,执行原判刑罚。
Section 6 . Reduction of Sentence 

第六节 减刑

Article 78 . A criminal element who is sentenced to probation, limited incarceration, fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment may have his sentence reduced if, during the period his punishment is being executed, he earnestly observes prison regulations, accepts reform through education, truly repents, or performs meritorious service. The sentence shall be reduced if any of the following meritorious services are performed:   第七十八条 【减刑条件与限度】被判处管制、拘役、有期徒刑、无期徒刑的犯罪分子,在执行期间,如果认真遵守监规,接受教育改造,确有悔改表现的,或者有立功表现的,可以减刑;有下列重大立功表现之一的,应当减刑:
(1) preventing someone from engaging in major criminal activities; (一)阻止他人重大犯罪活动的;
(2) informing on major criminal activities in or outside the prison that can be verified; (二)检举监狱内外重大犯罪活动,经查证属实的;
(3) making inventions or major technological renovations; (三)有发明创造或者重大技术革新的;
(4) risking his life to save others in day-to-day production activities and life; (四)在日常生产、生活中舍己救人的;
(5) performing outstanding service in combating natural disaster or preventing major accidents; (五)在抗御自然灾害或者排除重大事故中,有突出表现的;
(6) making other major contributions to the state or society. (六)对国家和社会有其他重大贡献的。
After commutation, the actually executed term of criminal penalty shall not be: 减刑以后实际执行的刑期不能少于下列期限:
(1) less than 1/2 of the original term of criminal penalty, if probation, limited incarceration or fixed-term imprisonment is imposed; (一)判处管制、拘役、有期徒刑的,不能少于原判刑期的二分之一;
(2) less than 13 years, if life imprisonment is imposed; or (二)判处无期徒刑的,不能少于十三年;
(3) less than 25 years if the death penalty with a reprieve imposed on a convict is legally commuted to life imprisonment upon expiration of the reprieve period, or less than 20 years if it is commuted to imprisonment of 25 years upon expiration of the reprieve period, where the people's court has put restrictions on commutation of the death penalty with a reprieve according to paragraph 2, Article 50 of this Law. (三)人民法院依照本法第五十条第二款规定限制减刑的死刑缓期执行的犯罪分子,缓期执行期满后依法减为无期徒刑的,不能少于二十五年,缓期执行期满后依法减为二十五年有期徒刑的,不能少于二十年。
Article 79 . To receive reductions of sentence for criminal elements, the organ executing the sentence shall submit letters of sentence reduction proposal to the people's court at or above the intermediate level. The people's court shall form a collegial panel to examine the proposals and to issue sentence reduction orders for those who demonstrate true repentance and performed meritorious service.   第七十九条 【减刑程序】对于犯罪分子的减刑,由执行机关向中级以上人民法院提出减刑建议书。人民法院应当组成合议庭进行审理,对确有悔改或者立功事实的,裁定予以减刑。非经法定程序不得减刑。
Article 80 . The term of fixed-term imprisonment that is reduced from life imprisonment is counted as commencing on the date of the order reducing the sentence; no sentence reduction shall be made without due legal process.   第八十条 【无期徒刑减刑的刑期计算】无期徒刑减为有期徒刑的刑期,从裁定减刑之日起计算。
Section 7 . Parole 

第七节 假释

Article 81 . Where a convict sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment has served not less than half of the term of his original sentence, or a convict sentenced to life imprisonment has actually served not less than 13 years of imprisonment, he may be paroled if he earnestly observes the prison rules, accepts reform through education and shows true repentance and is not likely to commit any crime again. Under special circumstances, with the approval of the Supreme People's Court, a parole may be granted without regard to the above restrictions on the term served.   第八十一条 【假释的适用条件】被判处有期徒刑的犯罪分子,执行原判刑期二分之一以上,被判处无期徒刑的犯罪分子,实际执行十三年以上,如果认真遵守监规,接受教育改造,确有悔改表现,没有再犯罪的危险的,可以假释。如果有特殊情况,经最高人民法院核准,可以不受上述执行刑期的限制。
No parole shall be granted to a recidivist or a convict sentenced to imprisonment of not less than 10 years or life imprisonment for murder, rape, robbery, abduction, arson, explosion, dissemination of hazardous substances or organized violent crime. 对累犯以及因故意杀人、强奸、抢劫、绑架、放火、爆炸、投放危险物质或者有组织的暴力性犯罪被判处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑的犯罪分子,不得假释。
When a parole decision is made on a convict, the impact of his release on parole on the community where he lives shall be considered. 对犯罪分子决定假释时,应当考虑其假释后对所居住社区的影响。
Article 82 . The granting of parole to criminal elements shall be carried out in accordance with the procedures stipulated in Article 79 of this law; no parole shall be granted without due legal process.   第八十二条 【假释的程序】对于犯罪分子的假释,依照本法第七十九条规定的程序进行。非经法定程序不得假释。
Article 83 . The probation period for parole in the case of fixed-term imprisonment is the term that has not been completed; the probation period for parole in the case of life imprisonment is 10 years.   第八十三条 【假释的考验期限】有期徒刑的假释考验期限,为没有执行完毕的刑期;无期徒刑的假释考验期限为十年。
The probation period for parole is counted as commencing on the date of parole. 假释考验期限,从假释之日起计算。
Article 84 . Criminal elements granted parole shall observe the following stipulations:   第八十四条 【假释犯应遵守的规定】被宣告假释的犯罪分子,应当遵守下列规定:
(1) observing the law and administrative statutes and accepting supervision; (一)遵守法律、行政法规,服从监督;
(2) reporting his activities in accordance with the stipulation of the supervising organ; (二)按照监督机关的规定报告自己的活动情况;
(3) observing the supervising organ's stipulation on meeting visitors; (三)遵守监督机关关于会客的规定;
(4) reporting and applying to the observing organ for approval before leaving or moving from the city or county of residence. (四)离开所居住的市、县或者迁居,应当报经监督机关批准。
Article 85 . A convict released on parole shall be subject to community correction during parole according to law, and if none of the circumstances as set out in Article 86 of this Law occurs, the original sentence shall be deemed to have been fully served upon expiration of parole, which shall be announced to the public.   第八十五条 【假释考验及其积极后果】对假释的犯罪分子,在假释考验期限内,依法实行社区矫正,如果没有本法第八十六条规定的情形,假释考验期满,就认为原判刑罚已经执行完毕,并公开予以宣告。
Article 86 . If, during the probation period for parole, a criminal element commits any further crime, the parole is to be revoked and the punishment is to be executed for the punishment that has not been executed for the former crime and the punishment imposed for the latter crime decided according to the stipulations of Article 71 of this law.   第八十六条 【假释的撤销及其处理】被假释的犯罪分子,在假释考验期限内犯新罪,应当撤销假释,依照本法第七十一条的规定实行数罪并罚。
If a criminal who is granted parole is discovered to have committed, before the judgment is pronounced, other crimes for which no punishment is imposed, the parole shall be revoked and a combined punishment for several crimes shall be given according to the provisions of Article 70 of this Law. 在假释考验期限内,发现被假释的犯罪分子在判决宣告以前还有其他罪没有判决的,应当撤销假释,依照本法第七十条的规定实行数罪并罚。
Where a convict released on parole violates any provision of laws, administrative regulations or the relevant department of the State Council on parole supervision and management during parole, if it does not constitute a new crime, his parole shall be revoked under statutory procedures, and he shall be taken into custody to serve his remaining term of sentence. 被假释的犯罪分子,在假释考验期限内,有违反法律、行政法规或者国务院有关部门关于假释的监督管理规定的行为,尚未构成新的犯罪的,应当依照法定程序撤销假释,收监执行未执行完毕的刑罚。
Section 8 . Limitation 

第八节 时效

Article 87 . Crimes are not to be prosecuted where the following periods have elapsed:   第八十七条 【追诉时效期限】犯罪经过下列期限不再追诉:
(1) in cases where the maximum legally-prescribed punishment is fixed-term imprisonment of less than five years, where five years have elapsed; (一)法定最高刑为不满五年有期徒刑的,经过五年;
(2) in cases where the maximum legally-prescribed punishment is fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years and less than ten years, where ten years have elapsed. (二)法定最高刑为五年以上不满十年有期徒刑的,经过十年;
(3) in cases where the maximum fixed-term imprisonment is not less than ten years, where fifteen years have elapsed. (三)法定最高刑为十年以上有期徒刑的,经过十五年;
(4) in cases where the maximum legally-prescribed punishment is life-imprisonment or death, where twenty Years have elapsed. If it is considered that a crime must be prosecuted after twenty years, the matter must be submitted to the Supreme People's Procuratorate for approval. (四)法定最高刑为无期徒刑、死刑的,经过二十年。如果二十年以后认为必须追诉的,须报请最高人民检察院核准。
Article 88 . No limitation on the period for prosecution is to be imposed in cases where, after the people's procuratorates, public security organs, or state security organs have filed to investigate or after the people' s courts have decided to hear the cases, the criminal element escapes from investigation or adjudication.   第八十八条 【追诉期限的延长】在人民检察院、公安机关、国家安全机关立案侦查或者在人民法院受理案件以后,逃避侦查或者审判的,不受追诉期限的限制。
No limitation on the period for prosecution is to be imposed in cases where, after the victims filed charges within the period for prosecution, the people' s court, people's procuratorates, or public security organs refused to file for investigation as they should. 被害人在追诉期限内提出控告,人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关应当立案而不予立案的,不受追诉期限的限制。
Article 89 . The period for prosecution is counted as commencing on the date of the crime; if the criminal act is of a continuous or continuing nature, it is counted as commencing on the date the criminal act is completed.   第八十九条 【追诉期限的计算与中断】追诉期限从犯罪之日起计算;犯罪行为有连续或者继续状态的,从犯罪行为终了之日起计算。
If any further crime is committed during the period for prosecution, the period for prosecution of the former crime is counted as commencing on the date of the latter crime. 在追诉期限以内又犯罪的,前罪追诉的期限从犯后罪之日起计算。
Chapter V Other Provisions 

第五章 其他规定

Article 90 . In situations where the autonomous areas inhabited by ethnic groups cannot completely apply the stipulations of this law, the people's congresses of the autonomous regions or of the provinces may formulate alternative or supplementary provisions based upon the political, economic, and cultural characteristics of the local ethnic groups and the basic principles of the stipulations of this law, and these provisions shall go into effect after they have been submitted to and approved by the National People's Congress Standing Committee.   第九十条 【民族自治地方刑法适用的变通】民族自治地方不能全部适用本法规定的,可以由自治区或者省的人民代表大会根据当地民族的政治、经济、文化的特点和本法规定的基本原则,制定变通或者补充的规定,报请全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准施行。
Article 91 . The term "public property" in this law refers to the following property:   第九十一条 【公共财产的范围】本法所称公共财产,是指下列财产:
(1) property owned by the state; (一)国有财产;
(2) property owned collectively by the laboring masses; (二)劳动群众集体所有的财产;
(3) public donations to be used for aiding the poor and other public services, or property of special funds. (三)用于扶贫和其他公益事业的社会捐助或者专项基金的财产。
Private property that is being managed, used or transported by state organs, state-owned corporations, enterprises, collective enterprises, and people's organizations is to be treated as public property. 在国家机关、国有公司、企业、集体企业和人民团体管理、使用或者运输中的私人财产,以公共财产论。
Article 92 . The term "citizens' private property" in this law refers to the following property:   第九十二条 【公民私人所有财产的范围】本法所称公民私人所有的财产,是指下列财产:
(1) citizens' lawful income, savings, houses and other means of livelihood; (一)公民的合法收入、储蓄、房屋和其他生活资料;
(2) means of production that are under individual or family ownership according to law; (二)依法归个人、家庭所有的生产资料;
(3) lawful property of independent businesses and private enterprises; (三)个体户和私营企业的合法财产;
(4) shares, stocks, securities and other property that are under individual ownership according to law. (四)依法归个人所有的股份、股票、债券和其他财产。
Article 93 . The term "state personnel" in this law refers to all personnel of state organs.   第九十三条 【国家工作人员的范围】本法所称国家工作人员,是指国家机关中从事公务的人员。
Personnel engaged in public service in state-owned corporations, enterprises, institutions, and people's organizations; and personnel which state organs, state-owned corporations, enterprises, and institutions assign to engage in public service in non state-owned corporations, enterprises, institutions, and social organizations; as well as other working personnel engaged in public service according to the law, are to be treated as state personnel. 国有公司、企业、事业单位、人民团体中从事公务的人员和国家机关、国有公司、企业、事业单位委派到非国有公司、企业、事业单位、社会团体从事公务的人员,以及其他依照法律从事公务的人员,以国家工作人员论。
Article 94 . The term "judicial personnel" in this law refers to personnel engaged in the functions of investigating, prosecuting, adjudicating, supervising and controlling offenders.   第九十四条 【司法工作人员的范围】本法所称司法工作人员,是指有侦查、检察、审判、监管职责的工作人员。
Article 95 . The term "serious injury" in this law refers to any one of the following injuries:   第九十五条 【重伤】本法所称重伤,是指有下列情形之一的伤害:
(1) injuries resulting in loss of the use of a person's limbs or disfigurement; (一)使人肢体残废或者毁人容貌的;
(2) injuries resulting in loss of the use of a person's hearing, sight, or functions of any other organ; or (二)使人丧失听觉、视觉或者其他器官机能的;
(3) other injuries that cause grave harm to a person's physical health. (三)其他对于人身健康有重大伤害的。
Article 96 . The phrase "violating state stipulations" in this law refers to violation of laws and decisions formulated by the National People's Congress or the National People's Congress Standing Committee; and administrative measures prescribed in administrative ordinance and regulations formulated by the State Council; as well as decisions and decrees the State Council promulgated.   第九十六条 【违反国家规定之含义】本法所称违反国家规定,是指违反全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会制定的法律和决定,国务院制定的行政法规、规定的行政措施、发布的决定和命令。
Article 97 . The term "ringleader" in this law refers to a criminal element who plays the role of organizing, planning or directing a criminal group or a crowd assembled to commit a crime.   第九十七条 【首要分子的范围】本法所称首要分子,是指在犯罪集团或者聚众犯罪中起组织、策划、指挥作用的犯罪分子。
Article 98 . The phrase "To be handled only upon complaint" in this law refers to handling a case only when the victim files a complaint. If the victim is unable to file a complaint because of coercion or intimidation, a people's procuratorate and the victim's close relatives may also file the complaint.   第九十八条 【告诉才处理的含义】本法所称告诉才处理,是指被害人告诉才处理。如果被害人因受强制、威吓无法告诉的,人民检察院和被害人的近亲属也可以告诉。
Article 99 . Such phrases as "not less than," "not more than" and "within" in this law all include the given figure.   第九十九条 【以上、以下、以内之界定】本法所称以上、以下、以内,包括本数。
Article 100 . When people join the military, or seek employment, those who received criminal punishments according to law shall factually report to the relevant units the punishments they had received and may not conceal them.   第一百条 【前科报告制度】依法受过刑事处罚的人,在入伍、就业的时候,应当如实向有关单位报告自己曾受过刑事处罚,不得隐瞒。
Whoever is given a penalty lighter than imprisonment of 5 years for a crime committed under the age of 18 shall be exempted from the reporting obligation as mentioned in the preceding paragraph. 犯罪的时候不满十八周岁被判处五年有期徒刑以下刑罚的人,免除前款规定的报告义务。
Article 101 . The General Provisions of this law are applicable to other laws and decrees with stipulations for criminal punishments, but other laws having special stipulations are exceptions.   第一百零一条 【总则的效力】本法总则适用于其他有刑罚规定的法律,但是其他法律有特别规定的除外。
Part II Special Provisions 

第二编 分则

Chapter I Crimes of Endangering National Security 

第一章 危害国家安全罪

Article 102 . Whoever colludes with foreign states in plotting to harm the motherland's sovereignty, territorial integrity and security is to be sentenced to life imprisonment or not less than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment.   第一百零二条 【背叛国家罪】勾结外国,危害中华人民共和国的主权、领土完整和安全的,处无期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑。
Whoever commits the crimes in the preceding paragraph in collusion with institutions, organization, or individuals outside the country shall be punished according to the stipulations in the preceding paragraph. 与境外机构、组织、个人相勾结,犯前款罪的,依照前款的规定处罚。
Article 103 . Whoever organizes, plots, or acts to split the country or undermine national unification, the ringleader, or the one whose crime is grave, is to be sentenced to life imprisonment or not less than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment; other active participants are to be sentenced to not less than three but not more than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment; and other participants are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, limited incarceration, probation, or deprivation of political rights.   第一百零三条 【分裂国家罪】组织、策划、实施分裂国家、破坏国家统一的,对首要分子或者罪行重大的,处无期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑;对积极参加的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;对其他参加的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利。
Whoever instigates to split the country and undermine national unification is to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment, limited incarceration, probation, or deprivation of political rights; ringleaders or those whose crimes are grave are to be sentenced to not less than five years of fixed-term imprisonment. 【煽动分裂国家罪】煽动分裂国家、破坏国家统一的,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利;首要分子或者罪行重大的,处五年以上有期徒刑。
Article 104 . Whoever organizes, plots, or carries out armed rebellion, or armed riots, the ringleaders, or those who crimes are grave, are to be sentenced to life imprisonment, or not less than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment; the active participants are to be sentenced from not less than three to not more than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment; and other participants are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, limited incarceration, probation, or deprivation of political rights.   第一百零四条 【武装叛乱、暴乱罪】组织、策划、实施武装叛乱或者武装暴乱的,对首要分子或者罪行重大的,处无期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑;对积极参加的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;对其他参加的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利。
Whoever instigates, coerces, lures, and bribes state personnel, members of the armed forces, people's police or people's militia to carry out armed rebellion or armed riot are to be heavily punished according to the stipulations in the preceding paragraph. 策动、胁迫、勾引、收买国家机关工作人员、武装部队人员、人民警察、民兵进行武装叛乱或者武装暴乱的,依照前款的规定从重处罚。
Article 105 . Whoever organizes, plots, or acts to subvert the political power of the state and overthrow the socialist system, the ringleaders or those whose crimes are grave are to be sentenced to life imprisonment, or not less than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment; active participants are to be sentenced from not less than three years to not more than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment; other participants are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, limited incarceration, probation, or deprivation of political rights.   第一百零五条 【颠覆国家政权罪】组织、策划、实施颠覆国家政权、推翻社会主义制度的,对首要分子或者罪行重大的,处无期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑;对积极参加的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;对其他参加的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利。
Whoever instigates the subversion of the political power of the state and overthrow the socialist system through spreading rumors, slandering, or other ways are to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment, limited incarceration, probation, or deprivation of political rights; the ringleaders and those whose crimes are grave are to be sentenced to not less than five years of fixed-term imprisonment. 【煽动颠覆国家政权罪】以造谣、诽谤或者其他方式煽动颠覆国家政权、推翻社会主义制度的,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利;首要分子或者罪行重大的,处五年以上有期徒刑。
Article 106 . Whoever colludes with institutions, organizations, or individuals outside the country and commits crimes stipulated in Articles 103, 104, and 105 of this chapter are to be heavily punished according to the stipulations in the articles.   第一百零六条 【与境外勾结的处罚规定】与境外机构、组织、个人相勾结,实施本章第一百零三条、第一百零四条、第一百零五条规定之罪的,依照各该条的规定从重处罚。
Article 107 . Where any domestic or overseas institution, organization or individual provides financial support for the commission of a crime as provided for in Article 102, 103, 104 or 105 of this Chapter, the directly liable person shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than 5 years, limited incarceration, probation or deprivation of political rights; or if the circumstances are serious, be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than 5 years.   第一百零七条 【资助危害国家安全犯罪活动罪】境内外机构、组织或者个人资助实施本章第一百零二条、第一百零三条、第一百零四条、第一百零五条规定之罪的,对直接责任人员,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利;情节严重的,处五年以上有期徒刑。
Article 108 . Whoever defects to the enemy and turns traitor is to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment; when the circumstances are serious or when it is a case of leading a group of armed personnel, people's police, or militia to defect to the enemy and turn traitor, the sentence is to be not less than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment.   第一百零八条 【投敌叛变罪】投敌叛变的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情节严重或者带领武装部队人员、人民警察、民兵投敌叛变的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑。
Article 109 . A state functionary who, in the course of performing his official duties, leaves his post without permission and flees this country or flees when he is already outside this country shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than 5 years, limited incarceration, probation or deprivation of political rights; or if the circumstances are serious, be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than 5 years but not more than 10 years.   第一百零九条 【叛逃罪】国家机关工作人员在履行公务期间,擅离岗位,叛逃境外或者在境外叛逃的,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利;情节严重的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑。
A state functionary knowing any national secret, who flees this country or flees when he is already outside this country, shall be given a heavier penalty according to the provision of the preceding paragraph. 掌握国家秘密的国家工作人员叛逃境外或者在境外叛逃的,依照前款的规定从重处罚。
Article 110 . Whoever commits any of the following acts of espionage and endangers national security is to be sentenced to not less than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment; when the circumstances are relatively minor, the sentence is to be not less than three years and not more than ten years of fixed-termed imprisonment:   第一百一十条 【间谍罪】有下列间谍行为之一,危害国家安全的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑;情节较轻的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑:
(1) Joining an espionage organization or accepting a mission assigned by it or its agent; or (一)参加间谍组织或者接受间谍组织及其代理人的任务的;
(2) Pointing out bombing or shelling targets to the enemy. (二)为敌人指示轰击目标的。
Article 111 . Whoever steals, secretly gathers, purchases, or illegally provides state secrets or intelligence for an organization, institution, or personnel outside the country is to be sentenced from not less than five years to not more than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment; when circumstances are particularly serious, he is to be sentenced to not less than 10 years of fixed- term imprisonment, or life sentence; and when circumstances are relatively minor, he is to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment, limited incarceration, probation, or deprivation of political rights.   第一百一十一条 【为境外窃取、刺探、收买、非法提供国家秘密、情报罪】为境外的机构、组织、人员窃取、刺探、收买、非法提供国家秘密或者情报的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情节特别严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑;情节较轻的,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利。
Article 112 . Whoever supplies arms and ammunition or other military materials to an enemy during war time is to be sentence to not less than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment; and when the circumstances are relatively minor, he will be sentenced a fixed-term imprisonment from not less than three years to not more than 10 years.   第一百一十二条 【资敌罪】战时供给敌人武器装备、军用物资资敌的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑;情节较轻的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑。
Article 113 . When one commits the aforementioned crimes in this chapter that endanger national security -- except those stipulated in the second clause of Article 103, and Articles 105, 107 and 109 -- and has incurred particularly serious harms to the country and the people, and the circumstances are particularly vile, he may be sentenced to death.   第一百一十三条 【危害国家安全罪适用死刑、没收财产的规定】本章上述危害国家安全罪行中,除第一百零三条第二款、第一百零五条、第一百零七条、第一百零九条外,对国家和人民危害特别严重、情节特别恶劣的,可以判处死刑。
Whoever commits the crimes in this chapter may also be punished by having his property confiscated. 犯本章之罪的,可以并处没收财产。
Chapter II Crimes of Endangering Public Security 

第二章 危害公共安全罪

Article 114 . Whoever commits arson, breaches dikes, causes explosions, spreads pathogen of infectious diseases, poisonous or radioactive substances or other substances, or uses other dangerous means to endanger public security, but causes no serious consequences, shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of no less than three years but no more than ten years.   第一百一十四条 【放火罪】【决水罪】【爆炸罪】【投放危险物质罪】【以危险方法危害公共安全罪】放火、决水、爆炸以及投放毒害性、放射性、传染病病原体等物质或者以其他危险方法危害公共安全,尚未造成严重后果的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑。
Article 115 . Whoever commits arson, breaches dikes, causes explosions, spreads pathogens of infectious diseases, poisonous or radioactive substances or other substances, or uses other dangerous means to have inflicted any serious injury or death on people or caused heavy losses of public or private property, shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of no less than ten years, life imprisonment or death.   第一百一十五条 【放火罪】【决水罪】【爆炸罪】【投放危险物质罪】【以危险方法危害公共安全罪】放火、决水、爆炸以及投放毒害性、放射性、传染病病原体等物质或者以其他危险方法致人重伤、死亡或者使公私财产遭受重大损失的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑。
Whoever commits the crimes in the preceding paragraph negligently is to be sentenced to not less than three years to not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment; or not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, or limited incarceration, when circumstances are relatively minor. 【失火罪】【过失决水罪】【过失爆炸罪】【过失投放危险物质罪】【过失以危险方法危害公共安全罪】过失犯前款罪的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑;情节较轻的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役。
Article 116 . Whoever sabotages trains, motor vehicles, streetcars, ships, or airplanes in a manner sufficient to threaten the overturning or destruction of these trains, motor vehicles, streetcars, ships, or airplanes is to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment, in cases when serious consequences have not been caused.   第一百一十六条 【破坏交通工具罪】破坏火车、汽车、电车、船只、航空器,足以使火车、汽车、电车、船只、航空器发生倾覆、毁坏危险,尚未造成严重后果的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑。
Article 117 . Whoever sabotages railroads, bridges, tunnels, highways, airports, waterways, lighthouses or signs, or conducts other destructive activities in a manner sufficient to threaten the overturning or destruction of trains, motor vehicles, streets, ships or airplanes, is to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment in cases where serious consequences have not been caused.   第一百一十七条 【破坏交通设施罪】破坏轨道、桥梁、隧道、公路、机场、航道、灯塔、标志或者进行其他破坏活动,足以使火车、汽车、电车、船只、航空器发生倾覆、毁坏危险,尚未造成严重后果的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑。
Article 118 . Whoever endangers public security by sabotaging electric power, gas or other combustible or explosive equipment is to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment in cases where serious consequences have not been caused.   第一百一十八条 【破坏电力设备罪】【破坏易燃易爆设备罪】破坏电力、燃气或者其他易燃易爆设备,危害公共安全,尚未造成严重后果的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑。
Article 119 . Whoever causes serious consequences by sabotaging means of transportation, transportation equipment, electric power or gas equipment, or combustible or explosive equipment is to be sentenced to not less than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment, life imprisonment, or death.   第一百一十九条 【破坏交通工具罪】【破坏交通设施罪】【破坏电力设备罪】【破坏易燃易爆设备罪】破坏交通工具、交通设施、电力设备、燃气设备、易燃易爆设备,造成严重后果的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑。
Whoever commits the crime in the preceding paragraph negligently is to be sentenced to not less than three years but not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment; or not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, or limited incarceration if circumstances are relatively minor. 【过失损坏交通工具罪】【过失损坏交通设施罪】【过失损坏电力设备罪】【过失损坏易燃易爆设备罪】过失犯前款罪的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑;情节较轻的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役。
Article 120 . Whoever organizes or leads a terrorist organization shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than ten years or life imprisonment and a forfeiture of property; whoever actively participates in a terrorist organization shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than ten years in addition to a fine; and other participants shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than three years, limited incarceration, surveillance or deprivation of political rights and may be fined in addition.   第一百二十条 【组织、领导、参加恐怖组织罪】组织、领导恐怖活动组织的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处没收财产;积极参加的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金;其他参加的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利,可以并处罚金。
Whoever commits the crime as provided for in the preceding paragraph and also commits murder, explosion, kidnapping or any other crime shall be punished according to the provisions on the joinder of penalties for plural crimes. 犯前款罪并实施杀人、爆炸、绑架等犯罪的,依照数罪并罚的规定处罚。
Article 120 (I): Any individual who provides financial support to a terrorist organization or conducts terrorist activities, or provides training on terrorist activities shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than five years, limited incarceration, surveillance or deprivation of political rights in addition to a fine; or if the circumstances are serious, be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than five years in addition to a fine or forfeiture of property.   第一百二十条之一 【帮助恐怖活动罪】资助恐怖活动组织、实施恐怖活动的个人的,或者资助恐怖活动培训的,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利,并处罚金;情节严重的,处五年以上有期徒刑,并处罚金或者没收财产。
Whoever knowingly recruits, trains or transports any member workforce for any terrorist organization, for conducting any terrorist activities or for any terrorist activities shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph. 为恐怖活动组织、实施恐怖活动或者恐怖活动培训招募、运送人员的,依照前款的规定处罚。
Where an entity commits a crime as provided for in the preceding two paragraphs, a fine shall be imposed on the entity, and the directly responsible person in charge and other directly liable persons shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1. 单位犯前两款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照第一款的规定处罚。
Article 120 (II): Whoever falls under any of the following circumstances shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than five years, limited incarceration, surveillance or deprivation of political rights in addition to a fine; or be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than five years in addition to a fine or forfeiture of property if the circumstances are serious.   第一百二十条之二 【准备实施恐怖活动罪】有下列情形之一的,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利,并处罚金;情节严重的,处五年以上有期徒刑,并处罚金或者没收财产:
(1) Preparing lethal weapons, hazardous articles or other tools for conducting terrorist activities. (一)为实施恐怖活动准备凶器、危险物品或者其他工具的;
(2) Organizing training on terrorist activities or actively participating in training on terrorist activities. (二)组织恐怖活动培训或者积极参加恐怖活动培训的;
(3) Contacting any overseas terrorist organization or person for the purpose of conducting terrorist activities. (三)为实施恐怖活动与境外恐怖活动组织或者人员联络的;
(4) Making a plan or any other preparation for conducting terrorist activities. (四)为实施恐怖活动进行策划或者其他准备的。
Whoever commits any other crime while committing a crime as provided for in the preceding paragraph shall be convicted and punished according to the provisions on the crime with the heavier penalty. 有前款行为,同时构成其他犯罪的,依照处罚较重的规定定罪处罚。
Article 120 (III) : Whoever advocates terrorism or extremism or instigates terrorist activities by way of preparing or distributing any book, audio or video materials or any other article advocating terrorism or extremism or by instructing or issuing information shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than five years, limited incarceration, surveillance or deprivation of political rights in addition to a fine; or if the circumstances are serious, be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than five years in addition to a fine or forfeiture of property.   第一百二十条之三 【宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义、煽动实施恐怖活动罪】以制作、散发宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义的图书、音频视频资料或者其他物品,或者通过讲授、发布信息等方式宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义的,或者煽动实施恐怖活动的,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利,并处罚金;情节严重的,处五年以上有期徒刑,并处罚金或者没收财产。
Article 120 (IV): Whoever, by using extremism, instigates or coerces the public to sabotage the implementation of the marriage, judicial, education, social management or any other system determined in national laws shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than three years, limited incarceration or surveillance in addition to a fine; be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than seven years in addition to a fine if the circumstances are serious; or be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than seven years in addition to a fine or forfeiture of property if the circumstances are especially serious.   第一百二十条之四 【利用极端主义破坏法律实施罪】利用极端主义煽动、胁迫群众破坏国家法律确立的婚姻、司法、教育、社会管理等制度实施的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,并处罚金;情节严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金;情节特别严重的,处七年以上有期徒刑,并处罚金或者没收财产。
Article 120 (V): Whoever forces anyone else to wear the costume or symbol that advocates terrorism or extremism in a public place by means of violence or coercion, etc. shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than three years, limited incarceration or surveillance in addition to a fine.   第一百二十条之五 【强制穿戴宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义服饰、标志罪】以暴力、胁迫等方式强制他人在公共场所穿着、佩戴宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义服饰、标志的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,并处罚金。
Article 120 (VI): Whoever illegally holds any book, audio or video materials or any other article while obviously aware that it advocates terrorism or extremism shall, if the circumstances are serious, be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than three years, limited incarceration or surveillance in addition to a fine, or be sentenced to a fine only.   第一百二十条之六 【非法持有宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义物品罪】明知是宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义的图书、音频视频资料或者其他物品而非法持有,情节严重的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,并处或者单处罚金。
Article 121 . Whoever hijacks an airplane through violence, coercion, or other means is to be sentenced to not less than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment; or death if the hijacking causes serious injuries, death, or serious destruction of the airplane.   第一百二十一条 【劫持航空器罪】以暴力、胁迫或者其他方法劫持航空器的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑;致人重伤、死亡或者使航空器遭受严重破坏的,处死刑。
Article 122 . Whoever hijacks a ship or motor vehicle through violence, coercion, or other means is to be sentenced to not less than five years but not more than 10 years of fixed-termed imprisonment; or not less than 10 years of fixed-term imprisonment, of life imprisonment, if the hijacking causes serious consequences.   第一百二十二条 【劫持船只、汽车罪】以暴力、胁迫或者其他方法劫持船只、汽车的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑;造成严重后果的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑。
Article 123 . Whoever uses violence on personnel on an in-flight airplane and endangers flying safety is to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-termed imprisonment or limited incarceration in case no serious consequences have been caused; or not less than five years of fixed-term imprisonment if serious consequences have been caused.   第一百二十三条 【暴力危及飞行安全罪】对飞行中的航空器上的人员使用暴力,危及飞行安全,尚未造成严重后果的,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;造成严重后果的,处五年以上有期徒刑。
Article 124 . Whoever sabotages radio and television broadcasting facilities, public telecommunications facilities, and endangers public safety is to be sentenced to not less than three years but not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment; or not less than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment if serious consequences have been caused.   第一百二十四条 【破坏广播电视设施、公用电信设施罪】破坏广播电视设施、公用电信设施,危害公共安全的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑;造成严重后果的,处七年以上有期徒刑。
Whoever commits the crime in the preceding paragraph negligently is to be sentenced to not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment; or not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or limited incarceration in case the circumstances are relatively minor. 【过失损坏广播电视设施、公用电信设施罪】过失犯前款罪的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑;情节较轻的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役。
Article 125 . Whoever illegally manufactures, trades, transports, mails, or stocks up guns, ammunition, or explosives is to be sentenced to not less than three years but not more than 10 years of fixed-termed imprisonment; or not less than 10 years of imprisonment, life imprisonment, or death if the consequences are serious.   第一百二十五条 【非法制造、买卖、运输、邮寄、储存枪支、弹药、爆炸物罪】非法制造、买卖、运输、邮寄、储存枪支、弹药、爆炸物的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情节严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑。
Whoever illegally manufactures, trades, transports or stores pathogens of infectious diseases, poisonous or radioactive substances or other substances, thereby endangering public security, shall be punished in accordance with the provisions in the preceding paragraph. 【非法制造、买卖、运输、储存危险物质罪】非法制造、买卖、运输、储存毒害性、放射性、传染病病原体等物质,危害公共安全的,依照前款的规定处罚。
If a unit commits the crime in the preceding two paragraphs, the unit will be fined, and its direct person in charge and other persons in charge are to be punished according to the regulations in the first paragraph. 单位犯前两款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照第一款的规定处罚。
Article 126 . Any enterprises which are legally designated or determined to manufacture or sell guns, violate the regulations governing gun management by performing one of the following acts, the units are to be fined and personnel who are in charge and directly responsible together with other personnel who are directly responsible are to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment; when the consequences are serious, to not less than five years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment ; when the consequences are particularly serious, to not less than 10 years of fixed- term imprisonment or life imprisonment:   第一百二十六条 【违规制造、销售枪支罪】依法被指定、确定的枪支制造企业、销售企业,违反枪支管理规定,有下列行为之一的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,处五年以下有期徒刑;情节严重的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情节特别严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑:
(1) for the purpose of illegal sale, manufacture or allocation guns whose numbers exceed quotas or whose varieties do not meet the regulations; (一)以非法销售为目的,超过限额或者不按照规定的品种制造、配售枪支的;
(2) for the purpose of illegal sale, manufacture guns without a number, or with an overlapped number, or with a fake number; (二)以非法销售为目的,制造无号、重号、假号的枪支的;
(3) illegally sell guns or sell guns manufactured for export inside the territory . (三)非法销售枪支或者在境内销售为出口制造的枪支的。
Article 127 . Whoever steals or forcibly seizes any gun, ammunition or explosive, or steals or forcibly seizes pathogens of infectious diseases, poisonous or radioactive substances or other substances, thereby endangering public security, shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of no less than three years but no more than ten years; if the circumstances are serious, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of no less than ten years, life imprisonment or death.   第一百二十七条 【盗窃、抢夺枪支、弹药、爆炸物、危险物质罪】盗窃、抢夺枪支、弹药、爆炸物的,或者盗窃、抢夺毒害性、放射性、传染病病原体等物质,危害公共安全的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情节严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑。
Whoever robs any gun, ammunition or explosive, or robs pathogens of infectious diseases, poisonous or radioactive substances or other substances, thereby endangering public security, or steals or forcibly seizes any gun, ammunition or explosive from State organs, members of the armed forces, the police or the people's militia, shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of no less than ten years, life imprisonment or death. 【抢劫枪支、弹药、爆炸物、危险物质罪】【盗窃、抢夺枪支、弹药、爆炸物、危险物质罪】抢劫枪支、弹药、爆炸物的,或者抢劫毒害性、放射性、传染病病原体等物质,危害公共安全的,或者盗窃、抢夺国家机关、军警人员、民兵的枪支、弹药、爆炸物的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑。
Article 128 . Whoever violates the regulations governing gun management by owning or unlawfully possessing, guns and ammunition is to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, limited incarceration, or probation; when the circumstances are serious, to not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.   第一百二十八条 【非法持有、私藏枪支、弹药罪】违反枪支管理规定,非法持有、私藏枪支、弹药的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制;情节严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Any personnel who are provided with official-use guns who illegally lease or lend the guns are to be punished in accordance with the previous paragraph. 【非法出租、出借枪支罪】依法配备公务用枪的人员,非法出租、出借枪支的,依照前款的规定处罚。
Any personnel who are provided with official-use guns who illegally lease or lend the guns, thereby causing serious consequences are to be punished in accordance with the first paragraph. 【非法出租、出借枪支罪】依法配置枪支的人员,非法出租、出借枪支,造成严重后果的,依照第一款的规定处罚。
Any units committing such crimes as stated in the second and third paragraph, are to be fined and personnel who are in charge and directly responsible are to be punished in accordance with the regulation of the first paragraph. 单位犯第二款、第三款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照第一款的规定处罚。
Article 129 . Any personnel who are provided with official-use guns who lose the guns without reporting the loss in a timely fashion, thereby causing serious consequences are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or limited incarceration.   第一百二十九条 【丢失枪支不报罪】依法配备公务用枪的人员,丢失枪支不及时报告,造成严重后果的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役。
Article 130 . Whoever illegally carries guns, ammunition, controlled knives and tools, articles of an explosive, combustible, radioactive, poisonous or corrosive nature into a public place or public transportation vehicle, thereby endangering public safety, is to be sentenced, when the circumstances are serious, to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment, limited incarceration, or probation when the circumstances are serious.   第一百三十条 【非法携带枪支、弹药、管制刀具、危险物品危及公共安全罪】非法携带枪支、弹药、管制刀具或者爆炸性、易燃性、放射性、毒害性、腐蚀性物品,进入公共场所或者公共交通工具,危及公共安全,情节严重的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制。
Article 131 . Any aviation personnel who violate the rules and regulations thereby causing major air accidents and serious consequences are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or limited incarceration; when causing the crash of an airplane or the death of personnel are to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.   第一百三十一条 【重大飞行事故罪】航空人员违反规章制度,致使发生重大飞行事故,造成严重后果的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;造成飞机坠毁或者人员死亡的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Article 132 . Any railway staff and workers who violate the rules and regulations thereby giving rise to accidents affecting the safety of railway operation are to be sentenced to not less than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or limited incarceration; when the consequences are particularly serious, to not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.   第一百三十二条 【铁路运营安全事故罪】铁路职工违反规章制度,致使发生铁路运营安全事故,造成严重后果的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;造成特别严重后果的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Article 133 . Whoever violates traffic and transportation laws and regulations thereby giving rise to major accidents involving severe injuries, deaths, or great losses of public and private properties are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment; when fleeing the scene after an traffic and transportation accident or under other particularly odious circumstances, to not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment; when running away causes a person's death, to not less than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.   第一百三十三条 【交通肇事罪】违反交通运输管理法规,因而发生重大事故,致人重伤、死亡或者使公私财产遭受重大损失的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;交通运输肇事后逃逸或者有其他特别恶劣情节的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑;因逃逸致人死亡的,处七年以上有期徒刑。
Article 133 (I): Whoever drives a motor vehicle on a road under any of the following circumstances shall be sentenced to limited incarceration in addition to a fine.   第一百三十三条之一 【危险驾驶罪】在道路上驾驶机动车,有下列情形之一的,处拘役,并处罚金:
(1) Racing a motor vehicle on a road with execrable circumstances. (一)追逐竞驶,情节恶劣的;
(2) Driving a motor vehicle on a road while intoxicated. (二)醉酒驾驶机动车的;
(3) Engaging in the school bus business or passenger transport and carrying passengers by loading much more than the fixed number of passengers, or driving the vehicle by seriously exceeding the prescribed speed. (三)从事校车业务或者旅客运输,严重超过额定乘员载客,或者严重超过规定时速行驶的;
(4) Transporting any hazardous chemical in violation of the provisions on the safety administration of hazardous chemicals, which endangers public safety. (四)违反危险化学品安全管理规定运输危险化学品,危及公共安全的。
The motor vehicle owner or manager who is directly liable for the conduct as mentioned in item (3) or (4) of the preceding paragraph shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph. 机动车所有人、管理人对前款第三项、第四项行为负有直接责任的,依照前款的规定处罚。
Whoever commits any other crime while committing a crime as mentioned in the preceding two paragraphs shall be convicted and punished according to the provisions on the crime with the heavier penalty. 有前两款行为,同时构成其他犯罪的,依照处罚较重的规定定罪处罚。
Article 133 (II): Whoever inflicts violence on the driver of a public vehicle being driven or grabs the operating devices to try to take control of the public vehicle, disrupting the normal driving of the public vehicle and endangering public security, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than one year, limited incarceration, or probation and a fine or be sentenced to a fine only.   第一百三十三条之二 对行驶中的公共交通工具的驾驶人员使用暴力或者抢控驾驶操纵装置,干扰公共交通工具正常行驶,危及公共安全的,处一年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,并处或者单处罚金。
The driver as mentioned in the preceding paragraph who leaves without permission his or her post on the public vehicle being driven and fights with or assaults another person, endangering public security, shall be punished in accordance with the provision of the preceding paragraph. 前款规定的驾驶人员在行驶的公共交通工具上擅离职守,与他人互殴或者殴打他人,危及公共安全的,依照前款的规定处罚。
Whoever commits any conduct set forth in the preceding two paragraphs, which concurrently constitutes any other crime, shall be convicted and punished in accordance with the provisions on the heavier punishment. 有前两款行为,同时构成其他犯罪的,依照处罚较重的规定定罪处罚。
Article 134 . Where anyone violates the provisions concerning the safety management in production or operations and thus causes any serious casualty or any other serious consequences, he shall be sentenced to fix-term imprisonment of not more than three years or limited incarceration. If the circumstances are extremely severe, he shall be sentenced to fix-term imprisonment of not less than 3 years but not more than 7 years.   第一百三十四条 【重大责任事故罪】在生产、作业中违反有关安全管理的规定,因而发生重大伤亡事故或者造成其他严重后果的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;情节特别恶劣的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Whoever forces by an order another person to operate at risk in violation of rules, or knowing but failing to eliminate the potential risk of a major accident, still organizes operations at risk, causing any major casualty accident or having any other serious consequence, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than five years or limited incarceration; or if the circumstances are especially execrable, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than five years. 【强令违章冒险作业罪】强令他人违章冒险作业,或者明知存在重大事故隐患而不排除,仍冒险组织作业,因而发生重大伤亡事故或者造成其他严重后果的,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;情节特别恶劣的,处五年以上有期徒刑。
Article 134 (I): Whoever falls under any of the following circumstances in violation of the provisions on safety management during production or operations, posing a real danger of causing any major casualty accident or other serious consequence, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than one year, limited incarceration, or probation:   第一百三十四条之一 在生产、作业中违反有关安全管理的规定,有下列情形之一,具有发生重大伤亡事故或者其他严重后果的现实危险的,处一年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制:
(1) Shutting down or compromising any monitoring, alarm, protection, or lifesaving equipment or facility directly related to work safety or tampering with, concealing, or destroying the relevant data or information. (一)关闭、破坏直接关系生产安全的监控、报警、防护、救生设备、设施,或者篡改、隐瞒、销毁其相关数据、信息的;
(2) Whoever falls under any of the following circumstances in violation of the provisions on safety management during production or operations, posing a real danger of causing any major casualty accident or other serious consequence, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than one year, limited incarceration, or probation: (二)因存在重大事故隐患被依法责令停产停业、停止施工、停止使用有关设备、设施、场所或者立即采取排除危险的整改措施,而拒不执行的;
(3) Being engaged in highly dangerous productive or operational activities, such as mining, metal smelting, building construction, and production, distribution, and storage of dangerous articles, without approval or licensing in accordance with the law in matters involving work safety. (三)涉及安全生产的事项未经依法批准或者许可,擅自从事矿山开采、金属冶炼、建筑施工,以及危险物品生产、经营、储存等高度危险的生产作业活动的。
Article 135 . Where the facilities or conditions for safe work fail to meet the relevant provisions of the state so that any serious casualty or any other serious consequence is caused, the persons-in-charge who are held to be directly responsible and other directly liable persons shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years or limited incarceration. If the circumstances are particularly severe, he shall be sentenced to fix-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than seven years.   第一百三十五条 【重大劳动安全事故罪】安全生产设施或者安全生产条件不符合国家规定,因而发生重大伤亡事故或者造成其他严重后果的,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;情节特别恶劣的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Article 135 (I): Where, any of the provisions concerning safety management is violated in the holding of large-scale activities of the masses so that any serious casualty or any other serious consequence is caused, the persons-in-charge who are held to be directly responsible and other directly liable persons shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years or limited incarceration. If the circumstances are particularly severe, they shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than seven years.   第一百三十五条之一 【大型群众性活动重大安全事故罪】举办大型群众性活动违反安全管理规定,因而发生重大伤亡事故或者造成其他严重后果的,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;情节特别恶劣的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Article 136 . Whoever violates the regulations on the control of articles of an explosive; combustible, radioactive, poisonous or corrosive nature, thereby giving rise to a major accident in the course of production, storage, transportation or use and causing serious consequences, is to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or limited incarceration; when the consequences are particularly serious, the sentence is to be not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.   第一百三十六条 【危险物品肇事罪】违反爆炸性、易燃性、放射性、毒害性、腐蚀性物品的管理规定,在生产、储存、运输、使用中发生重大事故,造成严重后果的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;后果特别严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Article 137 . When construction, design, working, and engineering supervision units violate the state's regulations by reducing the quality standard of the projects, thereby giving rise to a major safety accident, those who are directly responsible are to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment or limited incarceration, in addition to fine; when the consequences are particularly serious, the sentence is to be not less than five years and not more than ten years of fixed-term imprisonment, in addition to fine.   第一百三十七条 【工程重大安全事故罪】建设单位、设计单位、施工单位、工程监理单位违反国家规定,降低工程质量标准,造成重大安全事故的,对直接责任人员,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处罚金;后果特别严重的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。
Article 138 . When school buildings or educational and teaching facilities are obviously known to be dangerous but measures are not taken or reports are not made in a timely fashion, thereby giving rise to a major accident, those who are directly responsible are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or limited incarceration; when the consequences are particularly serious, the sentence is to be not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.   第一百三十八条 【教育设施重大安全事故罪】明知校舍或者教育教学设施有危险,而不采取措施或者不及时报告,致使发生重大伤亡事故的,对直接责任人员,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;后果特别严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Article 139 . When rules of fire prevention and control are violated and the notification, given by a supervision organ of fire prevention and control, to take corrective measures are refused, thereby giving rise to severe consequences, those who are directly responsible are to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or limited incarceration; when the consequences are particularly serious, the sentence is to be not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment.   第一百三十九条 【消防责任事故罪】违反消防管理法规,经消防监督机构通知采取改正措施而拒绝执行,造成严重后果的,对直接责任人员,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;后果特别严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Article 139 (I): Where, after any safety accident occurs, the person who is obliged to report it fails to report it or makes a false report so that the rescue of the accident is affected and if the circumstances are severe, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years or limited incarceration. If the circumstances are extremely severe, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than seven years.   第一百三十九条之一 【不报、谎报安全事故罪】在安全事故发生后,负有报告职责的人员不报或者谎报事故情况,贻误事故抢救,情节严重的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;情节特别严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。
Chapter III Crimes of Undermining the Order of Socialist Market Economy 

第三章 破坏社会主义市场经济秩序罪

Section 1 . Crimes of Manufacturing and Selling Fake and Shoddy Goods 

第一节 生产、销售伪劣商品罪

Article 140 . Any producer or seller who mixes up or adulterates products, passes fake imitations for genuine, sells seconds at best quality price, or passes unqualified products as qualified ones, with a sale amount of not less than 50,000 yuan and not more than 200,000 yuan, is to be sentenced to not more than two years of fixed-term imprisonment or limited incarceration and may in addition or exclusively be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when the sale amount is not less than 200,000 yuan and not more than 500,000 yuan, is to be sentenced to not less than two years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when the sale amount is not less than 500,000 yuan and not more than 2 million yuan, is to be sentenced to not less than seven years and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200percent of the sale amount; when the sale amount is not less than two million yuan, is to be sentenced to 15 years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount or confiscation of property.   第一百四十条 【生产、销售伪劣产品罪】生产者、销售者在产品中掺杂、掺假,以假充真,以次充好或者以不合格产品冒充合格产品,销售金额五万元以上不满二十万元的,处二年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;销售金额二十万元以上不满五十万元的,处二年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;销售金额五十万元以上不满二百万元的,处七年以上有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;销售金额二百万元以上的,处十五年有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金或者没收财产。
Article 141 . Whoever produces or sells any counterfeit drug shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than three years or limited incarceration and a fine; if any serious harm is thus caused to human health or there is any other serious circumstance, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than three years nor more than ten years and a fine; or if the death of a person is thus caused or there is any other especially serious circumstance, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than ten years, life imprisonment, or death and a fine or forfeiture of property.   第一百四十一条 【生产、销售假药罪】生产、销售假药的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处罚金;对人体健康造成严重危害或者有其他严重情节的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金;致人死亡或者有其他特别严重情节的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑,并处罚金或者没收财产。
Where any employee of an entity using drug products knowingly provides a counterfeit drug to others for use, the employee shall be punished in accordance with the provision of the preceding paragraph. 药品使用单位的人员明知是假药而提供给他人使用的,依照前款的规定处罚。
Article 142 . Whoever produces or sells any substandard drug, causing any serious harm to human health, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than three years nor more than ten years and a fine; or if the consequences are especially serious, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than ten years or life imprisonment and a fine or forfeiture of property.   第一百四十二条 【生产、销售劣药罪】生产、销售劣药,对人体健康造成严重危害的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金;后果特别严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处罚金或者没收财产。
Where any employee of an entity using drug products knowingly provides a substandard drug to others for use, the employee shall be punished in accordance with the provision of the preceding paragraph. 药品使用单位的人员明知是劣药而提供给他人使用的,依照前款的规定处罚。
Article 142 (I): Whoever falls under any of the following circumstances in violation of the legislation on drug administration, which suffices to cause any serious harm to human health, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than three years or limited incarceration and a fine or be sentenced to a fine only; or if any serious harm is caused to human health or there is any other serious circumstance, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than three years nor more than seven years and a fine:   第一百四十二条之一 违反药品管理法规,有下列情形之一,足以严重危害人体健康的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处罚金;对人体健康造成严重危害或者有其他严重情节的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金:
(1) Producing or selling any drug product prohibited by the medical products administration of the State Council from use.(1) Producing or selling any drug product prohibited by the medical products administration of the State Council from use. (一)生产、销售国务院药品监督管理部门禁止使用的药品的;
(2) Producing or importing any drug product without obtaining the documents certifying the relevant approval of the drug product or knowingly selling such a drug product. (二)未取得药品相关批准证明文件生产、进口药品或者明知是上述药品而销售的;
(3) Applying for drug product registration by providing any false certificate, data, material, or sample or any other deceptive means. (三)药品申请注册中提供虚假的证明、数据、资料、样品或者采取其他欺骗手段的;
(4) Fabricating production or inspection records. (四)编造生产、检验记录的。
Whoever commits any conduct set forth in the preceding paragraph, which concurrently constitutes a crime provided for in Article 141 or 142 of this Law or any other crime, shall be convicted and punished in accordance with the provisions on the heavier punishment. 有前款行为,同时又构成本法第一百四十一条、第一百四十二条规定之罪或者其他犯罪的,依照处罚较重的规定定罪处罚。
Article 143 . Whoever produces or sells food not up to the food safety standards which may cause any serious food poisoning accident or any other serious food-borne disease shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than 3 years or limited incarceration and a fine; if any serious damage is caused to the people's health or there is any other serious circumstance, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than 3 years but not more than 7 years and a fine; or if there are especially serious consequences, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than 7 years or life imprisonment and a fine or forfeiture of property.   第一百四十三条 【生产、销售不符合安全标准的食品罪】生产、销售不符合食品安全标准的食品,足以造成严重食物中毒事故或者其他严重食源性疾病的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处罚金;对人体健康造成严重危害或者有其他严重情节的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金;后果特别严重的,处七年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处罚金或者没收财产。
Article 144 . Whoever mixes poisonous or harmful non-food raw materials into food produced or sold or knowingly sells food mixed with poisonous or harmful non-food raw materials shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than 5 years and a fine; if any serious damage is caused to the people's health or there is any other serious circumstance, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than 5 years but not more than 10 years and a fine; or if any human death is caused or there is any other especially serious circumstance, shall be punished according to the provisions of Article 141 of this Law.   第一百四十四条 【生产、销售有毒、有害食品罪】在生产、销售的食品中掺入有毒、有害的非食品原料的,或者销售明知掺有有毒、有害的非食品原料的食品的,处五年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金;对人体健康造成严重危害或者有其他严重情节的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金;致人死亡或者有其他特别严重情节的,依照本法第一百四十一条的规定处罚。
Article 145 . Whoever produces medical apparatuses and instruments or medical hygiene materials that are not up to the national or industrial standards for safeguarding human health or sells such things while clearly knowing the fact, and if it is serious enough to endanger human health, shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years or limited incarceration and shall also be fined not less than half but not more than two times the sales revenue; if it causes serious harm to human health, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than 10 years and shall also be fined not less than half but not more than two times the sales revenue; if the consequence is especially serious, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than 10 years or life imprisonment, and shall also be fined not less than half but not more than two times the sales revenue or be sentenced to confiscation of property.   第一百四十五条 【生产、销售不符合标准的医用器材罪】生产不符合保障人体健康的国家标准、行业标准的医疗器械、医用卫生材料,或者销售明知是不符合保障人体健康的国家标准、行业标准的医疗器械、医用卫生材料,足以严重危害人体健康的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;对人体健康造成严重危害的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;后果特别严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金或者没收财产。
Article 146 . Whoever produces electrical appliances, pressure containers, explosive and combustible products that do not conform with the standards of the state and the trade aiming to protect the human safety and property or other products that do not conform with such standards or knowingly sells the above-mentioned products thereby giving rise to serious consequences is to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when the consequences are particularly serious, the sentence is to be not less than five years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale.   第一百四十六条 【生产、销售不符合安全标准的产品罪】生产不符合保障人身、财产安全的国家标准、行业标准的电器、压力容器、易燃易爆产品或者其他不符合保障人身、财产安全的国家标准、行业标准的产品,或者销售明知是以上不符合保障人身、财产安全的国家标准、行业标准的产品,造成严重后果的,处五年以下有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;后果特别严重的,处五年以上有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金。
Article 147 . Whoever produces fake insecticides, fake animal-use medicines, fake chemical fertilizers or knowingly sells insecticides, animal-use medicines, chemical fertilizers and seeds which are fake or are no longer effective or any producer or seller who passes unqualified insecticides, animal-use medicines, chemical fertilizers and seeds as qualified ones, thereby giving rise to relatively large losses in production is to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or limited incarceration and may in addition or exclusively be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when causing grave losses in production, is to be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment and may in addition be sentenced to a fine of not less than 50 percent and not more than 200 percent of the sale amount; when causing particularly grave losses in production, is to be sentenced to not less than seven years of fixed-term imprisonment or life imprisonment or confiscation of property.   第一百四十七条 【生产、销售伪劣农药、兽药、化肥、种子罪】生产假农药、假兽药、假化肥,销售明知是假的或者失去使用效能的农药、兽药、化肥、种子,或者生产者、销售者以不合格的农药、兽药、化肥、种子冒充合格的农药、兽药、化肥、种子,使生产遭受较大损失的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;使生产遭受重大损失的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金;使生产遭受特别重大损失的,处七年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金或者没收财产。
Article 148 . Production of cosmetics that fails to meet hygienic standards or knowingly selling such cosmetics that cause serious consequences shall be punished with imprisonment or limited incarceration of less than three years, and a fine of over 50 percent but less than 100 percent of the sales amount.   第一百四十八条 【生产、销售不符合卫生标准的化妆品罪】生产不符合卫生标准的化妆品,或者销售明知是不符合卫生标准的化妆品,造成严重后果的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处销售金额百分之五十以上二倍以下罚金。
Article 149 . The production and selling of products prescribed under Articles 141 to 148 of this Section that does not constitute an offense under these articles but with sales amount exceeding 50,000 yuan, shall be convicted and punished according to provisions under Article 140 of this Section.   第一百四十九条 【对生产、销售伪劣商品行为的法条适用】生产、销售本节第一百四十一条至第一百四十八条所列产品,不构成各该条规定的犯罪,但是销售金额在五万元以上的,依照本节第一百四十条的规定定罪处罚。
The production and selling of products prescribed under Articles 141 and 148 of this Section that constitutes an offense under these articles and Article 140, shall be convicted and punished under provisions carrying a heavier penalty. 生产、销售本节第一百四十一条至第一百四十八条所列产品,构成各该条规定的犯罪,同时又构成本节第一百四十条规定之罪的,依照处罚较重的规定定罪处罚。
Article 150 . Units violating provisions between Articles 140 and 148 of this Section shall be punished with a fine, with personnel directly in charge and other directly responsible personnel being punished according to provisions under the respective articles.   第一百五十条 【单位犯本节规定之罪的处理】单位犯本节第一百四十条至第一百四十八条规定之罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照各该条的规定处罚。
Section 2 . Smuggling Offenses 

第二节 走私罪

Article 151 . Whoever smuggles any weapon, ammunition, nuclear materials or counterfeit currencies shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than seven years in addition to a fine or forfeiture of property; if the circumstances are especially serious, be sentenced to life imprisonment and a forfeiture of property; or if the circumstances are minor, be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than seven years in addition to a fine.   第一百五十一条 【走私武器、弹药罪】【走私核材料罪】【走私假币罪】走私武器、弹药、核材料或者伪造的货币的,处七年以上有期徒刑,并处罚金或者没收财产;情节特别严重的,处无期徒刑,并处没收财产;情节较轻的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。
Whoever smuggles cultural relics, gold, silver or any other noble metal whose export is prohibited by the state or smuggles rare animals whose import and export are prohibited by the state or products made thereof shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than 5 years but not more than 10 years and a fine; if the circumstances are especially serious, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than 10 years or life imprisonment and a forfeiture of property; or if the circumstances are minor, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than 5 years and a fine. 【走私文物罪】【走私贵重金属罪】【走私珍贵动物、珍贵动物制品罪】走私国家禁止出口的文物、黄金、白银和其他贵重金属或者国家禁止进出口的珍贵动物及其制品的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金;情节特别严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处没收财产;情节较轻的,处五年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。
Whoever smuggles rare plants or products made thereof or other goods or articles whose import and export are prohibited by the state shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than 5 years or limited incarceration and a fine or be sentenced to a fine only; or if the circumstances are serious, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than 5 years and a fine. 【走私国家禁止进出口的货物、物品罪】走私珍稀植物及其制品等国家禁止进出口的其他货物、物品的,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处罚金;情节严重的,处五年以上有期徒刑,并处罚金。
Where an entity commits a crime as provided for in this Article, the entity shall be sentenced to a fine, and its directly responsible person and other directly liable persons shall be punished according to the provisions of this Article. 单位犯本条规定之罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照本条各款的规定处罚。
Article 152 . Smuggling obscene movies, video tapes, audio tapes, pictures, books and journals, and other obscene articles for profit or dissemination shall be punished with imprisonment of more than three years but less than ten years with fine; for offenses of a serious nature to over ten years of imprisonment or life imprisonment, with fine or forfeiture of property; for offenses of a less serious nature to imprisonment or limited incarceration or restraint of less than three years, and with fine.   第一百五十二条 【走私淫秽物品罪】以牟利或者传播为目的,走私淫秽的影片、录像带、录音带、图片、书刊或者其他淫秽物品的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金;情节严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处罚金或者没收财产;情节较轻的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,并处罚金。
Whoever transports overseas solid, liquid or gaseous waste into the territory of China by evading supervision and control of the Customs shall, if the circumstance is serious enough, be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years and shall also, or shall only, be fined; if the circumstance is serious, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years and shall also be fined. 【走私废物罪】逃避海关监管将境外固体废物、液态废物和气态废物运输进境,情节严重的,处五年以下有期徒刑,并处或者单处罚金;情节特别严重的,处五年以上有期徒刑,并处罚金。
Where an entity commits any crime as mentioned in the preceding two paragraphs, it shall be fined, and the person in-charge and other persons who are held to be directly responsible shall be punished in accordance with the provisions in the preceding two paragraphs. 单位犯前两款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照前两款的规定处罚。
Article 153 . Whoever smuggles goods or articles other than those as mentioned in Articles 151, 152 and 347 shall be punished in light of the graveness of the crime according to the following provisions:   第一百五十三条 【走私普通货物、物品罪】走私本法第一百五十一条、第一百五十二条、第三百四十七条规定以外的货物、物品的,根据情节轻重,分别依照下列规定处罚:
(1) Whoever smuggles goods or articles to evade a relatively large amount of tax payable, or smuggles again after having been given administrative punishment twice for smuggling within a year, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than 3 years or limited incarceration and a fine of not less than the evaded amount of tax payable but not more than five times the evaded amount of tax payable. (一)走私货物、物品偷逃应缴税额较大或者一年内曾因走私被给予二次行政处罚后又走私的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处偷逃应缴税额一倍以上五倍以下罚金。
(2) Whoever smuggles goods or articles to evade a huge amount of tax payable or with any other serious circumstance shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than 3 years but not more than 10 years and a fine of not less than the evaded amount of tax payable but not more than five times the evaded amount of tax payable. (二)走私货物、物品偷逃应缴税额巨大或者有其他严重情节的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处偷逃应缴税额一倍以上五倍以下罚金。
(3) Whoever smuggles goods or articles to evade an especially huge amount of tax payable or with any other especially serious circumstance shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than 10 years or life imprisonment and a fine of not less than the evaded amount of tax payable but not more than five times the evaded amount of tax payable or a forfeiture of property. (三)走私货物、物品偷逃应缴税额特别巨大或者有其他特别严重情节的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处偷逃应缴税额一倍以上五倍以下罚金或者没收财产。
Units committing offenses under the preceding paragraph shall be punished with a fine, with personnel directly in charge and other directly responsible personnel being sentenced to imprisonment or limited incarceration of less than three years; and, for cases of a serious nature, to imprisonment of over three years and less than 10 years; and -- for cases of an extraordinary serious nature -- to imprisonment of over 10 years. 单位犯前款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役;情节严重的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情节特别严重的,处十年以上有期徒刑。
For smuggling cases not being detected for several occasions, fines should be based on an accumulation of all evaded taxes of such goods and articles. 对多次走私未经处理的,按照累计走私货物、物品的偷逃应缴税额处罚。
Article 154 . The following smuggling cases that constitute an offense under provisions of this section shall be convicted and sentenced according to provisions under Article 153 of this law:   第一百五十四条 【走私货物、物品罪的特殊形式】下列走私行为,根据本节规定构成犯罪的,依照本法第一百五十三条的规定定罪处罚:
(1) without the approval of the Customs and before settling defaulted taxes, sale for profit in China of bonded goods approved for import for the purposes of processing, assembly, and compensated trade, including raw and processed materials, parts, finished products, and equipment; and (一)未经海关许可并且未补缴应缴税额,擅自将批准进口的来料加工、来件装配、补偿贸易的原材料、零件、制成品、设备等保税货物,在境内销售牟利的;
(2) without the approval of the Customs and before settling defaulted taxes, sale for profits in China of goods and articles with reduced import duties or tax exemption. (二)未经海关许可并且未补缴应缴税额,擅自将特定减税、免税进口的货物、物品,在境内销售牟利的。
Article 155 . Whoever commits any of the following acts shall be deemed as having committed the crime of smuggling and shall be punished in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Section:   第一百五十五条 【以走私罪论处的间接走私行为】下列行为,以走私罪论处,依照本节的有关规定处罚:
(1) directly and illegally purchasing from smugglers articles the import of which is forbidden by the State; or directly and illegally purchasing from smugglers other smuggled goods and articles in relatively large quantities; or (一)直接向走私人非法收购国家禁止进口物品的,或者直接向走私人非法收购走私进口的其他货物、物品,数额较大的;
(2) transporting, purchasing or selling in inland seas, territorial waters, boundary rivers or boundary lakes articles which are forbidden by the State from import and export; or transporting, purchasing or selling, without legal certificates and in relatively large quantities, goods or articles which are restricted by the State from import and export. (二)在内海、领海、界河、界湖运输、收购、贩卖国家禁止进出口物品的,或者运输、收购、贩卖国家限制进出口货物、物品,数额较大,没有合法证明的。
Article 156 . Whoever colludes with smugglers by supplying them with loans, funds, accounts, invoices, proofs, or such conveniences as transportation, safe- keeping, and mailing services, shall be regarded and punished as smuggling accomplices.   第一百五十六条 【走私共犯】与走私罪犯通谋,为其提供贷款、资金、帐号、发票、证明,或者为其提供运输、保管、邮寄或者其他方便的,以走私罪的共犯论处。
Article 157 . Whoever provides armed escort for smuggling shall be given a heavier penalty according to paragraph 1, Article 151 of this law.   第一百五十七条 【武装掩护走私、抗拒缉私的规定】武装掩护走私的,依照本法第一百五十一条第一款的规定从重处罚。
Whoever resorts to violence and threatening measures while resisting Customs detection shall be punished for smuggling and obstructing state organ personnel from enforcing their lawful duties provided under Article 277 of this law, and shall be punished for all offenses committed. 以暴力、威胁方法抗拒缉私的,以走私罪和本法第二百七十七条规定的阻碍国家机关工作人员依法执行职务罪,依照数罪并罚的规定处罚。
Section 3 . Offenses Against Company and Enterprise Management Order 

第三节 妨害对公司、企业的管理秩序罪

Article 158 . Using forged certifications to apply for company registration or using other fraudulent means to falsely declare registered capital with intent to deceive company registration departments, where the registered capital so falsely declared is large in figures with serious consequences or of a severe nature, shall be punished by imprisonment or limited incarceration of less than three years, with a fine or a separately imposed fine of over 1 percent but less than 5 percent of the falsely declared registered capital.   第一百五十八条 【虚报注册资本罪】申请公司登记使用虚假证明文件或者采取其他欺诈手段虚报注册资本,欺骗公司登记主管部门,取得公司登记,虚报注册资本数额巨大、后果严重或者有其他严重情节的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处虚报注册资本金额百分之一以上百分之五以下罚金。
Units committing offenses under the preceding paragraph shall be punished with a fine, with personnel directly in charge and other directly responsible personnel being punished with imprisonment or limited incarceration of less than three years. 单位犯前款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役。
Article 159 . Company promoters, shareholders who, in violation of provisions under the Company law , fail to pay up with currency notes, provide actual property, or transfer property rights; or falsely claim to have paid up the capital; or withdraw their capital upon registration of company, where the amount involved is large with serious consequences or of a serious nature, shall be punished with imprisonment or limited incarceration of less than five years, with a fine or a separately imposed fine of over 2 percent but less than 10 percent of the amount of capital so falsely claimed to have been paid up or so withdrawn.   第一百五十九条 【虚假出资、抽逃出资罪】公司发起人、股东违反公司法的规定未交付货币、实物或者未转移财产权,虚假出资,或者在公司成立后又抽逃其出资,数额巨大、后果严重或者有其他严重情节的,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处虚假出资金额或者抽逃出资金额百分之二以上百分之十以下罚金。
Units committing offenses under the preceding paragraph shall be punished with a fine, with personnel directly in charge and other directly responsible personnel being punished with imprisonment or limited incarceration of less than five years. 单位犯前款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役。
Article 160 . Whoever issues any shares of stock, corporate or enterprise bonds, depositary receipts, or other securities determined by the State Council in accordance with the law by concealing any material fact or falsifying any major content in the share offering prospectus, share subscription form, corporate or enterprise bond offering prospectus, or any other offering document shall, if the amount involved is huge, the consequences are serious, or there is any other serious circumstance, be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than five years or limited incarceration and a fine or be sentenced to a fine only; or if the amount involved is especially huge, the consequences are especially serious, or there is any other especially serious circumstance, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than five years and a fine.   第一百六十条 【欺诈发行股票、债券罪】在招股说明书、认股书、公司、企业债券募集办法等发行文件中隐瞒重要事实或者编造重大虚假内容,发行股票或者公司、企业债券、存托凭证或者国务院依法认定的其他证券,数额巨大、后果严重或者有其他严重情节的,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处罚金;数额特别巨大、后果特别严重或者有其他特别严重情节的,处五年以上有期徒刑,并处罚金。
The controlling shareholder or actual controller who organizes or instigates the commission of any conduct in the preceding paragraph shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than five years or limited incarceration and a fine of not less than 20% nor more than one times the illegal offering proceeds or be sentenced to such a fine only; or if the amount involved is especially huge, the consequences are especially serious, or there is any other especially serious circumstance, shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than five years and a fine of not less than 20% nor more than one times the illegal offering proceeds. 控股股东、实际控制人组织、指使实施前款行为的,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处非法募集资金金额百分之二十以上一倍以下罚金;数额特别巨大、后果特别严重或者有其他特别严重情节的,处五年以上有期徒刑,并处非法募集资金金额百分之二十以上一倍以下罚金。
Where an entity commits a crime provided for in the preceding two paragraphs, the entity shall be sentenced to a fine of not less than 20% nor more than one times the illegal offering proceeds, and its directly liable executive in charge and other directly liable persons shall be punished according to the provision of paragraph 1 of this article. 单位犯前两款罪的,对单位判处非法募集资金金额百分之二十以上一倍以下罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照第一款的规定处罚。
Article 161 . Where a company or an enterprise with information disclosure obligations in accordance with the law provides its shareholders and the public with a financial accounting report which is false or conceals any material fact, or fails to disclose according to the applicable provisions any other important information that shall be disclosed in accordance with the law, causing any seriously damage to the interests of shareholders or any other person or with any other serious circumstance, its directly liable executive in charge and other directly liable persons shall each be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than five years or limited incarceration and a fine or be sentenced to a fine only; or if the circumstances are especially serious, shall each be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than five years nor more than ten years and a fine.   第一百六十一条 【违规披露、不披露重要信息罪】依法负有信息披露义务的公司、企业向股东和社会公众提供虚假的或者隐瞒重要事实的财务会计报告,或者对依法应当披露的其他重要信息不按照规定披露,严重损害股东或者其他人利益,或者有其他严重情节的,对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处罚金;情节特别严重的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。
The controlling shareholder or actual controller of a company or an enterprise set forth in the preceding paragraph who commits or organizes or instigates the commission of the conduct in the preceding paragraph or conceals the relevant matter, resulting in the occurrence of the circumstance set forth in the preceding paragraph, shall be punished in accordance with the provision of the preceding paragraph. 前款规定的公司、企业的控股股东、实际控制人实施或者组织、指使实施前款行为的,或者隐瞒相关事项导致前款规定的情形发生的,依照前款的规定处罚。
Where the controlling shareholder or actual controller committing a crime provided for in the preceding paragraph is an entity, the entity shall be sentenced to a fine, and its directly liable executive in charge and other directly liable persons shall be punished according to the provision of paragraph 1 of this article. 犯前款罪的控股股东、实际控制人是单位的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照第一款的规定处罚。
Article 162 . Personnel directly in charge and other directly responsible personnel of a company or an enterprise that, during its liquidation process, conceal property or make false entries in its balance sheet or asset list, or distribute company or enterprise assets before repaying debts that seriously hurt the interests of creditors and other people, shall be punished with imprisonment or limited incarceration of less than five years, with a fine or a separately imposed fine of over 20,000 yuan but less than 200,000 yuan.   第一百六十二条 【妨害清算罪】公司、企业进行清算时,隐匿财产,对资产负债表或者财产清单作虚伪记载或者在未清偿债务前分配公司、企业财产,严重损害债权人或者其他人利益的,对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处二万元以上二十万元以下罚金。
Article 162 (I) Whoever conceals or deliberately destroys financial vouchers, financial account books or financial statements, if the circumstances are serious, shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of less than five years or limited incarceration, and/or be imposed a fine not less than 20,000 yuan but not more than 200,000 yuan.   第一百六十二条之一 【隐匿、故意销毁会计凭证、会计帐簿、财务会计报告罪】隐匿或者故意销毁依法应当保存的会计凭证、会计帐簿、财务会计报告,情节严重的,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处二万元以上二十万元以下罚金。
Where a unit commits the crime as mentioned in the preceding paragraph, it shall be imposed a fine, and the persons who are directly in charge or persons who are directly responsible for the offence shall be punished according to the preceding paragraph. 单位犯前款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照前款的规定处罚。
Article 162 (II): Where any company or enterprise transfers or disposes of its properties by means of concealing its properties or undertaking fabricated debts or by any other means or goes through false bankruptcy so that the interests of the creditors or any other person are severely injured, the persons-in-charge who are held to be directly responsible and other directly liable persons shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years or limited incarceration, and/or shall be fined 20,000 yuan up to 200,000 yuan.   第一百六十二条之二 【虚假破产罪】公司、企业通过隐匿财产、承担虚构的债务或者以其他方法转移、处分财产,实施虚假破产,严重损害债权人或者其他人利益的,对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处二万元以上二十万元以下罚金。
Article 163 . Where, by taking advantage of his or her position, any staff member of a company, an enterprise, or any other entity solicits or illegally accepts any money or property from any other person in order to seek benefits for such other person, the staff member shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than three years or limited incarceration and a fine if the amount involved is relatively large; shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than three years nor more than ten years and a fine if the amount involved is huge or there is any other serious circumstance; or shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than ten years or life imprisonment and a fine if the amount involved is especially huge or there is any other especially serious circumstance.   第一百六十三条 【非国家工作人员受贿罪】公司、企业或者其他单位的工作人员,利用职务上的便利,索取他人财物或者非法收受他人财物,为他人谋取利益,数额较大的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处罚金;数额巨大或者有其他严重情节的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金;数额特别巨大或者有其他特别严重情节的,处十年以上有期徒刑或者无期徒刑,并处罚金。
Where any of the employees of any company or enterprise or any other entity violates the relevant provisions of the state by taking advantage of his position to accept kickbacks or commissions in any disguise and keeps them for himself, he shall be penalized according to the preceding paragraph. 公司、企业或者其他单位的工作人员在经济往来中,利用职务上的便利,违反国家规定,收受各种名义的回扣、手续费,归个人所有的,依照前款的规定处罚。
Where anyone who is engaged in public services in any state-owned company, enterprise or any other state-owned entity or anyone is delegated by any state-owned company or enterprise or any other state-owned entity to any non-state-owned company or enterprise or any other entity to engage in public services commits any of the acts as described in either of the preceding paragraphs shall be convicted and penalized according to Articles 185 and 186 of the present Law. 国有公司、企业或者其他国有单位中从事公务的人员和国有公司、企业或者其他国有单位委派到非国有公司、企业以及其他单位从事公务的人员有前两款行为的,依照本法第三百八十五条、第三百八十六条的规定定罪处罚。
Article 164 . Whoever gives any property to a staff member of a company, an enterprise or any other entity for any illicit benefit shall be sentenced to imprisonment of not more than three years or limited incarceration in addition to a fine if the amount of property is relatively large; or be sentenced to imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than ten years in addition to a fine if the amount of property is huge.   第一百六十四条 【对非国家工作人员行贿罪】为谋取不正当利益,给予公司、企业或者其他单位的工作人员以财物,数额较大的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处罚金;数额巨大的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。
Whoever gives any property to a functionary of a foreign country or an official of an international public organization for any improper commercial benefit shall be punished according to the provision of the preceding paragraph. 【对外国公职人员、国际公共组织官员行贿罪】为谋取不正当商业利益,给予外国公职人员或者国际公共组织官员以财物的,依照前款的规定处罚。
Where an entity commits a crime as provided for in the preceding two paragraphs, a fine shall be imposed on it, and its directly responsible person and other directly liable persons shall be punished according to the provision of paragraph 1 of this Article. 单位犯前两款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照第一款的规定处罚。
A briber who voluntarily confesses to his bribery before a criminal investigation on him is opened may be given a mitigated penalty or be exempted from penalty. 行贿人在被追诉前主动交待行贿行为的,可以减轻处罚或者免除处罚。
Article 165 . Directors and managers of state-owned companies or enterprises who, in order to gain illegal benefits, make use of their job opportunity to conduct for themselves or others business similar to that conducted by companies or enterprises to which they attach, shall, in cases involving a large amount, be punished with imprisonment or limited incarceration for less than three years, with a fine or a separately imposed fine, for cases involving extraordinarily large amounts, with imprisonment of over three years but less than seven years, and with fine.   第一百六十五条 【非法经营同类营业罪】国有公司、企业的董事、经理利用职务便利,自己经营或者为他人经营与其所任职公司、企业同类的营业,获取非法利益,数额巨大的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处罚金;数额特别巨大的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。
Article 166 . Work personnel in state-owned companies, enterprises, or institutions, who use their job opportunity to commit the following acts that seriously hurt state interests, shall be punished with imprisonment or limited incarceration of less than three years, with a fine or a separately imposed fine; for cases that cause extraordinary huge losses to state interests, with imprisonment of over three years and less than seven years, and with fine:   第一百六十六条 【为亲友非法牟利罪】国有公司、企业、事业单位的工作人员,利用职务便利,有下列情形之一,使国家利益遭受重大损失的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处罚金;致使国家利益遭受特别重大损失的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金:
(1) offering profitable business conducted by their own units to their relatives and friends for operation; (一)将本单位的盈利业务交由自己的亲友进行经营的;
(2) buying merchandise from units operated and managed by their relatives and friends at a price apparently higher than market price or selling merchandise to units operated and managed by their relatives and friends at a price apparently lower than market price; or (二)以明显高于市场的价格向自己的亲友经营管理的单位采购商品或者以明显低于市场的价格向自己的亲友经营管理的单位销售商品的;
...... ......



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